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CARBOHYDRATES

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by

Cara Jackson

on 9 March 2016

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Transcript of CARBOHYDRATES

CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrates are nature's way of storing solar energy
Compounds composed of C, O, & H

Carbs start as glucose in a plant, then convert as needed into sugar, starch, or fiber as plant matures
(why baby corn & petite peas are sweeter than full size varieties!)
Sources of Sugar
Sugar Cane -
molasses, brown sugar,
granulated sugar, confectioner's sugar

Sugar Beets
Maple Syrup
Corn Syrup
Sorghum
Honey
Isomalt
Functions of Lipids:
1. Which is a function of lipids?
a. crystallization
b. heat transfer
c. provides structure
d. thickening agent
2. Which is a disadvantage of using fat instead of water as a heat medium?
a. crispy exterior of the final product
b. flavors developed by frying
c. flavor transfer to the heat medium
d. oils can catch fire
3. What is another function of lipids?
a. Crystallization
b. preservative
c. tenderizer
d. Thickening agent
4. The tender, flaky texture of a piecrust is a result of which type of fat?
a. hydrogenated shortening
b. liquid margarine
c. melted butter
d. vegetable oil

5. What is another function of lipids?
a. binding agent
b. provides structure
c. preservative
d. liquid in emulsions

6. Which function of lipids is a result of
the marbling of fat through muscle tissue
in meat?
a. aeration and tenderizing
b. flavor and tenderizing
c. foaming action and heat
d. texturizing and stability
7.. Creaming butter and sugar is an
example of:
a. aerating batter
b. denaturing protein
c. retrogradatin of gluten
d. syneresis
8. Which function of lipids causes baked goods to rise during baking?
a. aerating batter
b. increasing browning
c. slowing gluten formation
d. speeding the cooking process

9. Which lipid will create the best aeration of a batter during mixing>
a. butter
b. corn oil
c. margarine
d. soybean oil
CHARACTERISTICS of LIPIDS:

9. Which characteristic is found in lipids &
not carbohydrates?
a. complexity of their molecular structure
b. functions as a thickening agent
c. insoluble in water
d. natural sweetening ability
10. Which type of lipid is most likely to cause rancidity?
a. animal based
b. glycerol based
c. saturated fats
d. vegetable oils
11. Which characteeristic is found in lipds &
not carbohydrates?
a. carbon atoms
b. saturation point
c. solidification point
d. polarity

12. What causes lipids to solidify rather than freeze?
a.the glycerol backbone
b. the nonpolar nature
c. the presence of oxygen
d. various freezing points of different fatty acids
LET'S
REVIEW
LIPIDS
1. Which is an example of a disaccharide that is used in baking & pastry for sweetening a product?
a. Fructose
b. Lactose
c. Maltose
d. Sucrose
2. As sugar content increases in
a baked good, browning also increases. This is an example of which function of sugar?
a. caramelization
b. crystallization
c. gelatinization
d. stabilizer
3. Which food products has qualities
caused by prolonged heating of
sugar in processing?
a. evaporated milk
b. frozen biscuits
c. fudge
d. soft drinks
4. Which example is a monosaccharide?
a. fructose
b. gums
c. pectin
d. starch
5. Which fudge ingredient causes an
interruption in crystal formation?
a. corn syrup
b. salt
c. sugar
d. water
6. Which function of sugar will result in
a more delicate crumb in baked goods?
a. caramelization
b. fermentation
c. preservation
d. tenderization
http://www.marthastewart.com/916805/making-pectin-jams-and-jellies
COMPLEX
CARBOHYDRATES
Many monosaccharides linked together = POLYSACCHARIDES
Found in grains, seeds, nuts, fruits, and vegetables
TYPES include: STARCHES, CELLULOSE, GUMS, PECTINS
FUNCTIONS include:
providing STRUCTURE,
working as a BINDING AGENT,
and as a THICKENING AGENT
STARCH
most abundant complex carb
Two basic forms in plants:
AMYLOSE = found in wheat and corn
AMYLOPECTIN = found in roots and tubers


also found in rice, oats, potatoes, beans/legumes
Most foods have combo of both; ratio affects the function
Functions:
STRUCTURE - wheat flour, baked goods, thickens when heated, forms gel when cooled
THICKENS - sauces, gravies - heat to activate
BINDING AGENT - Amylose binds batter to veggies/meats
CELLULOSE
AKA FIBER
Forms the rigid structure of plants;
...INSOLUBLE
FUNCTIONS:
Structure -
texture in fruits & veggies
GUMS
Soluble fiber
FUNCTION:
BINDING AGENT
ex. carageenan gum binds cocoa in
chocolate milk; stabilizes ice cream

THICKENER
thicken salad dressing, puddings, ice cream
PECTINS
SOLUBLE FIBER
Function as
STRUCTURE &
THICKENER
RETROGRADATION
-Firming of a gel during cooling
Syneresis - water leaking from a gel due to prolonged storage
Ex. a lemon pie custard begins to "weep"
After cornstarch gels then cools, liquid can seep out
Acids break down starch and weaken gel, should be added last
VISCOSITY
- Resistance of a mixture to flow

Starches hold their shape, resist flow
More starch = more resistance
STABILITY
The ability of a starch thickened mixture to remain to remain constant over time and temperature changes...
FREEZING
HEATING
TEXTURE
Consider the type of starch...

Gritty vs Smooth Mouthfeel

OPACITY vs TRANSLUCENCY
OPACITY -
how much an object blocks light
TRANSLUCENCY-
how much light can pass through an object
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
OF STARCH TO CONSIDER
BEFORE SELECTING THE
RIGHT ONE FOR THE RECIPE
ex. Wheat starch aka FLOUR
good for sauces & soups
ex. cornstarch, potato starch, arrowroot
good for fruit sauces, pie fillings, glazes
Which function of starch causes batter to cling to onion rings during frying?
A. Binding agent
B. Flavor enhancer
C. Texturizing agent
D. Thickening agent
How do sugars differ from starches?
a. different elements in the molecular structures

b. the functions in food mixtures

c. the number of hydroxyl groups

d. the saturation of hydrogen
How do sugars differ from starches?
A. Different molecular structures
B. the bonding site
C. the number of hydroxyl groups
D. the number of saccharide units
Which classification of starch is also known as fiber in the diet?
A. Amylopectin
B. Cellulose
C. Gums
D. Pectins
Which example is a complex carbohydrate?
A. Galactose
B. Gums
C. Maltose
D. Sucrose
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