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elizabeth jones

on 28 March 2016

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Transcript of hydrology

At first: one big continent and one big ocean
~71% of Earth’s surface is covered in water
Sets Earth apart from other planets
Most of the water on Earth is not suitable for human use
97% is saltwater
80% of all freshwater is frozen in polar ice caps
the majority of remaining freshwater is polluted or otherwise unsuitable for use
Water Conservation
Porosity: amount of empty space between particles

Permeability: how easily water passes through a substance

Recharge Zone: area where water passes through the soil down to the water table

Aquifer: underground stored water, where we get our drinking water
measure of acidity and basicity.
1 to 14
1=extremely acid
14 extremely base
7= neutral
normal is 6.5-8.5
animals need oxygen to breathe...duh!
below 4.0 mg/L causes stress and death
High temperatures cause low dissolved oxygen
Dissolved oxygen
Amount of particles in the water
Measured with secchi disk
Wastewater discharge, runoff
Effects phytoplankton because it blocks sunlight
clogs gills of fish and makes them unable to see prey
Point source pollution: pollution that you know the source for
Example: Pollution from a factory

Nonpoint source pollution: cannot tell exactly where the pollution came from
Examples: runoff, trash, fertilizer, pesticides, fecal coliform bacteria, sediment

Water pollution
The Water Cycle:
From fertilizer, runoff
Healthy = < 2 ppm
High nitrates cause fish kills
High nitrates->algae blooms->algae dies->bacteria population grows eating algae->use up all the oxygen->fish die
Health of a Water System- Indicators
Zone of aeration: ground on top where spaces are filled with air
Water table: boundary between the zone of saturation and the zone of aeration
Zone of saturation: ground on the bottom where spaces are filled with water
Water Underground
A smaller river that feeds into a larger river
Youthful rivers:
steep gradient
deep channel
Mature rivers:
less gradient
fewer falls and rapids
fed by many tributaries
River Systems:
sampling organisms that are sensitive to pollution (frogs)
Aquatics plants, fish, insects, mussels, leeches, worms
Biological indicators-
an area of land that all drains to one spot
Delta: fan shaped deposit of sediment at the mouth of a river
Fresh water mixes with salt water
River meets ocean
Range of salinity= brackish
High biodiversity= healthy ecosystems.
Important for the fishing industry
Help filter out pollutants to keep the water clean.
River basins- area of land that all drains into the same river system.
saltwater intrusion
Confined aquifers- groundwater between impermebale layers
Temperature: all aquatic habitats have a normal temperature range
Ocean Currents and their impact
surface currents are created by wind
differences in salinity and temperature cause density currents from the surface to the deep ocean
cold nutrient rich water brought to surface near shore and seamounts
lots of nutrients=lots of life
The Gulf Stream
has a moderating effect on our climate
in general- water's high specific heat moderates the weather of coastal communities
specific heat- ability to absorb heat without changing temperature
Ocean Gyres
Ocean currents distribute heat from the equator towards the poles
Pacific Garbage Patch
BMPs- Best Management Practices
1. Use less or no fertilizer and pesticides
2. Create plant buffers to trap pollutants in runoff from entering waterways
3. Clean up after dog (fecal coloform bacteria)
4. silt fences around construction sites
5. decrease runoff- green roof, rain barrels, permeable cement, less cement, constructed wetlands, holding pools near livestock
6. Swat a litter bug
7. Wash your car on the grass or at the carwash
8. fix car oil leaks
9. don't dump things into the ditch

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