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Scientific Writing

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Sonal Gandhi

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of Scientific Writing

Title Abstract Introduction Method Result Conclusion /
of authors The first paragraph.

Middle paragraphs.

Final paragraph. Justification & Road map Literature Review Topic of paper 4/15/2013 The introduction should answer the following questions:
What was I studying?
Why was this an important question?
What did I know about this topic before I did this study?
What model was I testing? and
What approach did I take in this study? The Introduction It should not :

exceed 250 words
cite any references (except in rare cases)
give any information or conclusion that is not stated in the paper Starts with a broad statement
becomes detailed until finally identifying the problem paper addresses Next Para contains citations to other work
builds up to a specific lack of knowledge
culminates in the problem statement emphasis on our contribution and new approach by concluding the gap that our study would bridge it.
outlines the remaining sections of the paper. Final Para should state the methods used in an objective manner.

should tell the reader clearly how the results were obtained.

should make adequate reference to accepted methods and identify differences.

At the end of the methods sections, the reader should be able to form an opinion about the quality of the results to be presented in the remaining sections.

Written in past tense METHOD SECTION provides the data from study so that readers can draw their own conclusions.

presents the raw data or the results after applying the techniques outlined in the methods section

should be free from interpretations or opinions

A common format is to present a series of figures and to describe them in detail through the text.

is written in the past tense Acknowledgments Section It discusses the implications of work, and any possible practical applications.

It presents the relationships, and generalizations shown by the results.

any exceptions or any lack of correlation can be highlighted.

The author’s opinion enters the picture and/or the argument is made.

The following questions may be answered while writing this section:
How do the results compare with earlier work?
What is new and significant?
A good format for this section is to write it in two paragraphs.

The first paragraph summarizes various sections of the paper.

The second paragraph draws the important conclusions.

A third, optional, paragraph may identify future research directions that flow naturally from the paper.
Significant technical help that was received from individual or elsewhere

The source of special equipment or any other material

Any outside financial assistance, such as grants or fellowships

Do not use the word “wish”
simply write “I thank …..” and not “I wish to thank…”

Its good to show the proposed wording of the Acknowledgement to the person whose help you are acknowledging. Contents SAMPLE PAPER Every fact or idea from someone else
even if wording is changed
even if quotation marks are used
even if it is found on internet to acknowledge the work of others
to avoid charges of plagiarism
to enable audience to locate the related work two step process:
Step 1 - in the paper next to the information (in-text citation)- footnote or parenthetical
Step 2- a reference list at the end - allows readers to investigate the subject in greater depth. All reference works cited in the paper must appear in a list of references .
Any papers not cited in the text should not be included. To avoid plagiarism:
Use Turnitin.com – aim for 20% or less. This means that your work is original.
a renowned researcher and the scientific advisor to India’s Prime Minister.

involved in a plagiarism scandal regarding the publication of his paper in the online journal Advanced Materials.

admitted and apologized for unintentionally copying text and equations from an April 2010 publication in Applied Physics Letters. Coercion authorship: Awarding authorship to people who have not made sufficient contribution

honorary / gift

mutual support

denial of authorship Effective and Ethical
Technical/Scientific Writing presented by :
Sonal Gandhi
OPSD 1. INTRODUCTION 3. Language of technical writing 4. Ethics of Technical Writing TITLE Will be read by thousands, whereas only a few will read the entire paper

A good title is defined as the fewest possible words
that adequately describe the contents of the paper

Should contain the keywords that reflect the contents of the paper

Waste words like studies on, a, an , the etc should not be used ABSTRACT Defined as a summary of the information in a document

what should it contain?
the principle objective and scope of the paper
the method used
summarize the result
the principal conclusions

How should it be written?
in one paragraph
after writing the complete paper
general facts should be written in present tense INTRODUCTION should answer the following questions:

Why was this an important topic? (present tense)

What did I know about this topic before this study? (present tense)

What was studied? (past tense)

What approach did I take? (past tense) Structure of Introduction section First Para What is Plagiarism? How to avoid it? Authorship 2. Sections of paper MEHTOD SECTION RESULTS RESULTS SECTION FINAL SECTIONS CONCLUSION DISCUSSION REFERENCE When? Why? How? ** HOW to write effectively? IMRAD I M R D Rules of Writing Findings section

Conclusions section

Recommendations section Evaluative language

Imperative / command language

Interpretive language 1. Standard Format of report/ paper

2. What is expected in each of the section

3. Language of writing

4. Ethics of writing Acknowledge the source of information
-Avoid plagiarism CONTENTS

Sections of the paper

Language and style of writing

Ethics of writing Thumb Rules know your audience

avoid long sentences

brief, clear, simple

adjectives are never necessary

each para should have one information

facts / work done by others - present tense

work done by us- past tense INTRODUCTORY SECTIONS Famous case of Plagiarism C.N. Rao The number of particular hydrocarbon combinations in this study is enormous. for example, CH2OOH is 351,252 and CH3COOH is 62,345,662.

The number of particular hydrocarbon combinations in this study is enormous. for example, CH2OOH is more than 60 million. Avoid needless words already (existing)
at (the) present (time)
(basic) fundamentals
(completely) eliminate
(continue to ) remain
currently ( being)
none (at all)
introduced (a new)
actually, extremely, basically,
it can be seen that,
in order to (replace it with "to"),
the fact that Do not over use pronouns- "it" and "this" ex. this expansion is used to derive functions

fourier's expansion is used to derive functions
BJT is much better.

BJT is much better than CMOS. It is important in all technical papers to use proper grammar and correct spelling.

Poorly written communications could be perceived as a lack of caring. ...decreases the amplifier gain significantly.

...significantly decreases the amplifier gain. projects, quizzes and midterms

projects, quizzes, and midterms
The material contained a sapphire optical fiber, which pressed against the pyrotechnic that contained the charge. Numbers- Be quantitative PNP transistor acts in reverse active mode in just a few cases

PNP transistor acts in reverse active mode 3 of the 50 cases It is often better to use " for example" and "that is" instead of "e.g" and "i.e"

Likewise, " and so forth" is better than "etc" turning someone else's work as your own

copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit

failing to put a quotation in quotation marks

giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation

changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit

copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided by citing sources.

Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed and providing the audience with information necessary to find that source.

Use summary and paraphrase when taking information from another source.

Use quotation marks for direct quotes

Use in-text citations and a reference list to show where you found the information. Types of Plagiarism #1. Clone

Submitting another’s work, word-for-word, as one’s own. Contains significant portions of text from a single source without alterations #2. Find - Replace

Changing key words and phrases but retaining the essential content of the source #3. Remix

Paraphrases from multiple sources, made to fit together #4. Recycle

Borrows generously from the writer’s previous work without citation #5. Mashup

Mixes copied material from multiple sources #6. 404 Error

Includes citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sources Acts of Misconduct Plagiarism Authorship Use third person instead of first For efficient communication active voice is more straight forward and is stronger than passive voice Rules of writing Avoid using double negatives not dissimilar to- similar to

no different from - similar to Most Important first Despite making several errors in the first half, patriots won the game.

Patriots won the game despite making several errors in the first half. Latin Abbreviations: Simplicity Active Voice Use third Person Use of commas Always compare two things Verbs and Adverbs go together Which and That What should be acknowledged? use a comma before "which" and do NOT use a comma before "that" Example while analyzing I found ... It was found... Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example Example The staff will watch a safety video every year. (active)

A safety video will be watched by the staff every year. (passive) Example As per the course undertaken at KAIST, South Korea Highlights
We should know the major structure of the paper

We should know what is expected in each of the sections

We should make proper in-text citations and references

We should be aware of general styles of writing-
past tense ( work done by us)
present tense ( general facts)

We should not copy-paste without giving due credit

We should check the originality of our paper before submission

We should not gift authorship
For effective and ethical writing: Example
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