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Polymers

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Sahil Kumar

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Polymers

Polymers By: Sahil, Ahmed, Raymond, Jawara, Jeremy -Polymers are large chain molecules made up of repeating monomers

-There are two types of polymers - Natural and synthetic

-Polymers made up of only one type of monomers are called homopolymers

-Polymers can also be made up of more than one different monomer - These are called Copolymers What Are Polymers? Nomenclature Examples of Polymers Process of forming polymers Polymerization Addition Reactions - Monomers are bonded without losing an atom (Double bonds are broken!) -Addition reactions require catalysts! OR Condensation Reactions Polyethene *Any of the H atoms in a polymer can be replaced with substituent groups to form new compounds - Atoms are eliminated in the reaction - Water is formed as well - Unlike Addition polymers, they have two reactive functional groups involved in the reaction - Condensation polymers do not necessarily have carbon double bonds Homopolymers - Identify the monomer group
- Then add the prefix"Poly-" or "Olig-" to the name Copolymers - There is no official IUPAC naming yet
-(Its listed as a work in progress) -Cellulose found in plants is an example of natural polymers, where the monomer is sugar

-Many starch polymers have branches of short chain glucoses

- Plants take these glucsoe when they need energy -Styrene monomers combine to make polystyrenes

- The Styrene monomer is an aromatic hydrocarbon

- Polystyrenes are the building blocks for the manufacture of a broad range of materials worldwide Physical Properties The most basic property of a polymer is the identity of its monomers and the arrangment of these momomers

-For example, two samples of natural rubber may have different durability, even though their molecules come from the same monomers.

-A polymer's architecture affects many of its physical properties such as solution viscosity, melt viscosity, solubility in various solvents, etc.

-The physical properties of a polymer depend on the size or length of the polymer chain. (Ie.Longer chains = higher Melting/boiling points)

-Melting point, when applied to polymers, is not a solid-liquid transition but a transition from a crystalline or semi-crystalline to a solid amorphous phase.

-The intermolecular forces in polymers can be affected by dipoles in the monomer units. (Stronger forces = higher tensile strength and higher crystalline melting points.) Applications
-Rubber is the most important of all elastomers. Natural rubber is a polymer whose repeating unit is isoprene. Most of the rubber used in the United States today is a synthetic polymer called styrene-butadiene rubber.

-The most important and versatile of the hundreds of commercial plastics is polyethylene. Polyethylene is used in a wide variety of applications because based on its structure it can be produced in many different forms.

-Fibers represent a very important application of polymeric materials, such as natural fibers like cotton, wool, and silk. Man-made fibers such as nylon, polyester, rayon, and acrylic. The combination of strength, weight, and durability have made these materials very important in modern industry.

- Also, many natural polymers are important components of our food. Sources Synthetic Natural Cellulose Starches Glycogen Natural Gases Crude Oil Coal Activities And Questionnaire! 1-Show the formation of polytetrafluoroethene by completing the addition reaction below:
F F F F F F
| | | | | |
C=C + C=C + C=C
| | | | | |
F F F F F F

2-Given the formula of ethene create an addition reaction to form polyethene
H2C=CH2

3-Draw the structure of polypropene
What is the main difference between synthetic polymers and natural polymers?
1)What is a polymer?

2)What is a monomer?

3)What polymerization?

4)Give some examples of natural polymers and synthetic polymers.

5)Draw a structure for a polymer made from 5 – ethylhex-1-ene. Questionnaire Resources -http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/basics.htm

-http://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/VirtTxtJml/polymers.htm

-http://plc.cwru.edu/tutorial/enhanced/files/polymers/apps/apps.htm

http://www.shell.com/home/content/chemicals/products_services/our_products/styrene_monomer/product_overview/

-http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=397829&section=3.1

Chemistry 12 Textbook Ancient History & Facts Origin of the Word Polymer Greek word polus (meaning "many, much") and meros (meaning "parts") thus (polymeris). ~The Chinese have used silk for thousands of years.
~Silk a natural fibre produced when caterpillars of bombyx mory moths make their cocoons.
~Is a fibre much thinner than a human hair, but much stronger than a similar-sized steel wire. A Short History of Synthetic Polymers ~1839: Vulcanized rubber was developed by Charles Goodyear.
~1909: Bakelite, first fully synthetic polymer invented by Hendrik Baekeland.
~1929: Vinyl used worldwide today invented by Waldo Sermon.
~1933: Saran, initially meant for fighter jets coating & today meant for food.
~1935: Nylon replaced silk in stockings and parachutes invented by
Wallace Crothers. Properties of Plastics ~Chemically unreactive
~Held together by strong and stable bonds
~Single bonds (C-C) are less reactive then double bonds (C=C)
~Resist Breakage
~Can be molded to acquire a specific shape
~Experience polymer cross linking Polymer Cross-Linking When links form amongst the functional groups that are aligned in the long polymer chains. This helps strengthen the polymer.
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