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FS 5453 Group 1 Project - Career Theories

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Christina Calkins

on 16 September 2012

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Transcript of FS 5453 Group 1 Project - Career Theories

FS 5453 - Fall 2012 Elisabeth Arroyo
Christina Calkins
Jaclyn Hanks
Brandy Guilford
Mary King A presentation by Group 1 Assessments for determining occupational interests as well as, the individual’s values in the career decision-making process are used with this approach. Assessments are also used to predict success within certain jobs. Summary of Trait-and-Factor Theory- Parsons/Williamson:

1) The Trait-and-Factor Theory suggests that matching the individual with an occupation is done by first studying the individual, then surveying occupations, and finally taking the attributes of the individual and matching them with desired traits of specific jobs. By: Brandy Guilford John Holland's Typology Theory Personal Environment correspondence (PEC) is the early development of person environment-fit (PEF). About PEC
This approach would suggest that counselors be prepared to assess and encourage clients throughout their lifetime.

Counselors would most likely have programs which emphasize work adjustment and multiple life roles. This theory ties in well with the 21st century and the changing roles that most workers will have; “multiple jobs in multiple places”. Super's Theory-
Donald Super's theory places an emphasis on the development of self-concept. According to Super, self-concept changes over time, and develops as a result of experience. Thus, career development is a lifelong process.

Super developed the life rainbow to illustrate different phases of a person’s life and lifestyle factors which all contribute to career choices. An interview with John Krumboltz who is one of the career theorist that developed the happenstance approach theory. He tells of his own happenstances that lead to his current career at minute 6-9. About Happenstance Approach

Zunker, V.G. (2012, 8th Ed.), Career Counseling: A Holistic Approach. Pacific Grive, CA: Brooks/Cole.



http://www.123test.com/career-test/ References Assessments which enhance client’s self-awareness and self-knowledge may be used. Typical assessments used with this model are:

A career development assessment and counseling model (C-DAC)
The Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI)
The Career Development Inventory
Career Mastery Inventory
Differential Aptitude Test
Work Value Inventory To set career goals, a counselor would attempt to assist the client in developing an accurate picture of his or her self and life roles.

The counselor would encourage choices which are based on implementing the client’s self-concept into the work world in a realistic manner. Questions or Next Steps Suggested by This Approach?

The counselor will take the test results and suggest careers to the client that individuals with similar characteristics are currently working. This information, along with other data, can be used to aid the client in making career decisions. Critical Client Skills
Be Curiosity (to explore learning opportunities)
Be persistence (to deal with obstacles)
Be flexibility (to address a variety of circumstances and events)
Be optimism (to maximize benefits from unplanned events)
Take Risks (take advantage of potential opportunities Conceptualization of Problem According to this Theory

Chance events, unpredictable social factors, and environmental conditions play an important role in an individual’s life both positively and negatively. The Happenstance Theory encourages clients to expand their capabilities and interests instead of basing their decisions on current characteristics only. Example of chance events:
You may become interested in a new career based on information from a friend.
You lose your job only to find a better one somewhere else. The counselor can help a client to respond positively to rapidly changing conditions and events. What type of assessment might this approach suggest?
Aptitude Tests
Interest Inventories
Analyzing previous person- in-environment experiences and the client’s reaction to these situations What questions or Next Steps would be suggested by this approach?

Counselor would help an individual transform their past experiences into opportunities for learning and exploration
Empower and prepare clients to take positive actions that take advantage of unplanned events
Work on coping with negative consequences Career Theories! Thank you for watching! We hope you learned more about career theories! About Super What Type of Assessment Might This Approach Suggest? Conceptualization of Problem According to This Theory: What Questions or Next Steps Would be Suggested by This Approach? Ready? Let's go! Join us as we travel the path of career theories!

We will explore Parsons/Williamson, Holland, PEC, Super, and Happenstance.

To best view this presentation, we recommend viewing it in full-screen mode (hover your mouse over the "more" button at the bottom of the presentation window and then select "full screen".

You can exit full screen at any time by pressing the escape button on your keyboard In order to match a client with a job that is acceptable to them assessments such as values, interests, and cognitive abilities may be used. After assessing and identifying, a frame work for PEF is developed, which lists jobs that meet the client’s needs and wants. Then the counselor along with the client explores the jobs. Then the client decides and confirms their choice. Finally, the follow up stage occurs when the counselor helps the client with job searches and evaluates the counseling progress. Conceptualization of Problem for this theory is an affective status, self-knowledge, and level of information-processing skills. This is viewed as sort of a problem solving theory. To lead to this process intake interview, identifying developmental, and assessment must occur. Emotional and dysfunctional problems refer out to psychotherapy. Unrealistic and faulty about self or work are given intervention strategies. An individual chooses a career to satisfy one’s preferred modal of personality.
Therefore, an individual will search for environments that let them exercise their skills and abilities. Big Idea Holland’s Typology Theory (RIASEC) is a trait orientated theory.
He stressed that self-knowledge, personal style, and occupational environments
play a vital role in an individual’s vocational satisfaction and stability. These themes help clarify personal characteristics and occupational environment characteristics that help an individual identify their type of style.

See figure on the right. Six Themes that outline personal and occupational environment style The Holland’s Hexagonal Model presents 5 concepts:

1. Consistency – Some of the personal and occupational environmental styles share common elements. This means that the closer the type is on the Hexagonal model the more consistent an individual is. For example, high consistency is seen with an individual expresses a preference for adjoining codes such as RCE or RIA. Less consistency occurs in codes such as ERA or ICS.

2. Differentiation – The more an individual aligns or fits with a certain personality type the less one will align with other types. If an individual aligns with several types then one is considered to be have poorly defined styles or undifferentiated.

3. Identity – An individual has a clear and stable picture of their goals, interest, and talents. In other words they have enhanced awareness of self-knowledge.

4. Congruence – This happens when an individual type matches with the occupational environment type. For example a social individual will find it satisfying to work in a highly interactive environment.

5. Calculus – Research! This will provide counselors and clients to better understand Holland’s Theory as changes occur in the work environments. Using Holland’s Hexagonal Model Knowledge of personality and occupational environmental type is critical in the decision process or choosing a career.
Individual level of attainment is driven by an individual’s self-evaluation. Such evaluation can be assessed through:

-The Vocational Preference Inventory
-My Vocational Situation
-The Position Classification Inventory
-The Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory
-The Self-Directed Search (SDS) Knowledge Where To Go From Here Factors that influence career choice include developing strategies for individuals to enhance knowledge of self, occupational requirements, and differing occupational environments (what I do not prefer).

To help you become more self-knowledgeable copy then paste the link below in the address bar of your search engine to take the Career Test!

http://www.123test.com/career-test/ Now that you have viewed the presentation- Please visit the class discussion board to participate in an activity!
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