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Visual Impairments Low vision and Blindness
Transcript of Visual Impairments Low vision and Blindness
Ocular Motility Defects
External Eye problems
Internal Eye problem Optical Defects Causes of low vision and blindness This involves refraction or the focusing of light as it passes through the different parts of the eye.
Myopia- (nearsightedness) is seeing well close up but having difficulty see at far distances.
Hyperopia- (farsightedness) is seeing well at a far range but not close up.
Astigmatism- is a problem focusing images near and far, images can appear in partial focus and partially blurred at the same time.
Mostly this defect can be controlled trough the use of corrective lenses or surgery. Ocular Motility Defect
-defines visual impairments, including blindness, as "vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance" IDEA 04 Definition There are 4 descriptions of visual impairments -Partial sight: indicates some type of visual problem has resulted in a need for special education
-Low vision- a severe visual impairment that applies to all individuals with vision ranging from 20/70 up to 20/100
-Legal blindness- a person has a vision of 20/200 or worse in the best eye with the best possible correction
-Total blindness- so severe it requires the use of non visual media and assistance such as Braille -Blindness and low vision can be genetic
-Other factors can effect vision such as trauma. This involves a problem with eye coordination, inhibiting the brain from blending the images of both to create a coherent image, this may cause problems for students in seeing images clearly.
Nystagmus-is the involuntary abrupt jerking motion of the eye, in some cases this causes no disturbance in vision.
Strabismus- is the muscle imbalance of the eye that may result in a misalignment of the eye. This can result in double vision or can cause the eyes to look outward or inward.
Amblyopia- also know as "Lazy Eye." this can be corrected if treated early. External Problems This affects the outer physical portions of the eye, the eyelid, cornea, or the orbit of the eye. This can cause drooping or rolling of the eyelids. Internal Problems This affects the internal components of the eye
Macular Degeneration is resulted in difficulty seeing fine detail and central vision but does not necessarily cause total blindness.
Coritcal vision impairment- cause by damage to the parts of the brain that interpret optic nerve impulses and not the components of the eye. Other Visual Impairments These problems do not usually occur in children or young adults but are the result of the aging of the eye
Glaucoma- the result when the outlets for the eye fluid are hindered, causing increased pressure in the eye
Presbyopia- the loss of the ability for the eyes to focus on the close work, (usually does not occur before 45)
Cataracts- a clouding of the lens of the eye that causes blurred vision Effects of Blindness and Low Vision On Students! This does not effect the students academic, intellectual achievement , or language development.
A problem that can occur is social isolation. Individuals can have trouble establishing and maintaining friendships.
Students' interaction and social skills can be affected and delayed.
Students' perceptual abilities are effected.
Visual perception: ability to judge forms, people, objects, or pictures.
Spatial perception: ability to perceive his or her own body in its surroundings.
Students use tactile perception which can affect their ability to see the whole picture. Identification! Screenings are the most common way of identification . Usually children are identified within 4 months of age because of regular checkups.
Cues to be aware of are constant eye rubbing, squinting at the board, head tilting, or holding objects very close. Both identification and treatment can be done by:
Ophthalmologists or medical eye doctors
Optometrists or eye experts
Opticians or optical device experts
Low vision specialists who specialize in assessment, prescription and use of low vision devices. Instructional Setting Instructional Considerations Accommodations and Assistive Technology Visually Impaired Students in the Classroom Assessment of Ability Once a student is identified with low vision or blindness a comprehensive assessment may be administered, an assessment with 6 separate components
Functional Vision Assessment refers to how well a student uses their vision in daily activities in various settings
Learning Media Assessment is used by teams to make detailed decisions on the range of instructional media needed to facilitate learning for students with visual impairments
Assessment of Cognitive Ability is academic or psychological testing that evaluates whether the student can respond to visual stimuli Assessment of Ability cont… Assessment of Academic Achievement this includes the assessment of the student in the expanded core curriculum such as reading, math, and Braille literacy
Assessment of Orientation and Mobility Skills assesses the concepts of body image, spatial orientation, special physical education needs, and the students familiarity with the classroom, school, home, and community settings
Assessment of Social Skills and Independent Living Skills assesses the social skills, this can be done through formal tests like the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II, or informal tests like observation and interviews of family and friends. These evaluate the independence or how well a student grooms themselves, prepares food, cleans, and manages their finances. The history of visually impaired education has changed drastically over the course of time. Initially students were educated in separate facilities, in day schools, or residential schools away from the child's home. Today students with vision loss are educated in the public school system. Since 2006, 83% (48,080) students with visual impairments are educated in public schools Only 9% (5,085) are educated in residential schools that provide a professional development curriculum and summer courses to adapt to the student's specific needs. With the aide of assistive technology and adaptations. many more students are being taught in the mainstream classroom. Education for visually impaired or low vision students can also be found in BOCES programs that provide all of the necessary services for the student. The Core Curriculum for the Visually Impaired This core curriculum helps to elaborate on the general core curriculum to ensure certain skills are developed to help the students specifically. Compensatory Skills
Visual Efficiency Skills
Literacy and Braille Skills
Orientation and Mobility Skills
Social Interaction Skills
Independent Living Skills
Recreation and Leisure Skills
Career and Transition Skills What you can do as the teacher Use tactile models that students can touch and feel, real objects as opposed to pictures. Develop lessons that allow for exploratory and hands on learning, that at the same time, allows you as the teacher to guide and support the child. Use oral explanations of every single direction or guideline within the classroom, using narration with visual aids rather than visual aids alone. Encourage social interaction in the classroom. Keep the environment of the classroom consistent and avoid changing the classroom too much. Help students locate different areas of the classroom and label in Braille. Make use of group work and collaborative lesson activities to further advance the student's social and academic skills. Orientation Training Accommodations This is the training needed to help students understand their surroundings and give them the skills to navigate their environment. Guide Dog Long Cane Electronic Travel Aids Braille and Braille Translators allow the student to feel a series of bumps that correlate to letters and words Braille Text Braille Translator Auditory Aides offer the student another way of accessing information. Tape recorders, books on tape, and audio lessons Combining the Old with the New One of the oldest forms of assistive tech. for visually impaired students is the larger print textbook for students with less sever ailments.
Today computers have advanced this age old practice. Screen magnifiers can enlarge computer text and website info for students to see more clearly Screen Readers are programs that use voice overs to read out the actions of the computer. Case Study! Kelsey Gibson is a third grader who has low vision and was diagnosed early and received early intervention training
Kelsey is moving to a new school in Dallas, Texas from a small town in Oklahoma
In her last school Kelsey was visited by a special education teacher to check on her devices and coordinate with general education teacher
She was very involved in track, singing, and taking piano lessons Our Considerations for Kelsey Establish orientation and mobility training to help Kelsey become familiar with the school but also with the new town she is living in. Ex: Giving her a tour of the classroom and school by an adult and a student in her class
Focus on getting Kelsey as involved in activities as she was in her previous school, which would expose students to Kelsey and help her become familiar with students and make new friends
Continue having a special education teacher visit the classroom but increase it to 3 times a week until Kelsey is comfortable with the atmosphere
Coordinate with Social worker or psychologist to help Kelsey become accustomed and maybe introduce her into a lunch group to get to know her peers Give Kelsey a model of the classroom, and make sure her seat in the classroom is close to the board and easy to access
Assign a buddy in the classroom to narrate and describe things that are put on the board, rotate this person so Kelsey can meet and become friendly with every student in the class
The use of Large Block letter printouts of the notes and directions should be provided especially in low wealth districts
A screen magnifier program for the computer can be used in high wealth districts enabling Kelsey to magnify the text and notes on a personal computer to the extent comfortable for her In the Classroom