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Matter

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by

Jaclyn Smith

on 7 December 2016

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Transcript of Matter

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Remember:
Matter makes up all substances, whether it is a solid, liquid or gas!
Gas
Has no definite shape or volume
States of Matter
Matter can change states!
To change states of matter, energy must be applied
Lab: Phases of Matter
Purpose: investigate the temperature at which phase changes take place in water
Liquid
-Have definite volume
-Takes the shape of the
container
-More mass per unit volume
than a gas but less than a solid

States of Matter
Solid


Has definite shape and volume

The
particles
that make up a solid are so close together that the forces of attraction confine the material to make a specific shape

The arrangement of the particles is confined to a small area, in order for the solid to maintain shape
-energy causes the molecules to speed up, which causes the matter to change phases
Particles are farther apart
, but they are still close enough that attractive forces
confine the material to the shape of its container

In liquids, the
movement
is somewhat
constrained by the volume
of the
liquid
Separation between particles is very large compared to their size, such that there are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules

Particle movement is assumed to be random and free

The volume of a quantity of gas is dependent on its temperature and the surrounding pressure
You will be working in groups of 3, so you will need to choose a specific role for each student
2.
Recorder -
records
your group's data
1.
Scientist -
performs the trials
of the experiment
3.
Organizer -
gathers materials,
stopwatch, assist
as needed
Bell Work 11/3
1. What are the 3 states of matter?

2. Which state of matter has no definite shape or volume?
4. Supervisor -
clean up, ensure
experiment runs
smoothly
All matter is made up of
constantly jiggling molecules
or atoms

This motion of particles is what
determines whether something
is solid, liquid or gas
"Kinetic Theory of Matter"
Melting: solid --> liquid

Freezing: liquid --> solid

Boiling: liquid --> gas

Condensation: gas --> liquid

Sublimation: solid --> gas

Deposition: gas --> solid

Collisions of particles transfer energy, creating heat transfer by conduction

When particles collide, energy is transferred from the hotter (faster moving) particle to the cooler (slower moving) particle

As a result, the cooler particles begin to move faster
When molecules in a substance move faster, they get warmer

As an object gets warmer, it gains
kinetic energy
and
thermal energy
Kinetic energy - energy of motion
Thermal energy - total energy of atoms and molecules
Measuring kinetic energy
Use a thermometer to measure the temperature (degrees)

Temperature is the measurement of the average internal kinetic energy of the object or material

When the material reaches a temp at which a state change occurs, the temp will stay the same until all the
energy is used to change the state
Similarly....
heat cannot be destroyed. It is transferred without a net loss/gain

Law of Conservation of Energy - energy cannot be created or destroyed...only converted to other forms
Full transcript