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Eastern Hemisphere + South America

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Christopher Speich

on 24 April 2015

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Transcript of Eastern Hemisphere + South America

Eastern Hemisphere!
Where is Japan?
Archipelago (chain of islands) about 100 miles from Korea.





Located in the North Pacific Ocean.
Geography of Japan.
Islands situated around many volcanoes
Also along fault lines.
80% of the land is mountainous. (What's that mean?)
Possibly Non-arable?
Most of the land is non-arable!
Forced them to turn to the seas!
Who else have we learned about that
was forced to the seas?
Seas also provided
protection.
How did people get to Japan?
Migration from Asia

Began living in clans- groups of people from same ancestors.

Each clan has a chief.
Religion.
Clans began worshiping nature gods and nature spirits, or kami.
Transformed in to religion known as Shintoism.
Means "way of the gods"
Still survives today
Who's Da man in Japan?
Around 400 AD, one clan Yamato, began to govern Japan, and lasted for several hundred years.
539 AD Prince Shotoku takes over.
Responsible for much of the Chinese influence on
Japan.
-Sent scholars to China to study art, history,
government, religion, etc.
Adoption of Buddhism
Borrowed from Korea and China
Became state religion of Japan
Although Buddhism is the state religion of Japan
many people still practice Shinto.
To this day they co-exist.
Reforming the government
Taika Reforms- 646 AD, series of laws that reformed the government.
Led to a stronger central government, however the clans remained strong.
The wonder that is Africa (it's a continent not a country).
Several African Kingdoms flourished
during the Medieval period.

1. Ghana
2. Mali
3. Songhai
4. Axum.
Ghana.
Ghana located on the edge of the Sahara
Semiarid plains of the savannah.
Created by the Soninke people - title of
their king was Ghana
Became a huge center of trade.
Ghana depended on two products, gold and salt.
Taxes on trading of these were set high to make profits.
Salt at this point is scarce and critical to the human diet.
The fall of Ghana!
Trade is Ghana's business.
Brought widespread contact with the
Muslims in the North
1076 AD these Muslim Berbers invaded
Ghana and crushed the trading business
Animism
People of Ghana were ANIMIST - they believed spiritual forces resided in animals and nature

Once trade became the center of business, many religions and other cultures were brought to it.

Islam eventually becomes the dominate religion.
Mali
1235 - Mali develops in the former territory of Ghana
Establishes good relations with the Berbers
Mali also relied on the salt and gold trade
Timbuktu became a major trading post as well as cultural and learning center
Mansa Musa
(It's a guy)
Greatest emperor of Mali
Expanded the boarders of Mali, encouraged Islam,
and opened relations with the Middle East by his
pilgrimage to Mecca
Songhai!
1400s territory shifted to control of the Songhai kingdom
Profits from salt and gold trading make this the largest kingdom in Western Africa
Slave trade helps this out too...
Songhai booms until Aska Muhammad becomes king.
Moroccans quickly invade and take over.

Moroccans used new weapons with
gunpowder.
Axum!
Located on the Ethiopian Highlands
Took over after the Kush in 350 AD
Prime trade center - near the Nile, the Red Sea, and Central Africa
Later become 'Christianized' and build elaborate churches and temples.
Central and South American Empires!
Mayans
Started in the forests of the Yucatan Peninsula
Peaked between the years of 300-900 AD
Multiple City States
Each City State Ruled by a Chief.
Nobles and priests collected taxes and enforced laws.
Tikal... the hot spot
Largest Mayan city... EVER
Complex temples and pyramids.
Temples were the center of religious ceremonies and shrines to gods.

Pyramids were burial places for the upper class.
Located in modern day Cancun
It was an urban trade and religious center.
Not the largest city, but was the must important.
The Mayans were also farmers!
What did they farm you ask...?!?!
maize (corn)
beans
squash
tomatoes
Highly Advanced society
He's reading chpt. (7,10,11.3!)
Hieroglyphic writing
Mayan calender (2012!)
Number system with 0!
**900 AD Mayan civilization collapsed AND NO ONE KNOWS WHY!!!!!!**
Aztecs
Legend says Aztecs wandered through Mexico in search of a sign from the gods...
Gods told them to build a home "where an eagle perched on a cactus holding a snake"
LIKE THIS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Eagle


Cactus


Snake



Aztecs?
City of Tenochtitlan
(Te-no-chee-lawn)
Found at Lake Texcoco
Built in the early 1300s.
At current day Mexico City.
Elaborate city, had gardens, water fountains, and a zoo.
IT WAS ON A LAKE!!!!!!!
So how did they do that?
Chinampas.
-Floating gardens created by putting dirt on reed mats on the lake.
Grew corn, beans, squash.
Feed me!
Aztec religion
was
Polytheisitc
The main god is Huitzilopochtli
He battled the forces of darkness each night.
Human sacrifices were made to please him. (52 year cycle).
Sacrifices were criminals or prisoners of war.
INCAS!
South America (it's a continent!)
Started in the Andes Mountains of Peru (country!)
In the beginning was led by Pachacutek
Empire would later stretch from Ecuador to Chile
Farming on a Mountain!

Empire was based on farming
Used irrigation terraces to farm mountains
Machu Pichu, and entire city of terraced fields.
Emperor was treated as an earthly god.
Officials were selected to collect taxes and enforce laws
Records were kept on a quipu, a series of knots on strings
Emperor enforced the language (Quechua) and ploytheistic religion.
11,000 miles of road for armies.
Aztecs and Incas both fall to Spanish
conquerors

):
Trade is buisiness and business is boomin
Major trade routes (1000-1500 AD)

Silk Road across Asia to Mediterranean
Ocean routes across the Indian Ocean
Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
Northern European links with the Black Sea
Western European Sea and River trade
South China Sea and lands of South China
Trading GOODS?!
Gold from West Africa
Spices from around India
Textiles from India, China, and the Middle East
Porcelain from China
Paper, printing, and paper money from China, through Muslims to Western Europe.
TIKAL WAS NICE BUT
CHICHEN ITZA was the capital.
Priests preformed rituals
to please the gods.
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