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Integumentary System

Notes
by

Katherine Swango

on 13 September 2016

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Transcript of Integumentary System

Split Ends
Guess What These Are?
Hair Follicle
Arrector Pili
- Smooth muscle tissue, makes “goose” bumps



Blood Vessel
- base of hair bulb, feeds hair making process
More Hair!
Epidermis
-upper
Epithelial tissue infused with keratin (water-proofs and UV protects the skin)
Has 5 layers of its own, no major structures like nerves or blood vessels
Dermis
-lower
Connective tissue (lower layer)
Contains all the structural integrity of skin (vessels, nerves, fibers, glands)
2 Layers of Skin
Has many layers
(strata)
Bottom layer is called the Basal Layer
Consists of:
Skin Layers
Hair
Nails
Glands
Integumentary System cont.
Barrier for infection and injury
Regulate Body Temperature
Remove waste from the body
UV Protection
Make *Vitamin D
*Regulates P and Ca levels for strong bones
5 Functions of Skin (Integument)
Unit 3
Integumentary System
Melanin
-pigment found in most organisms
-secreted by skin cells in response to UVB
damage to DNA
-absorbs harmful
UV energy and
transforms into heat
How does skin get its pigment?
Skin cells undergo
3
phases!
Cells are rapidly
born
in the
basal
layer
In the center of the epidermis, cells push up!
The most superficial layer is dead but strong, protecting from microorganisms and desiccation (drying out)
Cells will “slough off”
Why do we “shed”?
Sweat Gland
:
Apocrine
sweat gland secretes water and high concentration of organic acids + bacterial action= body odor! (mostly in axilla and groin region)
Eccrine
sweat gland: normal perspirations (no odor)
Sebaceous Gland
:
Large, sebum (oil) producing gland/ lubricates and water proofs
Hair Cont.
Accessory structure made of keratinized cells enclosed by a follicle (like a vase)
Major Structures include:
Shaft:
actual hair, made of dead cells
Root/Bulb
: enclosed by follicle, actively growing portion of hair
Follicle:
Group of cells that feed, house, and make new hair
HAIR
4
3
2
1
Guess the Structures??
Dead Waterproof Cells
Cells Changing Shape and Receiving Keratin Coating
New Living Cells
Proliferation of
the epidermis
Epidermis:
Although very thick here, you can see it’s all cell layers
Dermis:

full of connective tissue and structures
(Hypodermis Not
Pictured)
Skin Under the Scope
Identify epidermis and dermis!
Thick Skin
Found on soles of feet and palms of hands and corresponding parts of fingers and toes.
Albinism
-Recessive genetic disorder that affects an enzyme responsible for the production of melanin
-Can be partial or total (either affecting eyes, skin, and hair
OR

eyes only
-Results in skin and visual problems
Causes of Acne

- Overproduction of oil (sebum)

- Irregular shedding of dead skin cells
resulting in irritation
of the hair follicles of your skin

- Buildup of bacteria

-*Hypodermis: Deepest Layer, Mostly Fat
Directly above muscle layer
Keratin
is a family of
fibrous
structural
proteins
. Keratin is the key structural material
making up the outer layer of human skin for protection
. It is also the key structural component of
hair and nails
, in addition to horns, claws, hooves, scales, shells, feathers, beaks, and quills.
*There are 2 kinds (alpha and beta = "softer and harder"
Full transcript