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Facilities, Equipment, And Utensils
Transcript of Facilities, Equipment, And Utensils
Facilities, Equipment, and Utensils Design, Layout, and Facilities The design, layout, and facilities in a food establishment should be based on the types of foods being sold and menu trends. The type of equipment used will be determined by the preparation procedures required to produce food items. A plan that is good for one operation may not be good at another site that sells different items. Food facilities are normally used for long periods of time. Try to anticipate possible technological advancements and developments in food equipment in the planning stages. Seek a design that facilitates future redesign and remodeling if needed to accommodate new items that are added to the menu or product list. The design and layout of facilities, such as the kitchen, dishroom, and dining area, should provide an environment in which work may be done efficiently and effectively. The ideally designed facility enables the use of multiple sources of energy (electric and gas) as well as energy-efficient appliances and equipment. General areas of a food establishment Receiving & delivery
Garbage storage & pickup
Food display area or dining room
Toilet facilities Activities that are carried out in these different areas are called functions. When planning a food establishment: First, determine the tasks within the functions. Next, arrange these tasks in a way that allows a smooth and sequential flow within that area. Important: Develop a flow diagram of your establishment's operation in order to plan the physical facilities for each function. Functions are further broken down into various sub-functions. Example of a flow diagram: Regulatory Considerations When planning facilities for food establishments: Know and comply with national, state, and local standards & codes related to: Health
Environmental code standards Equipment should bear a stamp of the following: NSF International Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) American Gas Association (AGA) Buyers who purchase equipment approved by the following organizations are assured that quality materials are used. Work Center Planning The food production area is commonly organized into work centers. These are areas where a group of closely related tasks are performed by an individual or individuals. The number of work centers required in a food facility depends on the number of functions to be performed and the volume of material handled. Two most important features to consider when planning work centers are the total space needed and the arrangement of equipment in that space. A properly designed work center provides adequate facilities and space for: Efficient production
A pleasant environment
Effective cleanup Equipment Selection Features you have to look out for:
Ability to clean easily
Overall ability to do the job Need The basic needs of a food establishment should dictate the purchase of equipment. Cost Some of the major costs associated with the purchase of equipment are the purchase price, installation cost, operating costs, maintenance costs, and finance charges. Size and Design Equipment should easily fit into the space available in the layout of the facility. Consider future needs when selecting equipment, but it is unwise to buy oversized equipment in anticipation of future growth many years away. Oversized equipment can cause as much wasted effort as equipment that is too small. Construction Materials Food equipment and utensils have food-contact and non food-contact surfaces. Food-contact surfaces are the parts which normally come into contact w/ food. Non food-contact surfaces are the remaining parts and the surrounding area that should not come into contact with food during production. Requirements for food equipment & utensils Smooth
Easy to take apart
Easy to reassemble
Equipped w/ rounded corners & edges Metals We depend on metals for nearly everything in a food establishment. Chromium over steel gives an easily cleanable, high-luster finish. It is used for appliances, such as toasters and waffle irons, and trim where high luster is desired. Noncorrosive metals formed by the alloys of iron, nickel, and chromium may also be used in the construction of food service equipment. Lead, brass, copper, cadmium, and galvanized metal must not be used as food-contact surfaces for equipment, utensils, and containers. This is because these metals can cause chemical poisoning if they come into contact w/ high acid foods. Stainless steel Commonly used for food containers, table tops, sinks, dish tables, dishwashers, and ventilation hood systems. Stainless steel also resists rust and stain formation and can withstand high temperatures. Do not use abrasive cleaners and scouring pads to clean stainless steel because they scratch the surface of the metal which can become "germ farms". Plastic Plastics and fiberglass are frequently used in food service equipment because they are durable, inexpensive, and can be molded into different combinations. Make sure you only use food-grade plastics. There are many different brand names for plastics. Select them on the basis of their use and durability. Harder, more durable plastics are easier to clean and sanitize. Examples of plastics used in food establishments: Acrylics (used to make covers for food containers)
Melamines ( used for a variety of dishes and glassware)
Fiberglass (used in boxes, bus trays, and trays)
Nylons (used in equipment with moving parts)
Polyethylene (used in storage containers and bowls)
Polypropylene (used for dishwashing racks) Wood Wood has both advantages and disadvantages for use in food service equipment. It is light and economical. However, the disadvantages outweigh advantages because of problems with sanitation. It is porous to bacteria and moisture, & it absorbs food odors and stains. Wood also wears easily under normal use, which requires frequent maintenance & replacement. The FDA Food Code permits the use of hard maple or an equally hard, close-grained wood.