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effects of human activities on the lithosphere

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kimberly reyna

on 26 October 2013

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Transcript of effects of human activities on the lithosphere

effects of human activities on the lithosphere
MINING
what is mining?
urbanization
is the extraction(removal)of minerals and metals from
earth.
c
is the physical growth of urban areas which result in rural migration and even suburban concentration into cities, particularly the very large ones.
Urbanization can help the earth by providing more housing in smaller areas to the increasing population. There are many benefits for urbanization, some of those being:


• Efficiency- more efficient use of land, less land use per person and housing is more efficiently used to house more people.
• Concentration of resources-people come up with more ideas and resources are readily available. A larger variety of resources are found in urban areas.
• Public transportation is easily found, cutting down the need f

what are the negatives associated with mining?
negatives aspects of mining are:
*deforestation
*pollution
*loss of biodiversity
*Radiation exposure
why do we have mining?
mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes or created artificially in a laboratory of factory .
*harvesting of precious stones
*harvesting of energy resources (such as coal)
*(harvesting of materials used for construction of everything from driveways to the PC boards that make your phones \ponds\pcs so
powerful.
what is urbanization?
why do we have urbanization?
Urbanization is closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization. Urbanization can describe a specific condition at a set time, i.e. the proportion of total population or area in cities or towns, or the term can describe the increase of this proportion over time. So the term urbanization can represent the level of urban development relative to overall population, or it can represent the rate at which the urban proportion is increasing.

what are the negatives affects associated with urbanization?
what is agriculture?
Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry, is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, drugs and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

found in: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture
why do we have it?
Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization.
what are the negative effects of
agriculture?
Land degradation, the long-term decline in ecosystem function and productivity, is estimated to be occurring on 24% of land worldwide, with cropland overrepresented.[124] The UN-FAO report cites land management as the driving factor behind degradation and reports that 1.5 billion people rely upon the degrading land. Degradation can be deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, mineral depletion, or chemical degradation (acidification and salinization)
Pesticide use has increased since 1950 to 2.5 million tons annually worldwide, yet crop loss from pests has remained relatively constant.[130] The World Health Organization estimated in 1992 that 3 million pesticide poisonings occur annually, causing 220,000 deaths.[131] Pesticides select for pesticide resistance in the pest population, leading to a condition termed the 'pesticide treadmill' in which pest resistance warrants the development of a new pesticide.
Climate change has the potential to affect agriculture through changes in temperature, rainfall (timing and quantity), CO2, solar radiation and the interaction of these elements.[88] Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to increase as climate change takes hold.[136] Agriculture is among sectors most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change; water supply for example, will be critical to sustain agricultural production and provide the increase in food output required to sustain the world's growing population.

found and:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture#Land_and_water_issues
agriculture
1) Increased population leads to more waste, garbage and byproducts. 2) Natural habitats destroyed for housing purposes 3) Poor waste management causes the spread of disease and pollution 4) Food
demand increases and more land needs to be cleared for food production 5) High density of people can lead to conflicts and the quick spread of health problems
Simply put mass urban sprawl leads to overcrowding, pollution, unemployment, poverty, crime, disease and finally death.
Deforestation
WHAT IS DEFORESTATION?
Deforestation, clearance or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use.
WHY DO WE HAVE IT?
According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) secretariat, the overwhelming direct cause of deforestation is agriculture. Subsistence farming is responsible for 48% of deforestation; commercial agriculture is responsible for 32% of deforestation; logging is responsible for 14% of deforestation and fuel wood removals make up 5% of deforestation.[9]
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION
Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced green hause effects.
Deforestation causes carbon dioxide to linger in the atmosphere. As carbon dioxide accrues, it produces a layer in the atmosphere that traps radiation from the sun. The radiation converts to heat which causes global warming, which is better known as the greenhouse effect
In deforested areas, the land heats up faster and reaches a higher temperature, leading to localized upward motions that enhance the formation of clouds and ultimately produce more rainfall.

found in:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deforestation#Environmental_problems
overgrazing
what is it?
why do we have it?
negative effects
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by overpopulations of native or non-native wild animals.
overgrazed plants do not have enough time to grow to the proper height between grazing events. The animals are turned into a paddock before the plants have restored carbohydrate reserves and grown back roots lost after the last defoliation. The result is the same as under continuous grazing: in some parts of the United States tall-growing species die and short-growing species that are more subject to drought injury predominate the pasture, while in most other parts of the world tall, drought tolerant, unpalatable species such as Imperata or Aristida come to dominate. As the sod thins, weeds encroach into the pasture in some parts of the United States, whereas in most other parts of the worlds overgrazing can promote thick swards of native unpalatable grasses that hamper the spread of weeds.
Overgrazing typically increases soil erosion.[3] Reduction in soil depth, soil organic matter and soil fertility impair the land's future natural and agricultural productivity.
shoreline stbilization
what is shoreline
stabilization?
Infrastructure Alternatives is an experienced installer containers in containment and shoreline stabilization applications, having served clients from private lake associations to NASA.

For years man has fought against the often destructive powers of water along our ocean shorelines and inland waterways. Recently, both public and private sector entities are turning to containers to help preserve and protect these natural resources against nature’s often devastating forces.
negative effects of shoreline stabilization?
It is the gradual, although sometimes rapid, removal of sediments from the shoreline. It is caused by a number of factors including storms, wave action, rain, ice, winds, runoff, and loss of trees and other vegetation. Although erosion is not intrinsically harmful, when it is augmented to the point where it affects natural resources, water quality, ecosystems, and property loss, it is generally undesirable.
why do we have it?
ourages the use of "soft" or natural shoreline protection methods over "hard" or structural methods. These methods are much easier on the environment; imitate natural systems, can interact naturally within the ecosystem, as well as save you a significant amount of money. We have included advice and information for various shoreline stabilization methods. Please be aware that permits are necessary for the installation of most of these methods.
found in:
our the use of "soft" or natural shoreline protection methods over "hard" or structural methods. These methods are much easier on the environment; imitate natural systems, can interact naturally within the ecosystem, as well as save you a significant amount of money. We have included advice and information for various shoreline stabilization methods. Please be aware that permits are necessary for the installation of most of these methods.
grazing over grazing
what is grazing over grazing?
Overgrazing occurs when plants are exposed to intensive grazing for extended periods of time, or without sufficient recovery periods. It can be caused by either livestock in poorly managed agricultural applications, or by over populations of native or non-native wild animals.
Overgrazing reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion.
why do we have it?
In all cases, palatable tall grasses such as orchard grass are sparse or non-existent. In such cases of overgrazing, soil may be visible between plants in the stand, allowing erosion to occur, though in many circumstances overgrazed pastures have a greater sward cover than sustainably grazed pastures.
negatives effects
Overgrazing reduces the usefulness, productivity, and biodiversity of the land and is one cause of desertification and erosion. Overgrazing is also seen as a cause of the spread of invasive species of non-native plants and of weeds.
Grazing management, with sustainable agriculture and agroecology practices, is the foundation of grassland-based livestock production since it affects both animal and plant health and productivity.
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