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Aviation Industry - NM4218

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Jessica Lai

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Aviation Industry - NM4218

(SINGAPORE) BACKGROUND Strategic Industry: >3% GDP
More than 19,000 jobs created
Since 1990: Growth rate >10% World-Class Changi Airport Iconic Singapore Airlines Aircrafts in Changi Airport Security Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force
Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, and the naming of Changi Airport
Terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah Knowledge Sharing
Assisted by Singapore Airport Terminal Services's SATS Security Services and the Aetos Security Management Private Limited
Officers work with customs at check-in counters to screen luggage, control movements into restricted areas etc AIRPORT AUTHORITIES CAAS (Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) AIR TRAFFIC REGULATORS CAAS Airspace Management
Regulates and administers Singapore’s airspace
Rules of the Air regulations
Air Navigation Order
Convention of International Civil Aviation
“Highway code” for civil aviation

Regulates the utilisation of Singapore’s airspace
Hazard to the safety of air navigation when carried out in close proximity to airports.
Eg: kite flying, aero-modelling, balloon release, balloon hoisting, pyrotechnic displays and laser displays etc.

Knowledge flows between the CAAS and:
Changi Airport
Airlines at the airport
Incoming and outgoing flights
Weather reports and instructions Flying Infrastructure (Routes)
5 main labour unions:

Singapore Airlines Staff Union (SIASU)
SIA Engineering Company Engineers and Executives Union (SEEU)
Singapore Airport Terminal Services Workers' Union (SATSWU)
Air Transport Executives Staff Union (AESU)
Air Line Pilots' Association Singapore (ALPA-S). LABOUR UNIONS Singapore's Civil Aviation Authority and a statutory board under the Ministry of Transport
Regulates civilian air traffic within the airspace jurisdiction of Singapore
Maintains the operational efficiency of the airports in Singapore
Engages civilian air-service agreements with air-service operators.
Operates the CAAS Air Traffic Control Service
Serves to ensure faultless movements of civilian aircraft at Singapore’s airports and in the Singapore Flight Information Region (FIR). Singapore Customs A government agency under the Ministry of Finance

Reconstituted on 1 April 2003, after merger of the Customs and Excise Department and the Trade Facilitation Division and Statistics Audit Unit of International Enterprise Singapore (IE Singapore) Singapore Customs Controlled Goods
Import permit or authorization form to transport controlled goods.
Cleared by the checking officer at the Red Channel. Singapore Customs Controlled Goods
Agri-food and Veterinary Authority of Singapore
Animals, birds and their by-products
Endangered species of wildlife and their by-products
Meat and meat products
Fish and seafood products
Fruits and vegetables Singapore Customs Controlled Goods
Singapore Police Force
Arms and explosives
Bullet-proof clothing
Toy guns, pistols and revolvers
Weapons, kris, spears and swords Singapore Customs Controlled Goods
Media Development Authority
Films, video and video games
Publications and audio records

Health Sciences Authority
Medicines, Poisons

The Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore Telecommunication and Radio Communication Equipment
Toy walkie-talkies

National Environment Agency
Radioactive Materials
Ionising Radiation
Irradiating Apparatus (e.g. all types of X-ray apparatus)
Non-Ionising Radiation Irradiating Apparatus (e.g. laser apparatus, laser pointer, ultrasound apparatus, microwave oven, UV sunlamp, MRI) ` Singapore Customs Prohibited Goods
You are not allowed to bring in goods that are prohibited under Singapore laws.
The list of prohibited goods includes (but not limited to):
Chewing gum (except oral dental and medicated gum)
Chewing tobacco and imitation tobacco products (e.g. electronic cigarettes, etc)
Cigarette lighters of pistol or revolver shape
Controlled drugs and psychotropic substances
Endangered species of wildlife and their by-products
Obscene articles, publications, video tapes/discs and software
Reproduction of copyright publications, video tapes, video compact discs, laser discs, records or cassettes
Seditious and treasonable materials

It is an offence if you attempt to bring any of the items listed above into Singapore ` Commercial Space Leasing opportunities (Brands)
Comprehensive range of shopping, dining and entertainment offerings at Changi Airport Shopping City

DFS (Duty Free Shoppers)
DFS Galleria is the world's leading luxury retailer catering to the traveling public
Strategic brand partnerships
Store and product development
Product assortments
Targeted marketing programs
Local tax laws Staff Air Hub Development
Responsible for increasing Changi Airport’s connectivity and enhancing its attractiveness as a vibrant air hub
Cultivating partnerships
Promote traffic
Marketing the Changi Airport brand
Developing new routes with the travel industry
Knowledge flows:
With tourism boards of other countries
Other airports
Other teams of the airport staff
Various airlines. Airport Management
Manages the operational needs of Changi and Seletar Airports
Ensuring effective operations
Establishing robust safety and security measures
Creating state-of-the-art facilities
Customer service
Promoting innovative events in close partnership with various airport agencies and airlines
Knowledge flows:
With security staff
Airport emergency service
The airport authorities
Commercial team. Airport emergency service
Aviation rescue
Fire-fighting unit
Fire safety standards across Changi Airport, Seletar Airport and the RSAF airbases
Conducting exercises, executing aerodrome emergency plans, mitigating aircraft accidents to planning emergency response for large-scale events etc.
Knowledge flows:
With airport management
Cleaning services for post emergency work,
Airtraffic controllers
Corporate team to deal with crises managment Commercial team
Running shopping promotions in the airport
In retail planning and development, managing of shops, restaurants and service concessions, leasing of land, shops and restaurants, office and warehouse space, pricing of airport charges, franchise fees, and developing our commercial strategy
Maximising the revenue steams to Changi Airport Group.
Knowledge flows:
Commercial entities and passengers
Finance team Corporate Team
Drives company-wide initiatives to support the continued success of Changi Airport Group
Corporate Communications, Corporate Development and International Relations, Corporate Strategy and Business Development, Information Technology, Economic Affairs, Human Resource and Legal.
Synergy between corporate functions

Knowledge flows:
All other staff teams
Authorities Finance
Financial support and insights for business decision making
Financial and management accounting
Tax and treasury Cleaning Services Techli Hung Pte Ltd (TLH)
Owned and operated in Singapore, since 1995
Industry specialist in specialized cleaning services.
Current project with CIAS & SATS

Aircraft Interior Cleaning
Contracted services to CIAS
Providing of operational and manpower support to the airline customers.
Baggage Handling
A contracted services to SATS
Providing baggage handling Airbus
A310 - A380 Boeing
727 - 787 Dash 7 (De Havilland) ATR72 (ATR) Airlines Some 110 different airlines are served by Changi Airport.

Airlines based in Singapore
Singapore Airlines
SilkAir (wholly owned subsidiary of SA)
Scoot (Wholly owned subsidiary of SA)
Tiger Airways
Jetstar Asia/Valuair (affiliation of Jetstar Airways (AU)) Aircrafts & Airlines 301,711 aircraft movements and 46,5
million passengers handled in 2011 On-board Passenger service Catering business Chosen by individual airline.

In Singapore, SATS Ltd. (80% of all catering business and ground handling services). Formerly owned by SIA and caters to all national airlines.
Big business. SIA alone spend $500,000,000.00 on in-flight food service. In-flight Entertainment (IFE) Typically purchased as an upgrade to existing fleet by airlines.
Few big manufacturers.
Panasonic Avionics Corporation (SIA, Lufthansa, Emirates, United, Quantas)
Thales Group (BA, Air Asia, Air France, Qatar Airways)

Individual designs
Krisworld (SIA), High Life (BA), Air Asia X.

Cost: S$ 3-6 mio. per wide body aircraft.

Knowledge flow: Need for large two-way knowledge transfer from designers to manufacturers. Industry Analysis Changing market landscape: Strong driver for knowledge generation
Low cost carrier model competition
Open skies policies
Security concerns
Airline capacity
Technological advances Knowledge Flows Knowledge Flows Between the Singapore customs and CAAS air traffic control
Coordination to seize goods on a particular flight.
Above organisations
Between customs and the various airlines
Crew members and customers are informed about prohibited and controlled goods.
To ground staff who are in charge of baggage handling
Security staff
Checks or other types of enforcement Battle of the giants
Airbus vs Boeing KM as a strategy to gain the edge
A valuable edge: US$153 bn. market in 2012
Boeing sharing wing-design secrets with Japan in exchange for cutting edge technology
Airbus communication on A380 wing-problems
Borderline lobbyism
Insider information during contract bidding.
Boeing corruption scandal in the US Defence
Utilizing the knowledge of leasing agents: How Boeing finally took back the lead? How do airlines get aircrafts? Lease vs purchase Smaller financial burden
Smaller risk
Higher over-all price
Either lease with everything (Wet lease)
Or lease of plane-only (dry lease) Requires large capital
Cheaper overall price
Higher risk
Normally only used by large airlines or Airline Financing Entities (AFE) Knowledge flows
AFE has huge understanding of market trends.
Leasing airlines enjoys knowledge power over the lessees Knowledge Flows: Labour Unions Knowledge flows between labour unions & airline management
Relations between the labour unions and the SIA group management (airlines) have been strained

Particularly after a series of wage cuts, retrenchments, and early retirement affected staff morale during difficult economic conditions such as the SARS outbreak in 2003.

Sometimes, disputes involve government (regulator/authority) intervention. Case Study Analysis: Singapore Airlines Research & Development S$6.5 billion 28,300 Research Scientists & Engineers World's 2nd.
Asia's 1st. World Economic Forum
2011-2012 Global Competitiveness Report
Protection in Intellectual Property A*STAR Aerospace Program A consortium formed in 2007 to conduct pre-competitive research work with strong industry participation in the aerospace domain. To date, there are 19 companies in the consortium including Boeing, EADS, GE, and Honeywell. Industrial Postgraduate Program (IPP) A scheme introduced by the Singapore Economic Development Board in 2011 to build up a pool of postgraduate manpower with critical R&D skill-sets for roles in industry, through the provision of postgraduate training in a corporate R&D environment. Under the program, PhD students spend the majority of their time working on research projects in company’s premises. 5 Key Research Capabilities 23 Ongoing Research Projects 2 Main assets - planes and people.
10.000+ emplyees and 95 planes (28.000 in SIA Group).

SIA spends more than its rivals in key areas: Innovation, training and labour costs.
SIA follows a 4-3-3 rule of spending: 40% on training, 30% on revising processes and procedures and 30% on creating new products and services every year.

Dominating the field in Singapore
The national airline, owns two other carriers (Scoot, Silkair) and has 33% in Tiger Airways.

State ownership
Singapore government holds 51% of shares. They are explicit about not being involved with management, but has in reality interferred several times. A Competitive Edge Air crash investigation Scientific research to applied technology - The knowledge flow of accidents Increasing fuel prices Air Accident investigation Bureau of Singapore (AAIB) Responsible for the investigation of air accidents and serious incidents involving aircrafts in Singapore.
Also involved with the investigation of accidents worldwide, which includes aircrafts or personnel from Singapore.
Established in 2002 after the crash of SilkAir fligt 185 and Singapore Airlines flight 006.
Developed in 2002 a facility for researching flight data recorders (Black boxes).
If the AAIB feel the need for it, they can call in foreign investigation bureaus for expertise and knowledge exchange. Smooth knowledge transfer a must in aviation
Essential because lives are at stake
E.g. Imperative for air-traffic control
Information and knowledge should be free-flowing between all important sectors of aviation industry The CAAS Non-Volatile Memories Spin Transfer Torque-Magnetic resistive RAM (STT-MRAM) and Phase Change RAM (PCRAM). No formal authority in accident investigation
Produces standards and protocols to be followed "Successful knowledge transfer involves neither computers nor documents but rather interactions between people."
- Thomas Davenport Local police, firemen, medical teams Normally the first professionals on the scene
Possess valuable knowledge about the cause and scale of the accident.
Give witness statements to the AAIB as soon as possible.
Can be included in the later investigation, if deemed necessary. MISSED LANDING Singapore Airlines B777-312ER Munich Airport Aircraft manufacturers Naturally interested in the cause of the accident
Can provide neccessary details about
aircraft design,
experience with similar problems
own tests about durability of materials, weaknesses in the framework, etc.
Can use the found knowledge to enhance aircraft-safety in the future. Airlines and airport personnel As with aircraft manufacturers both airlines and airports are naturally interested in the causes of the accident and how they can prevent similar occurrences in the future.
Airlines might have their own research department, however no authority in the case
They can provide valuable information about procedures, protocols, personnel data, etc.
Airports can as well have their own research department.
Might have valuable information as well.
eg. air traffic controllers, signs and
markings, accident history. Victims, witnesses and other directly involved parties First hand accounts of the accident
Experience of what went on immediately before or during the crash.
Can possibly provide information, that cannot be captured by data.
Could be in possession of pictures, video, etc. that could help the investigation. Media and PR-agents Aviation
Insurance Public liability insurance
Passenger liability insurance
Combined Single Limit (CSL)
Ground risk hull insurance not in motion
Ground risk hull insurance in motion (taxiing)
In-flight insurance 6 kinds of Aviation Insurance Provides info from the crash to the general public.
Can provide help to the investigation by sharing info with potential experts, udiscovered witnesses, etc.
Can hinder the investigation by obstructing research, subjective stories.
PR-agents must decide how to explain the situation to the public in the best way..
1. Singapore Aviation & General Insurance Co Pte Ltd
3. Marsh Ptd Ltd
4. Asia Capital Reinsurance Group PTE Ltd Incomplete information flow? Main Aviation Insurance Companies in Singapore The media has a goal to serve the public interest, and not necessarily helping the investigation.
The PR-agents have an interest in serving their companys best.
Aircraft manufacturers might not be willing to share industry secrets.
Well known psychological fact that witnesses can be primed to provide false statements
Pilots, Air Traffic Controllers, ground handlers might be inclined to do an effort to keep their jobs. SQ006 Crash Final report When the investigation is over, each party makes their own accident report
They are all submitted to the AAIB, who will make a full report.
The final report are made available for public viewing. Implications with this knowledge flow The public will get access to details and conclusions.
Involved parties might not provide full information, knowing it will be publicly disclosed. Airlines in Singapore are largely controlled by the government. They have majority shared in SIA (which includes shares in Tiger) and Jetstar Asia/Valuair. Possibility for knowledge control.
SIA has formerly owned the catering business and ground handling services. therefore having a lot of knowledge in this field.
The knowledge flow in this situation could be seen two ways:
1: Outstanding possibilities for knowledge sharing, CoP's, cross-functional learning, etc. Possibility for large information streams.
2: Very limited possibility for individual knowledge gathering, buraucracy and inefficient standard procedures. The huge organization could also cause less commitment and willingness to share information.
The challenge of KM in an industry with neither true collaboration or true competition.
...and what will happen in the case of a new government? Conclusions:

Possibilities and limitations for the aviation industry in Singapore KM issues within a state-owned industry:
Who makes final decisions?
Can the state get complete knowledge?
International knowledge transfer might be hindered to political concerns.
Power in every national airline carrier might produce unique knowledge-sharing but might also hinder competition and development.
Lives and billions of dollars at stake
Free-flowing and accurate information critical
The necessity of tight Knowledge Management
Competitive global industry where one single innovation can mean billions in extra revenue. Knowledge flow:
Who? Destination, religion, preferrals, flying time, economy or business, low-cost, ec.
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