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Genetics

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by

Matt Hale

on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Genetics

DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that encodes the genetic information that is used in the development of an organism.
DNA is found in the nucleus of a cell but also a small amount can be found in the mitochondria.
Information is stored as a code in DNA which is made up by the four chemical bases. A (adenine) T (thymine) G (guanine) C (cytosine). DNA bases pair up in a sequence. This determines the information available for building proteins and maintaining an organism.
Each Human has 46 strands of DNA and is in a structure called the double helix.
DNA also has the ability to duplicate itself when needed. By having the genetic code read, new DNA can be created.
Genetics
Proteins
Proteins are complex molecules that have certain jobs for the structure, function, and regulation of the body’s tissues and organs
Proteins are made up from small units called amino acids which are attached in chain structure.
There are many different types of protein that specific jobs such as receptor protein that transmit messages, structural protein which help develop and build new cells and transport proteins that carry atoms and small molecules throughout the body.
Gene
Genes are the instructions of DNA used to make certain molecules called protein and operate an organism.
Genes are functional units of heredity, meaning that it inherited. Example of this is in humans the same gene is inherited from each parent.
One strand of DNA has many genes in it and there is an estimated number of about 25,000 in the human body.
Of these number of genes only few have the ability to make hemoglobin
Mutation is caused when the genetic code has been analyzed incorrectly
Chromosome
A chromosome is tightly coiled section of DNA which has been wound many times around histones, which are proteins that support it's structure.
The number of chromosomes is determined by an organisms species. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Male X Y Female XX
During cell division the chromosome is un-coiled so its genes can be read.
Heredity
Heredity is the inheritance of traits from an parent or ancestor to an off-spring of an organism.
In humans traits are passed down by their parents, the child inherits one complete set of chromosomes from the mother and father.
Each child has random set chromosomes selected from the mother and father but will always have a different order.
Trait can be passed down from generation to genertion.
Traits
A trait is a noticeable characteristic in a person or other organism
Physical traits are visual characteristics of an organisms physical make-up, these traits include hair colour, eye colour and height.
Behavioral traits are the qualities shown in the way a human or organism acts.
Increased risk of a medical condition is also a trait. It is a trait that can be inherited from parents and be passed down through generations.
Genes are what determines an organisms traits, however the environment can alter them up to a degree.
Traits are determined by what allele is present in a particular trait. Two of the same allele (dominate or recessive) is called 'homozygous' or 'Purebred'. One of each allele is called 'heterozygous' or also known as 'hybrid'.
Bibliography
Google images - Date 31/10/13
Prezi images - Date 28/10/13
University of Utah, Learn Genetics
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/- Date 31/10/13

University of Utah, Learn Genetics Tour of the basics
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/begin/tour/- Date 31/10/13

Pro.file, The science of Human Potenial
http://www.profileperformancesystem.com/personality-traits.html - Date 31/10/13

Genetics Home Reference, A service of the U.S National Library of Medicine
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/handbook/basics/- Date 31/10/13

CSIRO, Double Helix Science Club- Published 1991- http://www.csiro.au/Portals/Education/Programs/Double-Helix-Science-Club.aspx
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