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College Readiness and First Generation College Students

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susan perez

on 7 December 2014

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Transcript of College Readiness and First Generation College Students

The issues
The college conversation starts in 11th or 12th grade TOO LATE
lack of information
lack of support
lack of encouragement
do not enroll or do well in rigorous course in high school
subsequently, not ready for college-level courses
First Generation Students
What Can School Counselors do to Help?
Needs Assessments
Prevention & Intervention Programs
classroom developmental curriculum
involve parents and teachers
design group interventions
individualized plans

College-Going Self-Efficacy Scale
(Gibbons and Borders, 2010)
given at 3rd, 6th and 9th grade

In teacher and parent school surveys/ needs assessments,
include questions that assess their current level of knowledge and comfort regarding
the college process
available PSE financial resources,
special support needed by Fgen students

Community Based Organizations
be sure the materials used and outcomes assessed meet the needs of Fgen students
teacher door displaying student's I'M FIRST writings and college jerseys
2- year Community Colleges
classes (in Ohio) transfer .
low retention rates
low graduation & transfer rates
not ALL classes transfer toward major/plan of study
College Readiness and First Generation College Students
Parents/guardians and students rely on teachers and counselors for information and assistance

Too often, student's early PSE plans do not match their actual education outcome

Male students are found to have an idealized picture of careers
If a student is not college-ready in the 12th grade, it is unlikely the student will be ready for college classes at a 2 year-community college
Upward Bound Summer Programs for High School students
Summer Bridge Programs
Small group intervention: college readiness
grade level checklists and useful information for students
Support and information for students
information, and college/financial planning for parents
Students with Disabilities
students with disabilities often struggle
they seek out assistance or accommodations
prepare the student in how to navigate the new college environment

discuss how their disabilities may impact their unique career path

work on self-advocacy skills to foster independence and success at college

start as early as elementary school
Why does it matter?
What to do?
neither of my parents graduated from college
Classroom Developmental Lessons that Utilize CBO programs (eg. I Know I Can), then ADD:
guided narrative assignments that ask students to integrate and reflect on their interests inventories, suggested careers, and the Career Pathway Modules
Monthly College Awareness activities
I'M FIRST postings and videos
Bulletin Board Displays
Collaborate with 5th and 8th grade teachers to identify Fgen students who have intellectual potential with the purpose to:
pair the recommendation of rigorous courses with academic and study skills development groups
Involve Parents
Match college-going expectations with opportunities at home
Biyearly parent meetings to discuss college/PSE options, application process, rigorous courses, financial aid, and planning timelines
Individual Counseling
meet with Fgen student each semester to specifically discuss their original plan, their progress, and changes if necessary
middle school
2 -Year Community College Program that works:

While in high school
a. current CC students serve as transition counselors
b. CC counselor one-on-one, group events, trips to CC and local feeder 4 year-institution

Once enrolled and attending CC
a. team of retention counselors assigned
b. Success Skills class
c. transition plan to transfer to 4-year institution
STUDENT'S college and career aspirations and their actual outcomes do not match!
Elementary School
High School
Career Exploration Units in Developmental Classroom Lessons
Connections between
student's classroom behaviors
college attainment
Small Group Counseling
Academic Skills Development
College- Going Behaviors
Careers for male students (include female-dominated careers)
Involve Parents
Match college-going expectations with opportunities at home
Include college/PSE options and planning timelines at Open House and P/T conferences
Individual counseling

meetings each quarter to set goals/create plan and then evaluate progress
Group counseling
Difference-Education presentations for 11th and 12th grade students (Stephens, Hamedani, & Destin, 2014)
starting in 9th grade: College-Going and Attainment course selection and support groups
Parent contact
meetings and information distribution
aligning home expectations with college-going expectations and opportunities
Teachers - increase knowledge and sensitivity
monthly emails that contain college summer opportunities for Fgen students
share concerns of Fgen students and their families and how to support their goals for PSE attainment
Currently, there is
no state or national level
policy or law
Ethical Issues
The following listed in the ASCA Ethical Concerns (ASCA, 2010) provide ethical guidance:
Academic, Career/College/Post-Secondary Access and Personal/Social Counseling Plans and
Collaborating and Educating Around the Role of the School Counselor

A.3.a: Provide students with a comprehensive school-counseling program that parallels the ASCA National Model with emphasis on working jointly with all students to develop personal/social, academic and career goals.

A.3.b.: Ensure equitable academic, career, post-secondary access and personal/social opportunities for all students through the use of data to help close achievement gaps and opportunity gaps.

A.3.c.: Provide and advocate for individual students’ career awareness, exploration and post-secondary plans supporting the students’ right to choose from the wide array of options when they leave secondary education.

B.3.a.: Share the role of the school-counseling program in ensuring data driven academic, career/college and personal/social success competencies for every student, resulting in specific outcomes/indicators with all stakeholders.

B.3.b.: Broker services internal and external to the schools to help ensure every student receives the benefits of a school counseling program and specific academic, career/college and personal/social competencies.
There are several nationally funded college preparatory and financial aid programs that seek to close the achievement gap for Fgen students:
TRIO Programs
AVID (Advancement Via Individual Determination)
Pell Grants
and more... usually federally or state funded Community Base Organizations

American School Counseling Association (2010). Ethical Standards for School Counselors. Retrieved from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/asca/media/asca/Resource%20Center/Legal%20and%20Ethical%20Issues/Sample%20Documents/EthicalStandards2010.pdf

Camizzi, E., Clark, M. A., Yacco, S., & Goodman, W. (2009). Becoming “difference makers”: school-university collaboration to create, implement, and evaluate data-driven counseling interventions. Professional School Counseling, 12(6), 471–479.

Constantine, M. G., Kindaichi, M. M., & Miville, M. L. (2007). Factors influencing the educational and vocational transitions of black and Latino high school students. Professional school counseling., 10(3), 261–265.

Durodoye, B. A., Combes, B. H., & Bryant, R. M. (2004). Counselor intervention in the post-secondary planning of African American students with learning disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 7(3), 133.

Gibbons, M. M., & Borders, L. D. (2010). A measure of college-going self-efficacy for middle school students. Professional School Counseling, 13(4), 234–243.

Gibbons, M. M., Borders, L. D., Wiles, Mark E, Stephan, J. B., & Davis, P. E. (2006). Career and college planning needs of ninth graders--as reported by ninth graders. Professional School Counseling, 10(2), 168–178.

Glosoff, H. L., & Pate, R. H., Jr. (2002). Privacy and confidentiality in school counseling. Professional School Counseling, 6(1), 20–27.

Graham, L. (2011). Learning a new world: Reflections on being a first-generation college student and the influence of TRIO programs. TL New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2011(127), 33–38.

Lee, S. M., Daniels, M. H., Puig, A., Newgent, R. A., & Kyung, S. (2008). A data-based model to predict postsecondary educational attainment of low-socioeconomic- status students. Professional School Counseling, 11(5), 306–316.

McKillip, M. E. M., & Rawls, A., Barry, Carol. (2012). Improving college access: A review of research on the role of high school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 16(1), 49–58.

Rivera, L. M., & Schaefer, M. B. (2009). The Career Institute: A collaborative career development program for traditionally underserved secondary (6-12) school students. Journal of Career Development, 35(4), 406–426.

Sciarra, D. T., & Whitson, M. L. (2007). Predictive factors in postsecondary educational attainment among latinos. Professional School Counseling, 10(3), 307–316.

Stephens, N. M., Hamedani, M. G., & Destin, M. (2014). Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students’ academic performance and all students’ college transition. Psychological Science Psychological Science, 25(4), 943–953.

Trusty, J., Spenser, N., & JoLynn, C. V. (2005). Education-career planning and middle school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 9(2), 136–143.
Are more likely to be of a lower SES group

Lack cultural capital needed to understand the demands and challenges of college life

More likely to want to attend college to make a higher salary

More likely to be Hispanic

Have lower college attainment rates than their non-Fgen peers
There is no typical presentation of Fgen students, however they
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