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Logo - Constructionism Project

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Charlene Volk

on 9 February 2012

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Transcript of Logo - Constructionism Project

Logo and Constructionism It starts with Grey Walter's Drawing of his Mechanical Tortoise 1947 Grey Walter, founder of the EEG Society in 1943, builds the
first electro-mechanical turtle, a cybernetic machine. http://www.rutherfordjournal.org/article020101.html
1958 Marvin Minsky & John McCarthy
Founded the Artificial Intelligence Group at MIT
1958-1963 Papert researched under Jean Piaget at the
International Center of Genetic Epistemology
at the University of Geneva

"...the Parisian discovery that had the biggest impact on my life was Jean Piaget, who at that time was giving a course at the Sorbonne. I got to know him and was invited to work in his center in Geneva, where I spent the next four years and became passionately interested in children's thinking." (Papert, 1993b p 33) http://www.stager.org/omaet2004/papertbio.html
1960 1963 "...the Parisian discovery that had the biggest impact on my life
was Jean Piaget, who at that time was giving a course at the
Sorbonne. I got to know him and was invited to work in his center
in Geneva, where I spent the next four years and became passionately
interested in children's thinking." (Papert, 1993b p 33) http://www.stager.org/omaet2004/papertbio.html
Papert & Minsky
Met at the London Symposium on Information Theory.
The speaker before me announced exactly the same theorem and proved it at least as well as I did… Now that could have been a nightmare: in fact, it turned into a great gift. That person was Marvin Minsky. Marvin and I came to that meeting with essentially the same paper and this led to a collaboration that continued for many years and is responsible for almost everything we did in the next decade and has certainly colored everything I have done since then." (Papert, 1998) Papert, S. (1998). Transcript of Child Power: Keys to the New Learnin go fthe Digital Century at the 11th Colin Cherry Memorial Lecture on Communication, Imperial College. London. http://www.connectedfamily.com/main_alt.html
MIT's John McCarthy creates LISP, the first computer language designed for writing artificial intelligence programs. This allows the programmers flexibility in organization. 1962 J. McCarthy leaves MIT to start AI Lab at Stanford
http://mit.edu/6.933/www/Fall2001/AILab.pdf Papert moves to the US. He is a research associate at MIT and help direct AI Lab. http://mit.edu/6.933/www/Fall2001/AILab.pdf
Project MAC started and led by Minsky and Papert. It is funded by $2 million DARPA grant. 1964 BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) holds first successful demonstration of computer time sharing, supporting 5 simultaneous users on a DEC PDP-1 while sharing one CRT screen. Note: BBN and MIT were in a race to accomplish this sharing, on-line task…BBN won by only days. "Seeing dynamic displays from several distinct programs, simultaneoulsly and asynchrononously ("out of time and tune"), was a breathtaking experience." (Feurzeig)
Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
1965 BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) adds Educational Technology Department to the research firm partially due to recent tech advances:computer time-share & development of first high level "conversational" programming language. "I organized the BBN Educational Technology Department to further the development of computer methods for improving learning and teaching, and the focus of our work, then shifted to the investigation of programming languages as educational environments." (Feurzeig) Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) a Cambridge research firm with support from the USOE introduces TELCOMP, a time sharing system, to elementary and secondary schools. Other BBN collaborators included Cynthia Solomon, the MIT consultant was Seymour Papert.
"Students were introduced to TELCOMP and then worked on standard arithmetic, algebra, and trigonometry probelms by writing TELCOMP programs. The project strongly confirmed our expectation that the use of interactive computation with a high-level interpretive language would be highly motivating to students....The idea of a programming language expressly designed for children arose directly from this project." Feurzeig, Walter Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
1966 Logo (developed from LISP) was created by Walter Feurzeig. Papert developed the overall functional language specifications and Dan Bobrow contributed extensively to the design and completed the first implementation. The basic requirements for the educational language were:
1)Third-graders should be able to use it for simple tasks with very little preparation.
2)It's structure should embody mathematically important concepts with mnimal interference from programming conventions.
3)It should permit the expression of mathematically rich nonnumerical as well as numerical algorithms.
Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
1967 1968 First version of LOGO pilot-tested in the summer with 5th-6th grade math students at the Hanscom Field School in Lincoln, Mass. This research was under support from the US Office of Naval Research.
Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
Logo research starts jointly between Project MAC and Bolt, Beranek, and Newman
http://www.csail.mit.edu/timeline/timeline.php?query=event&id=104 Per Feurzeig, BBN group designed a new and a greatly extended version of LOGO was implemented by BBN software engineer Charles R. (Bob) Morgan on the DEC PDP-1 computer. Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
1969 Minsky & Papert
The Artificial Intelligence Group formally becomes the MIT AI Laboratory. Papert & Minsky act as co-directors.
Crevier, D. (1993). Artificial Intelligence. New York: Basic Books.
Papert starts Logo project at Project MAC.
http://www.csail.mit.edu/timeline/timeline.php?query=event&id=116
From September 1968 through November 1969, the NSF supported the first intensive, experimental teaching program of Logo-based mathematics in elementary and secondary classrooms. Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
"The first class of twelve "average" seventh-grade students at the Muzzy Junior High School in Lexington, MA worked with LOGO throughout the whole school year in place of their regular mathematics curriculum. At that time, the LOGO system had no graphics. The students wrote programs that could translate English to "PigLatin," programs that could play games of strategy, and programs to generate concrete poetry." Mindstorms Notes Nim, a game, "was the first big project we did with kids...Papert and I taught seventh graders for our first year-long course. We didn’t have turtles; there were no graphics; we used model 33 and 35 teletypewriters." (ran for a 3 week period) Primary teaching purpose was to develop the idea of splitting a task into sub-goals. "We wanted the children to have good models of various ways in which this can be done and to experience the heuristic power of this kind of planning (as opposed ot jumping straight into writing programs)."
Solomon: "I converted the program so that it runs in PyoLogo. Logo's user interface has gone through many changes. As the graphics has become more polished, the programming has become more complicated. This project exemplifies the changes. Of course, I started off simply and then kept adding frills." Papert and Solomon http://logoprojects.wikispaces.com/Nim
Logo implemented in AI Lab for 11- and 12-year-olds. http://www.csail.mit.edu/timeline/timeline.php?query=event&id=127
Mrs. Bloom taught second and third graders LOGO this year. It was funded by the NSF November 30, the final report on the first 15 months of LOGO project submitted to the NSF by BBN see 331 pg report #1889
1970 Papert founded the Logo Laboratory at MIT
Feurzeig, W. (n.d.) The Logo lineage. Retrieved http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/logo.php.
1971 Visiting consultant Mike Paterson introduced the Logo-controlled robot turtle, a "floor turtle" physically connected to the computer via hardwire lines. (Patterson was a visiting British Grad Student who suggested a computer-controlled robot like Grey's would make computers more interesting for youth - Turtle was named such in honor of a famous specifs of cybernetic animal made by Grey Walter, an English neurophysiologist.)
http://cyberneticzoo.com/?p=1711
"In 1971 Channel 5, a local Boston TV station, produced a program on children in new learning situations and included a segment on Logo" (posted by Cynthia Solomon)
1972 "Summer-Marvin [Minsky], Seymour [Papert], and Cynthia Solomon along with Russell Noftsker and
Seymour's brother Alan planned to make turtles available through a new company called General Turtle, Inc."
http://logoprojects.wikispaces.com/Nim
Marvin Minsky began designing a "portable" turtle graphics Logo station known as the 2500
BBN engineer Paul Wexelblat designed and built the first wireless floor turtle, named"Irving".
http://cyberneticzoo.com/?p=1711
1973 MIT starts Division for Study and Research in Education with Logo project as a central focus.
http://www.csail.mit.edu/timeline/timeline.php?query=event&id=168
1974 Perlman's implementation of the TORTIS Button Box system for Toddlers. LOGO Memo 9 1975 Implementation of the TORTIS Slot Machine system for Toddlers.
LOGO Memo 24 1976 Logo research sites start to pop up
around the world, with the main location close to MIT. For more information,
check out the memos!
http://www.sonoma.edu/users/l/luvisi/logo/logo.memos.html The Logo Programming Language is developed. It is a variation of Lisp and doz not read misspelled words will. The language is: Interactive Modular Extendable Flexible Immediate, individualized responses A collection of small procedure commands Allows for large projects to from smaller ideas You do not need to remember every command. Some functions, like addition, are already build in! The turtle is a big hit with kids! 1980 1978 Logo for Apple II Logo for TI99 The hair was big but the computers were bigger! Papert publishes Mindstorms. It caused
a storm of teachers to investigate the
educational implications of Logo. Logo Computer Systems, Inc. LCSI – Seymour Papert, Brian Silverman,
Cynthia Solomon, Michael Tempel, Sharness Chait Logo is upgraded to include dozen of spoken languages, a variety of machines, and eventually uses videogame graphics and sound.

The same boom in the industry caused people to consider Logo as a "serious" programming language. Object Logo - object oriented version Logo Writer includes Word
processing capabilities 1983 1985 In 1981, Dr. Pea studied early elementary students using Logo programming in order to see if Logo affected the students’ problem-solving skills and planning. He also created the first national center devoted to children and technology, called the Center for Children and Technology, along with Jan Hawkins and Karen Sheingold. After being funded by the Spencer Foundation, he studied the ways that learning and teaching in Logo could affect cognitive and social development. Dr. Pea worries that Logo
is not what we had all hoped it would be Students were still receiving the same type of instruction provided by teachers. The program required significant scaffolding by educators. 1990 Idit Harel envisions a world where every child has a laptop and can learn in a creative, project-based environment Papert and Harel write
Constructionism Resnick publishes
Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams Mitchel Resnick develops LEGO Logo StarLogo Logo conferences take place at MIT. Beginning with LOGO 1984 and continuing through 1986, many educators came together to discuss Logo. Resnick looks at playful learning 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2004 2007 2008 Resnick et al: Digital Manipulatives: New Toys to Think With
Wilensky & Resnick: Thinking in Levels: A Dynamic Systems Perspective to Making Sense of the World
Netlogo StarLogo
Colella, Klopfer, & Resnick: Adventures in Modeling: Exploring Complex, Dynamic Systems with StarLogo
Klopfer, Colella, & Resnick: New Paths on a StarLogo Adventure
Wilensky: NetLogo: A simple environment for modeling complexity
Peppler & Kafai: From SuperGoo to Scratch: Exploring creative digital media production in informal learning
Scratch
Computer
Clubhouse Maloney, Peppler, Kafai, Resnick, Rusk: Programming by choice: urban youth learning programming with scratch
Eric Klopfer StarLogo TNG
D. Glosson and C. Volk
Learning Sciences Department at Indiana University

Presentation created by: C. Volk Richard Grant, assisted by Cynthia Solomon, substantially contributed to the additions, modifications to the design and implementations. Feurzeig named LOGO from the Greek Logos, “the word or form which expresses a thought; also the thought itself.”
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