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Parkinson's Disease Prezi

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by

Elena Keydel

on 29 November 2015

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Transcript of Parkinson's Disease Prezi

Signs and Symptoms
Muscle Rigidity
Impaired Posture
Other Symptoms
People with PD become stooped

People have difficulty balancing, especially when getting up from a chair
Muscle tone is always tight, it never relaxes, which can cause muscle aches for someone with PD

This can be seen when someone else tries to move the arm of someone with PD, their arm will only move in short, jerky like movements
Bradykinesia
Depression and emotional changes
Trouble swallowing
Speech changes
Skin Problems, can be either oily or dry
Problems sleeping
Dementia
Orthostatic hypertension
Muscle Cramps
Causes steps become shorter when walking, or you to drag your feet when walking, therefore you may walk with short, shuffling steps

Makes repetitive actions difficult, such as tapping fingers

Makes doing Activities of Daily Living, such as dressing, more difficult
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system.

It is one of the movement disorders, and frequently causes stiffness and slowing of movement.
Usually begins in a limb
"Pill rolling" tremor very common-rolling the forefinger and thumb together like you're rolling a pill
Tremor in the hand is usually one of the first symptoms
The tremor usually is more pronounced when the person is under stress
Tremors usually disappear during sleep and improves with intentional movements
Tremors
Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's Disease
Symptoms usually begin on one side of the body

4 main symptoms: tremors
bradykinesia-slowed movement
rigidity
postural instability


Napodano, 2013
2 kinds of scales

Hoehn and Yahr Scale
Stages 1 through 5
Focuses on movement symptoms

United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale
Mild, Moderate and Advanced
Focuses on movement as well as cognitive difficulties, and ability to
carry out tasks
Stages of Parkinson's Disease
The cause of Parkinson's Disease is unknown but genetics and environmental factors may play a role

Parkinson's Disease happens because neurons in the brain that produce dopamine break down and die. This loss of dopamine leads to the symptoms of Parkinson's Disease
Causes
Risk Factors
Age: over 60
Significant Family History
Gender: Male
Toxic Exposure
Many of these can be treated

Constipation
Trouble identifying smells
Problems urinating and controlling bladder

Complications in Later Stages:
Dementia
Trouble Swallowing
Increased risk of falls
No longer responding to medication

Complications
No specific tests available

Diagnosis based on medical exam, family history, review of symptoms and neurological tests
Diagnosis based on ruling out other possibilities
Put on PD medication, diagnosis based on whether symptoms improve
Tests and Diagnosis
Treatment
There is no cure, but treatment can treat symptoms
Medication
Brain Surgery
Alternative Therapies
Carbidopa-levodopa
Levodopa passes into the brain and converts into dopamine

Dopamine agonists
Mimics dopamine

MAO-B inhibitors
Helps prevent the breakdown of dopamine

COMT inhibitors
Prolongs the effect of levodopa
Medication
Implants electrodes into the brain, a generator implanted in your collarbone sends electrical impulses to the brain
Brain Surgery
Massage
Yoga
Acupuncture
Music or Art Therapy
Alternative Therapies
Big and Loud Program
Big
Works to improve limb movements

Uses repetitive, core movements used in daily living
Because cause is not known, no prevention strategies

Some studies show caffeine, green tea and exercise may prevent PD

Research being done, especially focused on biomarkers


Prevention Strategies
Support Services
Website Resources
National Parkinson's Foundation
American Parkinson's Disease Association
Clinical Trial Finder
www.clinicaltrials.gov
foxtrialfinder.michaeljfox.org
Support Groups
Mental Health Support
Especially important to work with therapists trained in working with chronic conditions
References
Loud
Stimulates the muscles of the larynx

Goal of improving speaking ability and voice level

Research shows effective in increasing speech loudness and articulation of both vowels and consonants
Studies show that people with cognitive decline as a result of Parkinson's Disease struggle with completing their IADLs, especially financial management and medicine management.

Mild cognitive impairment is also shown to cause deficits in executive function, social cognition, and problem solving. Studies also show that social cognition deficits lead to difficulty understanding others' actions and pragmatic language.
(Kaplan, 2014)
1. Symptoms, 2015; 2. NINDS, 2015; 3. Primary Motor Systems, 2015
1.
2.
1. National Institute of Neorological Disorders and Stroke [NINDS], 2015; 2. Definition, 2015
(Symptoms, 2015)
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3
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Primary Motor Systems, 2015
NINDS, 2015
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1. Symptoms, 2015 2. Primary Motor Symptoms, 2015
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NINDS, 2015
Progression, 2015
Causes, 2015
Early Onset Parkinson's Disease, 2015
Risk Factors, 2015
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1. Complications, 2015; 2. NINDS, 2015
1. Pirogovsky, Schiehser, Obtera, Burke, Lessig, Song & Filoteo, 2014 2. Anderson, Simpson, Channon, Samuel & Brown, 2013
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Tests and Diagnosis, 2015
Treatment and Drugs, 2015
Deep Brain Stimulation
Treatment and Drugs, 2015
Treatments and Drugs, 2015
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1. What is LSVT BIG?, n.d.; 2. What is LSVT LOUD, n.d.
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1. Prevention, 2015; 2. NINDS, 2015
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1. Coping and Support, 2015; 2. Clinical Trials, 2015; 3. NINDS, 2015
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Elena Keydel
HHS 648
Full transcript