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Copy of Fields of study in critical theory
Transcript of Copy of Fields of study in critical theory
Tutor: Maria Cristina Llorente
L&CII by Belen Serrapio BIBLIOGRAPHY
Shelley, M. (1818) Frankenstein PENGUIN, UK
Corrigan, T. & White, P., The Film Experience, Boston-New York, BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN´S
Lacey, N. (2004) Introduction to Film, MACMILLAN
Lacey, N. (2004) Narrative & Genre, MACMILLAN
Dick, B. F., Anatomy of Film (3er edition)
Hayward, S. (2005) Key Concepts in cinema studies, BLAXPLOITATION
Gamble, S. (1998) The Routledge Companion to Feminism and Postfeminism, London and New York
Fernald, A. E. (2006) Virginia Woolf: Feminism and the Reader, palgrave: New York
Rabaté, J. (2001) Jacques Lacan: Psychoanalysis and the Subject of Literature, palgrave: New York
Ashcroft, B. – Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H., Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies, ROUTLEDGE, London-New York
Orwell, G., (1949) 1984, PENGUIN, UK
Collins, S., The Hunger Games (2008), SCHOOLASTIC PRESS, USA
Bignell, J., Media Semiotics (2nd edition)
Ashcroft, B. – Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H., Key Concepts in Post-Colonial Studies, ROUTLEDGE, London-New York
Villarejo,A. (2007) Film Studies: the basics, ROUTLEDGE, USA and Canada
Malpas, S., Wake, P. (2006) Routledge Companion to Critical Theory, ROUTLEDGE, USA and Canada
Kristeva. Available at: http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/psychoanalysis/kristevaabject.html
Lacan. Available at: http://www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/psychoanalysis/lacanstructure.html
Eleanor Ty, Mary Shelley’s biography, Wilfrid Laurier University. Available at: http://people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/shelleybio.html
O'Neil, D., GLOSSARY-CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY (2002-2005). Available at: http://anthro.palomar.edu/tutorials/cglossary.html
Harris, R., GLOSSARY-LITERARY TERMS (1997) Available at: http://www.virtualsalt.com/litterms.html
Noonuccal, O., Biographic Note & Poetry (2007). Available at: http://www.ict.griffith.edu.au/~davidt/redlandbay/oodgeroo.html
Chandler, D., An Introduction to Genre Theory (1997) Available at: http://www.aber.ac.uk/media/Documents/intgenre/intgenre.html
Schlemowitz, J., GLOSSARY-FILM TERMS (1999) Available at: http://homepage.newschool.edu/~schlemoj/film_courses/glossary_of_film_terms/glossary.html
Gender Roles and Gender Stratification. Available at: http://www.people.vcu.edu/~jmahoney/gender101.htm#introduction
Jahn, M., A Guide to Narratological Film Analysis (2003) Available at: http://www.uni-koeln.de/~ame02/pppf.html
Rodriguez Avila, S. R., BORDER THEORY (2009). Available at: http://www.personal.psu.edu/srr5051/blogs/sergio/border-theory-and-the-most-important-border.html
Siegel, K., Introduction to Modern Literary Theory (2006). Available at: http://www.kristisiegel.com/theory.htm#reception
Rampton, M. (2008) Feminism. Available at: http://www.pacificu.edu/magazine_archives/2008/fall/echoes/feminism.cfm Literature
Film Structuralism SEMIOLOGY & SEMIOTICS Post-Structuralism Border Theory Digital theory Narratology Genre Gender GENDER: “the culturally variable elaboration of sex, as a hierarchical pair (where male is coded superior and female inferior“
SEX: “a theory about human beings which divides them into two biologically based categories – male or female."
SEXUALITY: “a set of social processes which produce and organise the structure and expression of desire.“
INSTITUTION: “set of relationships and/or practices which are expressions of mainstream social values and beliefs, and have the support – explicit and implicit – of other social and cultural institutions. (POLITICS, EDUCATION, THE FAMILY...)“
PATRIARCHY: (institution) “a social system in which structural differences in privilege, power and authority are invested in masculinity and the cultural, economic and/or social positions of men.”
MATRIARCHY: " a society in which females, especially mothers, have the central roles of political leadership, moral authority, and control of property."
HETEROSEXISM: “describes social or personal structures which are defined and regulated by exclusive and compulsory heterosexuality.”
HOMOSEXUAL: “having a sexual propensity for person’s of one’s own sex (inversion/ invert, lesbian, gay).”
IDENTITY: “a concept which enables groups to come together around the articulation of shared experience.”
EXPERIENCE: “process where a subject interacts with material, economic and interpersonal realities and transforms them into subjective experiences, interpreting and creating her/himself in the process. It is a doing and a becoming.” Feminism “1984” PRINT BASED TEXT
AUTHOR: George Orwell
3rd PERSON OMNICIENT NARRATOR
FOCALIZER: Winston (main character)
ANTISOCIAL FICTION CONTEXT OF PRODUCTION
Setting time: 1949
Setting place: UK STORY: People live in a place totally controlled by the Party – a group of powerful not very well-known people – which inflects fear in the inhabitans of middle-class in order to control them. The Party seems to invent wars, lay to the people and practically make them starve while it gives them all –Party says- need to live – survive – such as a place to live (dirty and broken), work (controlled and supervised), education (manipulated and regulated) and food (almost nothing and unhealthy, but plenty of vodka). All along the story we see how the main character , Winston, lives, enjoys, suffers, struggles, why he is who he is, the relationships with his mother and absent father, neighbours, friends and lovers. Though he carries a very poor way of life, he does not belong to the lowest level of economy. Those who do seem to be almost completely free from the hands of Big Brother and his party. In a way Winston tries to escape from the Party, committing thought crime and what would be consider treason, but thought he does not believe in the Party, the double-think he has developed stops him from trying to escape in a more physical/concrete way. PLOT: “… A party member lives from birth to death under the eye of the Thought Police. Even when he is alone he can never be sure that he is alone. Wherever he may be, asleep or awake, working or resting in his bath or his bed, he can be inspected. Nothing that he does is indifferent. His friendships, relaxations, his behaviour towards his wife and children, the expression of his face when he is alone, the words he mutters in sleep, even the characteristic movements of his body, are all jealously scrutinised…” (page 219, ‘1984’ (1949)) Structure (Todorov)
1- Winston lives according to the rules of the Party.
2- Winston starts writing down his thoughts, even though he knows he is commiting thought crimes.
3- They are constantly conscious of their crimes and know about the possible consequences. They are caught.
4- They are interrogated, starved, left aside and tortured.
5- They are reintegrated to society as new human beings totally loyal to the party. INTERTEXT: ‘La vita è bella’ (1997-Roberto Benigni), ‘V for Vendetta’ (2006-James McTeigue) by George Orwell Analysis Reception
Production Theories understanding of the world with structures that make it meaningfull is understood as a "system of oppositions" Ferdinand de Saussure
Todorov Structuralism identity the eruption of the real into our lives is associated with fear
jouissance to the of our entrance establishment is crucial
for the distinction between has to do with what neither object nor subject does not respect borders / positions / rules disturbs identity / system / order marks and
reestablishes our is of narcissism for
the a precondition the mirror stage between when (m)other me boundary begin to
recognize between refers to
the of representatives imagined as sex
murder animal human a border /
separation we established moment in psychosexual development "object of desire" to its subject's relation of
the the establishment which
precedes primal repression is his / her desires to coordinate allows
a subject Symbolic order is situated before Lacan's contrasts to reminds us of our own materiality Open wound
Skin of warm milk Corpse can be elicited
from Object ( other) Subject (self) the loss of the to a caused by threatened
in meaning human
reaction refers to the Abject (Julia Kristeva) Psychoanalysis ‘mother right’ ‘rule of the father” networks of power recognize / = Queer Language normality abnormality Sexual other Gay / Lesbian ILL other Homo hetero (dominant) Orientation Institution Sexuality Identity Gendered gaze pollution Purity / Impurity Patriarchy Matriarchy Masculinity / Femininity Male / female manipulation Body Sex Gender Telling (novel)
Showing (plays - films)
Participatory (videogames) Modes of
different not the changes the is is Translation / paraphrase Announced - extensive transposition
of a particular work or works (re-) interpretation / appropriation
(re-) creation / salvaging a form of Intertextuality reception creation Process Formal entity / product double
nature has A free rendering / amplification of a passage Intersemiotic transpositions from one sign system to another an openly announced relationship with prior texts (sources) is transgenerational phenomenon ongoing dialogical process repetition without replication plot order, pace, shifts, ending themes, points of view, events, consequences, world, contexts, symbols, imagery, characters, motivations… Story Spirit
Style content form (Linda
Hutcheon) Adaptation Dark, urban and shadowy settings Crime and mystery plots and ambiguous resolutions Characters living on the edge of mysterious or violent society-criminals or crime detectors Dread of the unseen and horror of the seen Suspense, surprise and shock Characters with deformities and/or more than one identity Crime Films Horror Films Theatrical acting styles –
interaction with mise-en-scène Move forward by musical
numbers Characters express emotions
and thoughts through song and
dance Musicals Interior scenes and close-ups Emotional or physical climaxes Characters struggle to express their feelings or emotions Melodramas Open, natural spaces and settings Quests Characters physically and
mentally tough Westerns Theatrical acting styles –
interaction with mise-en-scène Individual episodes are
emphasized Happy conclusions Characters defined by physical
features or manner of speaking Comedy (Daniel Chandler) Melodrama Comedy Genres Adventure films ('the swashbuckler‘ - 'survival films' (war movie-safari film-disaster movies)
‘Fantastic genres‘ (fantasy-horror-science fiction)
‘Antisocial genres‘ (crime film-gangster film-G.man film-private eye or detective film-Film noir-Caper film and ‘Weepies' (or 'women's films')). slapstick comedy
romantic comedy ('screwball comedy‘-musical comedy)
fairy tale. (Todorov) 1- Equilibrium at the outset
2- Disruption of the equilibrium
3- Recognition of the disruption
4- An attempt to repair the disruption
5- A reinstatement of the equilibrium what the reader perceives (signifier) what the reader conceives or understands (signified), toghether with what the reader brings to it, can be Linear or Non-linear
(flashbacks, flashforewards) STORY PLOT Narrative Structure shows logical change of the characters and their actions. reader-response
theory Reception theory the many different strands of
analysis that focus on the reader as active participant in the creation of meaning. audience are shaped by
RECEPTION Production Exhibition stardom genre conceptions of history emerges from the arbitrary relationship between the signifier and the signified Language SIGN study of
and its systems SEMIOLOGY / SEMIOTICS Repudiates the view that fiction reflects the world. Language does not belong to individuals.
it already exists before we are born into the world.
it constantly changes, Post-Structuralism "... is a very useful tool in order to analyze the aspects that separate people from one another. It is also useful to seek for a solution because you define the specific aspects that need to be modified." Border Theory "... Disneyland presents itself as
an exuberantly imaginary world, distinct
from the ‘real’ world outside its gates. Yet
Baudrillard argues that the hyperreal
excesses of Disneyland mask the fact that
America itself is almost as artificial and
unreal, and that the ‘reality principle’ has
imploded..." a state of being contemporary culture philosopher
Jean Baudrillard HYPERREALITY constituents Specially formatted documents
in a script called HTML:
mark-up language access to the network of networks network is the infrastructure upon
which telecommunication is built world
wide web internet network ultimately emerges from the physical
hard drive of a computer American author
William Gibson (1948–) virtual reality CYBERSPACE HYPERTEXT Digital theory (-Sarah
Gamble) disagrees with ‘legal subordination of one sex to the other’ Society oppressed women and
treated them as slaves concentrated
on how took the creation of tried to show her ideal woman
is femininity societal construction concerned with wanted to make main icon women rational and economically capable of independence Mary
Wollstonecraft’s ‘active and intelligent, blending civic and familial responsibilities, freed from drudgery and debasing frugality.’ main icon John Stuart
Mill 1800 main feature is 1700 rise of the professional woman in the arts as performer, dramatist and poet “women come together to provide mutual support against patriarchal oppression” 1550–1700 Feminism spinning and weaving
machines Industrial Revolution Women out of home and
into the factories ‘elegance is inferior to virtue’ purpose to critically analyze what has happened in the past that shapes our present in every way our languages,
ways we dress,
the friends we have,
the social class we belong to,
the problems that surround us defining the aspects that humans develop is in order to separate themselves from one another with different cultural backgrounds, language, nations, and beliefs blaming others versus understanding what has happened in the past and taking personal action to solve them in film including “1984” “V for Vendetta” “La vita è bella” “Hunger games” Print based
Antisocial Fiction UK UK Italy North America Film
Antisocial Fiction Film
Social drama Film
Antisocial Fiction Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles Upper-class totalitarian government oppressing the proles Nazi enforcement
oppressing Jew Winston (coexisting in society but rebellious) Mysterious figure (loner and totally rebellious) Guido (Jew, lovely father and husband) Katniss (coexisting in society but rebellious) Thought crime and others quite passive Terrorists acts (always against government) Creates a game/ story to protect his son’s innocence while they are in a Nazi death camp Taking her sister’s place in the game and standing out of the rest of the players, becoming unique in the game - surviving. Murder
Brain washing Isolation, torture and brain washing. Isolation, torture and brain washing Murder Privileged class solution Way of rebellion used by Hero Hero Way of Living Setting Time Setting Place Type of narrative Dystopian Future Dystopian Future Dystopian Future Past SIGNIFIED = meaning studies the role of signs as part of social life sIGNIFICATION (nothing is a sign until it becomes interpreted as such) any material thing that signifies. the concept that a signifier refers to. Meanings are unfixed, discontinuous and unstable. describes is full of electronic images from television,
video and computing are becoming more the real + legitimate allows add their own links or comments alters our methods
of reading click on a highlighted link and move to a new domain the readers to denotes sense of the relationships
between nodes of texts connected
electronically in cyberspace Feminism femenine hard-working women focus on differences between women, the different ways in which women today negotiate their lives as feminists. are not interested in taking sides in the theory wars of their mothers’ generation Third-wave feminists First wave late 19th and early 20th centuries emerged out of an environment of urban industrialism and liberal, socialist politics The goal of this wave was EQUALITY
(to open up opportunities for women, with a focus on suffrage) by middle class white women "Mary Wollstonecraft (d. 1797), and Jane Austen (d. 1817) are foremothers of the modern women's movement. All of these people advocated for the dignity, intelligence, and basic human potential of the female sex." mid-90's Second wave women of color and developing nations, seeking sisterhood and solidarity to demonstrate that race, class, and gender oppression are all related. 1960s and continued into the 90's sexuality and reproductive rights were dominant issues BINARY
OPPOSITIONS language Ferdinand de Saussure, 1857-1913. "Ferdinand de Saussure was born in Geneva into a family of well-known scientists. He studied Sanskrit and comparative linguistics in Geneva, Paris, and Leipzig.
In Linguistics, Saussure's focus on the synchronic dimension and on language as an interrelated system of elements was maintained through the American Structuralist period (Bloomfield, Hockett), and also in the Generative period (Chomsky, Bresnan). His view of the essential nature of the form-meaning pairing, without the intermediate and essentiallly meaningless syntactic layer posited by Chomsky, Perlmutter, and other generative theory-builders, has re-emerged in theories like Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (Sag and Pollard) and Construction Grammar."
Source: http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Found/saussurebio.html Claude Lévi-Strauss (1908-2009) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist and one of the central figures in the structuralist school of thought. He held the chair of social anthropology at the Collège de France from 1959 to 1982. Elected member of the Académie Française in 1973, he was a key figure in the human sciences in the second half of the twentieth century. He was also a foreign member of the academies of the United States of America, United Kingdom, Netherlands and Norway, and received honorary doctorates from 15 universities worldwide, as well as many national and international awards for his research.
Source: http://www.unesco.org/culture/aic/echoingvoices/claude-levi-strauss.php# Tzevtan Todorov, born in Bulgaria, is Research Professor of the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS). A philosopher, historian of ideas, linguist and semiologist, his most recent work has focused on multicultural societies and the question of memory. In 2011, he received the Prix de la Critique of the Académie Française.
Source: http://www.unesco.org/culture/aic/echoingvoices/tzvetan-todorov.php SIGNIFIER SIGN can be anything that can be used to communicate a system of signs "1984" by George Orwell Binary
oppositions examines the ways in which narrative structures our perception of both cultural artifacts and the world around us. NARRATOLOGY "1984" "1984" Jacques Derrida
Julia Kristeva Julia Kristeva "is a writer, a psychoanalyst and professor at the Institut Universitaire de France. Director of the doctoral program “Language, Literature, Image" at the University Paris Diderot-Paris 7, she is a member of the Psychoanalytic Society of Paris and Doctor Honoris Causa of several universities in the United States, Canada and Europe where she teaches on a regular basis."
Source: http://www.unesco.org/en/2010-international-year-for-the-rapprochement-of-cultures/high-panel-on-peace-and-dialogue-among-cultures/composition-of-the-high-panel-of-18-february-2010/julia-kristeva/ Jacques Derrida, Ph.D., was born to an Algerian Jewish family in El-Biar, Algeria, in 1930 and died on October 9, 2004.... He wrote reviews on publications devoted to history and the nature of writing, which appeared in the latter half of the 1960's in the Parisian journal, Critique. These works would be foundational to Derrida's highly influential work, Of Grammatology. Derrida was introduced to America in 1967 by the Johns Hopkins University, where he delivered his lecture "Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences."
Source: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jacques-derrida/biography/ Michel Foucault ..."was a French philosopher or more specifically a historian of systems of thought, a self-made title created when he was promoted to a new professorship at the prestigious Collège de France in 1970. Foucault is generally accepted as having been the most influential social theorist of the second half of the twentieth century...."
Source: http://www.egs.edu/library/michel-foucault/biography/ Democracy vs. Totalitarianism
Pleasure vs. Torture/punishment
Freedom vs. Slavery
Solidarity vs. Egocentrism
Nature vs. Manhood
Loyalty vs. Treason
Common Wealth vs. Individual Wealth structuralism
gender studies --> feminism
digital theory Hyperreality is present in
as the inhabitants of Oceania are constantly bombarded with images on the telescreens. "1984" Jean Baudrillard, "Ph.D., French sociologist, cultural critic, and theorist of postmodernity, was born July 27, 1929 in the northern town of Reims. Jean Baudrillard taught at the European Graduate School EGS from its earliest period until his death on March 6, 2007.... Jean Baudrillard was a university sociology teacher and a leading intellectual figure of his time. His early life was influenced by the Algerian war in the 1950s and 1960s...."
Source: http://www.egs.edu/faculty/jean-baudrillard/biography/ "1984" Julia Winston Mrs Parsons Big Brother patriarcal society institutions: education, ministries, the family working, divorced, middle-class man working, middle-class woman male omnipresent figure on power (God like) housewife, middle-class woman "1984" "1984" working man, family head and support Mr Parsons author = narrator / focalizer writer the focalizer can be any character who is the center of perception tells the story who sees the story "1984"