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chapter 10

Cardiovascular
by

Michelle Whitman

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of chapter 10

“The challenge is in the moment; the time is
always now.”
—James Baldwin

Parting Thought
Categories
__ A+P
__ Pathology
__ Diagnostic Procedures
__ Therapeutic Interventions
Terms
1. syncope
2. extracorporeal circulation
3. tetralogy of Fallot
4. phlebotomy
5. diastole
Sort these terms into their correct categories
Which type of drug is used to lower cholesterol levels?
A. antihyperlipidemics
B. ACE inhibitors
C. beta-blockers
D. nitrates
Clicker Question
Nitrates (antianginals)
Routes of administration
Sublingual
Intravascular
Transdermal
Thrombolytics

Pharmacology (cont’d)
Beta-blockers
Calcium channel blockers (CCBs)
Diuretics

Pharmacology (cont’d)
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
Angiotension II receptor blocker (ARB) drugs
Antiarrhythmic drugs
Anticoagulants
Antihyperlipidemics

Pharmacology
What is the term for a surgical puncture of the sac surrounding the heart?
A. RFA
B. TMR
C. PTCA
D. pericardiocentesis
Clicker Question
Endovenous laser ablation (EVLT)
Hemorrhoidectomy
Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)
Phlebectomy
Sclerotherapy
Microsclerotherapy
Terms Related to Vascular Procedures
Valvuloplasty

From Black and Hawks, Medical-surgical nursing, ed 7, Saunders
Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA)
Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)
Angiogenesis
Valvuloplasty

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
Pericardiocentesis
Port-access coronary artery bypass (PACAB)

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
PTCA
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
stent
Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
The C in CABG stands for:
A. cardiac
B. circulation
C. coronary
D. corporeal
Clicker Question
Every year more than 2000 Americans receive a heart transplant. Many more candidates die each year for lack of donor organs. Research continues in the development of an artificial heart.
Did You Know?
Extracorporeal circulation (ECC)
Heart transplantation
Left ventricular assist device (LVAD)
Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB)

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
CABG
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
Carotid endarterectomy
Carotid endarterectomy
Thromboendarterectomy

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
Atherectomy
Laser angioplasty
Commissurotomy

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures
What is the term for a portable ECG?
A. angiocardiography
B. digital subtraction angiography
C. Holter monitor
D. myocardial perfusion imaging
Clicker Question
Cardiac enzymes tests
Lipid profile
Phlebotomy

Terms Related to Laboratory Tests
Holter monitor
Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG)
Holter monitor

Terms Related to Imaging (cont’d)
DSA
From Frank et al: Merrill’s atlas, ed 11, Mosby
Angiocardiography
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
Terms Related to Imaging (cont’d)
MUGA scan

From Frank et al: Merrill’s atlas, ed 11, Mosby
Terms Related to Imaging (cont’d)
Echocardiography
Transesophageal echocardiography
Exercise stress test (EST)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Terms Related to Imaging
Geriatrics
Hypertension
CAD
MI
Arrhythmias
PVD
Pediatrics
Congenital disorders
Age Matters
A cancer of the cells that line the blood vessels:
A. atrial myxoma
B. cardiac myxosarcoma
C. hemangioma
D. hemangiosarcoma
Clicker Question
From Damjanov: Pathology for the health related professions, ed 3, Mosby
Cardiac myxosarcoma
Cardiac myxosarcoma
Hemangiosarcoma

Terms Related to Malignant Neoplasms
Hemangioma
From Zitelli: Atlas of pediatric physical diagnosis, ed 5, Mosby
Atrial myxoma
Hemangioma

Terms Related to Benign Neoplasms
Inflammation of a vein with formation of a clot is:
A. varicose veins
B. thrombophlebitis
C. claudication
D. Raynaud disease
Clicker Question
Complications of hypertension

From Damjanov: Pathology for the health professions, ed 3, Mosby
Hypertension
Primary/essential
Secondary
Malignant
Hypotension
Orthostatic
Peripheral arterial occlusion
Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Terms Related to Vascular Disorders (cont’d)
Since 1900, cardiovascular disease has been the number one killer in the United States every year except for 1918. Cardiovascular disease claims almost 10,500 more lives each year than the next six leading causes of death combined.
Did You Know?
Cardiomyopathy

From the CDC
Cardiac tamponade
Cardiomyopathy
Heart failure (HF)
Endocarditis
Pericarditis

Terms Related to Other Cardiac Conditions
Extremely rapid and irregular heartbeats:
A. ectopic beats
B. fibrillation
C. flutter
D. angina pectoris
Clicker Question
Research results show that men and women often experience different heart attack symptoms. Although men are more likely to experience crushing pressure or pain, nausea, and shortness of breath, women may not. Many women report extreme fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and a cold sweat, along with shortness of breath. Unfortunately, because most women are unaware that these symptoms may signal a life-threatening condition, they often delay seeking medical assistance.
Did You Know?
Flutter
Heart block
Atrioventricular block
Bundle branch block (BBB)
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS)
Ventricular tachycardia

Terms Related to Cardiac Dysrhythmias (cont’d)
Mitral valve prolapse
Mitral regurgitation (MR)
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
Orthopnea
Valvulitis

Terms Related to Valvular Heart Disease (cont’d)
Valvular heart disease
Aortic stenosis (AS)
Mitral stenosis (MS)
Tricuspid stenosis (TS)

Terms Related to Valvular Heart Disease
Coarctation of the aorta
Coarctation of the aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Septal defect
Atrial septal defect (ASD)
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
Tetralogy of Fallot

Terms Related to Congenital Disorders of the Heart
The term that means fainting is:
A. bruit
B. diaphoresis
C. emesis
D. syncope
Clicker Question
Palpitations
Pulmonary congestion
Shortness of breath (SOB)
Syncope
Thrill
Venous distension

Terms Related to Cardiac Signs and Symptoms (cont’d)
Nausea and emesis
Bruit
Murmur
Pallor
Ischemia
Claudication
Dyspnea
Dyspnea on exertion (DOE)
Edema
Terms Related to Cardiac Signs and Symptoms (cont’d)
ECGs
A, normal B, bradycardia C, tachycardia
Bradycardia vs. Tachycardia
Cardiodynia
Atypical
Ischemic
Cardiomegaly
Cyanosis
Diaphoresis

Terms Related to Cardiac Signs and Symptoms
The abbreviation for a normal heart rhythm is:
A. AV
B. BP
C. NSR
D. SA
Clicker Question
Pulse points
Ejection fraction
Normal: approximately 65%
Heart rate
Beats per minute (BPM)
Normal: 60-100 bpm
Pulse points

Blood Flow through the Heart (cont’d)
A good way to remember how the blood flows through the heart valves is to memorize the phrase “Try (tri) before you buy (bi).” In the heart, blood flows through the tricuspid valve and then through the bicuspid (mitral) valve.
Did You Know?
Route of blood in heart
Blood Flow through the Heart (cont’d)
Oxygenated/deoxygenated blood
Deoxygenated blood:
Right atrium 
tricuspidvalve
Right ventricle
pulmonary (semilunar) valve
Pulmonary  arteries (to the lung capillaries)
Blood Flow through the Heart
Chambers
Atria (atri/o)
Ventricles (ventricul/o)
Septa (sept/o)
Layers
Endocardium (endocardi/o)
Myocardium (myocardi/o)
Pericardium (pericardi/o)

Anatomy of the Heart (cont’d)
Anatomy of the Heart
Coronary arteries
Location
Precordium
Size
Blood supply
Coronary arteries
Anatomy of the Heart (cardi/o, coron/o)
Arteries, veins, capillaries
Vessels (vascul/o, angi/o, vas/o) of the circulatory system
Aorta (aort/o)
Arteries (arteri/o)
Arterioles (arteriol/o)
Capillaries (capillar/o)
Venules (venul/o)
Veins (ven/o, phleb/o)
Venae cavae
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation, (cont’d)
Specialty
Cardiology
Specialist
Cardiologist

Functions
Transportation of substances
To cells
Oxygen, nutrients, other substances
Away from cells
Waste products

Functions and Specialty/Specialist
“A good exercise for the heart is bending down
and helping someone to get up.”
—Proverb

Quote
Cardiovascular System
Chapter 10
From Frank et al: Merrill’s atlas, ed 11, Mosby
Pacemakers
Cardiac pacemaker
Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
Cardiac defibrillator
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Terms Related to Cardiac Procedures (cont’d)
Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterization
Swan-Ganz catheter
Fluoroscopy

Terms Related to Imaging (cont’d)
Sphygmomanometer

From the CDC
Auscultation and percussion
Stethoscope
Blood pressure
Terms Related to General Diagnostic Procedures
From Lewis: Medical-surgical nursing, ed 7, Mosby
Thrombophlebitis
Raynaud disease
Thrombophlebitis
Deep
Superficial
Varicose veins
Vasculitis

Terms Related to Vascular Disorders (cont’d)
From Damjanov: Pathology for the health professions, ed 3, Mosby
Atherosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Aneurysm
Esophageal varices
Hemorrhoid

Terms Related to Vascular Disorders
Fibrillation
Atrial
Paroxysmal
Ventricular
Dysrhythmia/ arrhythmia
Ectopic beats
Atrial vs. Ventricular
Terms Related to Cardiac Dysrhythmias
Electrical conduction pathways of the heart
Blood pressure (BP)
Sphygmomanometer
Electrical pathway
Sinoatrial node (SA)
Atrioventricular node (AV)
Bundle of His/ atrioventricular bundle
Purkinje fibers
The Cardiac Cycle
The upper chambers of the heart are the:
A. arterioles
B. atria
C. venules
D. ventricles
Clicker Question
Pulmonary and systemic circulation
Role and routes of:
Pulmonary circulation
Systemic circulation

Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
Angina pectoris
Myocardial infarction
Angina pectoris
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
Myocardial infarction (MI)

Terms Related to Other Disorders of Coronary Circulation

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How about color.
See this
How are ya
See how this works
Hi there
Oxygenated blood
Capillaries lungs
Pulmonary veins
Left Atrium
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
Left Ventricle
Aortic valve
Aorta
Full transcript