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Youth Fighting the Stigma in Their Community and Neighborhoo
Transcript of Youth Fighting the Stigma in Their Community and Neighborhoo
Connor Andrejas, Matthue Franson & Amy Gallaugher
THE THREE CITIES WITHIN TORONTO
Ainsworth, J. W. (2002). Why does it take a village? The mediation of neighbourhood effects on educational achievement. Social Forces, 81(1), 117-152.
Eizadirad, A. (2016). Is it “bad” kids or “bad” places? Where is all the violence originating from? Youth violence in the City of Toronto. Review of Education, Pedagogy, and Cultural Studies, 38(2), 162-188.
Hulchanski, J. D. (2010). The three cities within Toronto. Toronto: Cities Centre.
Three Cities Article
Why does it take a village?
Is it “bad” kids or “bad” places?
Jane and Finch
Programs for Youth
THE THREE CITIES WITHIN TORONTO
Toronto is sometimes described as a “city of neighbourhoods.”
CITY 1= Income 20% above
CITY 2= Income 20% above or bellow
CITY 3= Income 20% bellow
“Three Cities” model is approaching a “Two Cities” model, in which neighbourhoods are sharply divided between those in which average individual incomes have increased or decreased dramatically over the 1970 to 2025 period
IS IT "BAD" KIDS OR "BAD" PLACES?
Violence among youth often receives extensive media coverage
Media outlets attempt to explain where the violence is originating and who or what caused it
Selective information is used when the media is given minimal time to write a report
Case studies suggest that the media often resorts to using biased and distorted assumptions to fill in the blanks
JANE CREBA AND JORDAN MANNERS
The author discusses the cases of Jane Creba and Jordan Manners to demonstrate how the media constructs "meta-narratives" that perpetuate negative stereotypes of certain locations around the city of Toronto
According to this theory, people inhabit a world that is in large part socially constructed. In particular, the meaning of objects, events, and behaviors comes from the interpretation people give them, and interpretations vary from one group to another.
15 year-old white girl who was shot and killed by a stray bullet outside of the Eaton Center
This story received extensive media coverage
Creba was portrayed as a "well-liked" grade 10 student who attended Riverdale Collegiate
In contrast, the perpetrators were depicted as rival gang members from the nearby “high priority” Regent Park neighborhood
Argued that the way we think about ourselves is particularly apt to be a reflection of other people's appraisals (or more accurately, our imagining of other people's appraisals)"
LOOKING GLASS SELF
15 year-old who attended C.W. Jefferys collegiate was shot in the school's hallways
This was the first incident in Toronto where someone had died within a school
Four days later, two 17-year old male student were charged with first degree murder
Their names were not released, however the police indicated that they were residents of Jane and Finch
This information was used to further stigmatize the Jane and Finch area as a dangerous and hopeless area
WHAT DO THESE CASES REPRESENT?
These two cases positioned the nearby racialized communities (Jane and Finch and Regent Park) as the origins of the violence that killed Jane Creba and Jordan Manners
The process of homogenizing a community
the media as an extension of the state and its colonizing practices
"power produces knowledge"
SHAPING PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS THROUGH THE MEDIA
The article then attempts to deconstruct how certain geographical locations are given reputations that contribute to their identities and social perception
Jane and Finch is used as an example
Areas such as Jane and Finch are painted as "uncivil" and infested with social problems
Unjust blame being placed on residents
JANE AND FINCH
WHY DOES IT TAKE A VILLAGE?
Ainsworth investigates the integrated relationship between mediating processes and neighborhood factors affecting the educational outcomes of youth.
“In 1988, the National Center for Educational Statistics drew random samples of approximately 25 eighth-graders in each of about 1,000 randomly selected middle schools. Students were then traced to high school in 1990 and 1992, with high follow-up response rates.”
Has become Toronto's most notorious and violent neighborhood
Large amount of immigrants and visible minorities live there
As the neighborhood became more populated with immigrants and newcomers, it began gaining “a reputation for ethnic conflict, crime, and violence which continues to haunt it today” (Richardson 2008, 76).
HOW WAS THIS REPUTATION CONSTRUCTED?
WHY DOES IT TAKE A VILLAGE?
Mainly through the way the media portrays Jane and Finch
The problems with Jane and Finch are often blamed on the residents through simplistic explanations and over-generalizations
How often does the news report positive occurrences around Jane and Finch?
According to Wilson (1996), neighborhood characteristics influence
by shaping the type of role models youth are exposed to outside the home.
Other potential mediators:
resulting from less adult influence, leads to less organization of community activities and limited ways for youth to spend their time.
in disadvantaged communities since they have less resources and opportunities to further the education and careers of youth.
are viewed negatively when disadvantaged youth compare adults from their own community and notice a similar socio-economic status despite having different levels of education.
are also important because disadvantaged communities are unable to recruit good educators and role models leading to low quality schooling and a negative school atmosphere.
For Jane and Finch, the lack of investments in the infrastructure of the neighborhood along with the lack of available social programs resulted in a ripe condition for poverty to develop
Instead of acknowledging this, the media places blame on its residents, resulting in the "othering" of the neighborhood and those who live there
WHAT CAN BE DONE?
PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH
Inner City Outreach
Peacebuilders Restorative Youth Circles
Youth Digital Media Ecologies in Canada
Believe To Achieve Organization (BTA)
Boys and Girls Club
Toronto Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy
Was implemented as a response the Jane Creba case
Involved the allocation of additional police services to neighborhoods experiencing a heightened level of violence
Jane and Finch is one of these neighborhoods
A higher police presence contributes to the stigma of a higher rate of crime
Variables influencing educational outcomes:
High-status residents, Residential stability, Economic deprivation, and Racial/Ethnic heterogeneity.
The results of this study show that greater proportions of high-status residents within a single community increase time spent on homework and lead to better test scores, while increased economic deprivation have the opposite effect.
About 40% of the neighborhood effects on educational outcomes can be explained by these mediating processes with collective socialization playing the most significant role.
winner gets a box of timbits!
CORRELATION WITH NEIGHBOURHOOD VARIABLES
A meta-narrative was constructed asserting that the violence originating from Regent Park spilled outside the neighborhood through violent, racialized bodies