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Grammar Check

Each grammar assignment should take no more than 15 minutes. These are mini-lessons.
by

Evelyn Hart

on 16 August 2016

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Transcript of Grammar Check

Subject & Verb Agreement
GRAMMAR
ELEMENTS
Ms. Evelyn Marie Hart-Benavides
English I & Reading I/Sam Houston MSTC
2013-2014

Verb Tenses
Sentence Structures
More Grammar
Phrases
GRAMMAR CHECK #1 - Subject & Verb Agreement
Subjects and verbs MUST AGREE in NUMBER
.
Use the SINGULAR FORM of a verb with a SINGULAR NOUN SUBJECT or with the subject
he
,
she
, or
it
. You will ADD "s" to most verbs to make the singular form.
EXAMPLES: Carl
collects
stamps. He
inspects
each carefully.

Use the PLURAL FORM of a verb with a plural noun or with the pronoun subject
I
,
we
,
you
, or
they
. The plural form of most verbs does not end with an "s".
EXAMPLES: The photographers
take
pictures. I
observe
them.


Directions: You have 7 minutes to complete your grammar check. Be sure to use a PENCIL so that
you can make CORRECTIONS.
Answer Key
1. are
2. seem
3. have
4. was
5. is
6. agrees
7. make
8. are
9. does
10. was
GRAMMAR CHECK #1 - Subject & Verb Agreement

If the subject of a sentence is a
SINGULAR INDEFINITE PRONOUN
, use the
singular form of the verb
. Some singular indefinite pronouns are:
another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone
and
something
.



Directions: You have 10 minutes to complete your grammar check. Be sure to use a PENCIL so that
you can make CORRECTIONS.
Answer Key
1. guarantee
2. is
3. are
4. keep
5. likes
6. belongs
7. Much; is
8. Some; are
9. Neither; has
10. None; ride
11. Many, doubt
12. Some, is
Sometimes the
SUBJECT
of a sentence is an
INDEFINITE

PRONOUN
. An
indefinite pronoun
refers to a person, place or thing that is UNKNOWN.
If the subject of a sentence is is a
PLURAL INDEFINITE PRONOUN
, use the
plural form of the verb
.
Plural indefinite pronouns
include:
both, few, many, ones, others
and
several.
EXAMPLES
Something
seems to be missing.

Everything
in this closet is wrinkled.

Nothing
has happened!

Does
anyone
know the answer?

EXAMPLES
Both
miss the bus.

Which
ones
are yours?

Many
rely on me.

However, if the subject of the sentence is the
INDEFINITE PRONOUN

all, any, most, none,
or
some
, the verb will be
SINGULAR
or
PLURAL
, depending on its use in the sentence.


An
INDEFINITE PRONOUN
is
SINGULAR
if it refers to a singular word.


An
INDEFINITE PRONOUN
is
plural
if it refers to a plural word.
EXAMPLES
None
of her
work
is finished.

All
of this
space
is unheated.
EXAMPLES
None
of his
paintings
were sold.

All
of the
rooms
are unheated.
Subject - Verb Agreement Quiz
Grammar Check #3 - Verb Tenses
Using the correct tense of verbs will tell readers exactly when something happens. Verbs express ACTION or tell something about a SUBJECT. Verb tenses express TIME. You often use the
PRESENT, PAST and FUTURE
. Sometimes, however, you need to use
PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT, or FUTURE PERFECT
tenses.
The PRESENT PERFECT tense refers to something that occurred at some INDEFINITE time in the PAST or that began sometime in the PAST and continues in the PRESENT. To form the PRESENT PERFECT tense, combine the HELPING VERB has or have with the PAST PARTICIPLE.
PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
break broke broken
do did done
eat ate eaten
leave left left
make made made
ring rang rung
see saw seen
speak spoke spoken
EXAMPLES of PRESENT PERFECT
Snow
has fallen
all day.
We
have spoken
on the phone
The PAST PERFECT tense refers to something that happened in the past before a specific time or event in the past. To form the PAST PERFECT tense, combine the HELPING VERB had with the past participle.
PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
guesses guessed guessed
arrives arrived arrived

EXAMPLES
Mel
had guessed
what the gift was before he opened the box.
Several guests
had arrived
before sunset.
The FUTURE PERFECT tense refers to something that will be completed by a
speficic time or event in the future. To form the FUTURE PERFECT tense, combine the HELPING VERB will have with the past participle.
PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE
ends ended ended
completes completed completed

EXAMPLES
This program
will have
ended by noon.
By, Friday, Mel
will have finished
the project.
Grammar Check #4 - Verb Tenses
Using the passage below, you will LABEL the sentences as PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT or FUTURE PERFECT.
(1) Critics have praised T. Smith , author of Jewel Heist, as a "sparkling voice in the mystery genre." (2) Smith has written another gem, The Ruby Caper. (3) Previously, the character Riva Barnes had solved the mystery of missing emeralds by the end of the final chapter. (4) At the end of the first chapter of this new novel, Riva will have uncovered another mystery.
(5) She will reveal how a jewel thief had escaped before his heist was discovered. (6) Few readers will have guessed the answer by the turn of the last page.
ANSWER KEY
1. PRESENT PERFECT
2. PRESENT PERFECT
3. PAST PERFECT
4. FUTURE PERFECT
5. PAST PERFECT
6. FUTURE PERFECT
Grammar Check #5 - Verb Tenses
The PRESENT PERFECT, PAST PERFECT and FUTURE PERFECT tense of verbs are formed by combing a HELPING VERB with a PAST PARTICIPLE.
Complete the handout and be prepared to share your answers
GRAMMAR QUIZ #2
ANSWER KEY
A.
1. present perfect
2. future perfect
3. past perfect
4. present perfect
5. past perfect
6. future perfect
7. present perfect


B.
1. have found
2. will have restored
3. have shared
4. has heard
5. will have reserved
6. had spoken
7. had studied
C.
1. has lasted
2. have remained
3. will have received
4. had reached
5. will have risen
6. had suffered
Quotation Marks
Quotation Marks ("") set off direct quotations, dialogue and certain types of titles.

They identify spoken or written words that you are including in your writing. A DIRECT QUOTATION represents a person's exact speech or thoughts. An INDIRECT QUOTATION reports the general meaning of what a person said or thought.

A DIRECT QUOTATION is enclosed in quotation marks.
EX. "When I learn to ride," said the student, "I'll use the bridle path everyday."

An INDIRECT QUOTATION does not require quotation marks.
EX. The student said that when she learns to ride, she plans to use the bridle path everyday.
YOU WILL USE DIRECT QUOTATION in your SARs.
COMPLETE handout p. 654.
ANSWER KEY
A.
1. indirect
2. direct
3. direct (SAR answer example)

B.
1. "May I ride with you?" I asked.
2. James said, "I can't wait to see that
movie."
3. Martha cried, "Stop that bus!"

Independent and Dependent Clauses
When you write, you are supposed to use different types of sentence structures--different kinds of sentences. These sentences are made up of independent and dependent CLAUSES. A clause is a group of words that has both a SUBJECT and PREDICATE.

An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE expresses a complete thought and can stand alone.
EX.
The old king

agrees.


The blue vase

broke.


A SIMPLE sentence is made up of one INDEPENDENT CLAUSE (IC). A simple sentence can have a compound subject or predicate.
EX.
She

sketches and paints in oils.


The dog and the bird

are friends.

A COMPOUND SENTENCE contains two or more INDEPENDENT CLAUSES (IC +IC) that are either joined together by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or by a semicolon (;).
EX.
The doorbell

rang
, and
Larry
walked in
.

A siren

blared,
but
the baby

did not wake up
.

Shelves

were stocked
;
sale items
were displayed
.

A DEPENDENT CLAUSE is a group of words that has a SUBJECT and PREDICATE but CANNOT stand alone because it does not express a complete thought. It requires an INDEPENDENT CLAUSE to complete its meaning. A dependent clause begins with a RELATIVE PRONOUN (who, whom, whose, which, or that) or with a SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION (after, although, as, because, before, if, since, unless, until, when, or while).

A COMPLEX SENTENCE contains one INDEPENDENT CLAUSE and one or more DEPENDENT CLAUSE (IC +DC).
EX.
Jo

bought a house

that
was built in 1930
.
Although
yesterday

was rainy
,
today
was sunny
.
More Practice with IC & DC
IC = Independent Clause
- Has a SUBJECT and PREDICATE; MAKES SENSE!
DC = Dependent Clause
- Has a SUBJECT and PREDICATE; doesn't make sense!

SIMPLE =[
IC
]

EXAMPLE: Tom played well.
Tom and Ali played well.
Tom and Ali played well and won.

CMPD = [
IC
], fb [
IC
] OR [
IC
]; [
IC
]
EXAMPLE: The train arrived on time, but no one got on or off.
The train was full; there were no empty seats.

CMPLX = [
IC
][
DC
] OR [
DC
], [
IC
]
EXAMPLE: Though no one got off, we still waited.
We left after a few hours because she never arrived.
YOUR GRAMMAR ASSIGNMENT...
ANSWERS
Independent & Dependent Clauses
Joining Sentences: Compound (CMPD)
One way to make your writing flow more smoothly is to
combine TWO short sentences into a COMPOUND sentence.

A
COMPOUND (CMPD)
sentence joins
TWO simple sentences, TWO ICs
. Each simple sentence has a complete SUBJECT and a complete PREDICATE.

EX. I retrieved my luggage, but your luggage is missing.
S P S P

To form a CMPD sentence, use a COORDINATING CONJUNCTION (FANBOYS) and a COMMA to join two simple sentences about the same topic.

Use
AND
to connect related ideas.
EX. The three o'clock bell rang
, and
students poured out of their classrooms.

Use
BUT
to show a contrast or a problem.
EX. The movie was very good, but it was just too long.

Use
OR
to show a choice.
EX. Will you frame this, or should I put it away?
ANSWERS
Directions:
You have 7
minutes to complete!
More Practice with Compound Sentences...
Check for Understanding
Compound Sentences Practice
Put it into action - COMPOUND SENTENCES
Directions: On your own sheet of paper, you will CREATE FIVE ORIGINAL COMPOUND SENTENCES.
Remember... A CMPD sentence contains TWO [IC]s and a FANBOY with a comma.


You have 10 minutes to complete this!
Your paper should be titled
MY COMPOUND SENTENCES
.
And it should be numbered 1 - 5.
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence contains
ONE INDEPENDENT CLAUSE [IC]
and
ONE or MORE DEPENDENT CLAUSES [DC]
.
CMPLX = ICDC or DC,IC

Instead of using FANBOYS, we use
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS.
A subordinating conjunction introduces a
dependent clause.

EX.
Because
it rained all day, the game was cancelled.

If
the weather is clear, we will leave at dawn.
The food smelled
because
it was old.

Some Common Subordinating Conjunctions
after
although
as
as soon as
because
before
by the time
even if
even though
every time
if
in case
in the event that
just in case
now that

once
only if
since
the first time
though
unless
until
when
whenever
whereas
whether or not
while
Your Turn!
Answer Key
More Practice with Complex Sentences
Your Turn!
Answer Key
Directions: Combine the two sentences into ONE complex sentence that uses the subordinating conjunction in parentheses.

1. We were on vacation. Our neighbor took in our mail. (while)
2. We plant the seeds. We must prepare the soil. (before)
3. Everyone yelled, "Surprise!" Josh walked into the room. (as)
4. He snored. He was hibernating. (as though)
5. You can grill the fish. The coals are white. (as soon as)
1. While we were on vacation, our neighbor took in our mail.
Our neighbor took in our mail while we were on vacation.

2. Before we plant the seeds, we must prepare the soil.
We must prepare the soil before we plant the seeds.

3. Everyone yelled, "Surprise!" as Josh walked into the room.
As Josh walked into the room, everyone yelled, "Surprise!"

4. He snored as though he were hibernating.
As though he were hibernating, he snored.

5. You can grill the fish as soon as the coals are white.
As soon as the coals are white, you can grill the fish.
More Practice with Complex Sentences
REVIEW
For sentence variety in your writing, you can
create a
CMPLX
sentence by joining an
IC
with a
DC
that starts with a
subordinating conjunction
.
CMPLX = ICDC or DC, IC
YOUR TURN!
Directions: Use the subordinating conjunctions in parentheses to combine the two sentences.

1. I played soccer last spring. I had an outstanding coach. (when)

2. Coach Hayes did not expect perfection. We were just learning the game. (since)

3. She pointed out our mistakes. We could learn from them. (so that)

4. We mastered a new skill. She praised us. (whenever)

5. We had a losing season. We felt like winners. (even though)

6. I am a coach some day. I hope to earn the respect of my team in the same way. (if)
Answers
1. When I played soccer last spring, I had an outstanding coach.
I had an outstanding coach when I played soccer last spring.

2. Since we were just learning the game, Coach Hayes did not expect perfection.
Coach Hayes did not expect perfection since we were just learning the game.

3. So that we could learn from them, she pointed out our mistakes.
She pointed out our mistakes so that we could learn from them.

4. Whenever we mastered a skill, she praised us.
She praised us whenever we mastered a skill.

5. Even though we had a losing season, we felt like winners.
We felt like winners even though we had a losing season.

6. If I am a coach some day, I hope to earn the respect of my team in the same way.
I hope to earn the respect of my team in the same way if I am a coach some day.


Fill in the missing IC or DC
1. Whenever I forget my pencil, ______________________________________.

2. _______________________________ because I need the extra money.

3. I always make good grades _____________________________________.

4. _______________________________ until I finish my chores.

5. As soon as I turn fifteen, _________________________________________.

6. _______________________________ when the weather gets cold.
Directions: Using the clause that is given, you will add either an IC or DC to create a COMPLEX sentence.

Create YOUR own COMPLEX Sentences
after
because
since
unless
while
Directions: Using the subordinating conjunctions below, you will create FIVE original COMPLEX sentences. Remember... CMPLX = ICDC or DC, IC

Compound Complex Sentences
Putting it ALL Together
Directions: Write a PARAGRAPH (FIVE SENTENCES) about the novel. Your paragraph must include:

(1) simple sentence
(2) compound sentences (FANBOYS)
(2) complex sentences (subordinating conjunctions).


You will also label each sentence type as S, CMPD or CMPLX.







REVIEW
INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
[IC]
= subject + predicate
DEPENDENT CLAUSE

[DC]
= subject + predicate; doesn't make sense
Simple (S)
=
IC
Compound (CMPD)
=
IC
, [FANBOYS]

IC
Complex (CMPLX)
=
IC
DC
or
DC
,
IC


Which brings us to the final sentence structure...

Compound Complex (CMPD CMPLX) =
IC
DC
, [FB]
IC
I would like to read the book

which was written by Jay Asher
, but
it's not available
.

He went to the market

because he needed more milk
, and
then he made pudding
.

DC
,
IC
, [FB]
IC
Unless the coffee is hot
, I will not drink it,
so
please put on a fresh pot.

Breaking Down the
Compound Complex Sentence
Directions:
All FIVE sentences are CMPD CMPLX sentences.
That means they are made up of
TWO ICs
and
at least ONE DC
. It is your job to label these clauses correctly in the sentences.

1. John went to school, but James remained at home because he had a sore throat.

2. If he changes his mind, we shall know for sure that Joe has learned his lesson, but only time will tell.

3. Those clouds promise rain; we should hurry before we get caught in a flash flood.

4. Here is the money that I owe you, and I am happy to be free of debt.

5. Were you ever in a storm that was full of lightning, or don't you recall?

More Compound Complex Sentences
A
CMPD CMPLX
sentence is made from
two independent clauses [IC]
and
one or more dependent clauses [DC].

Directions:
All FIVE sentences are CMPD CMPLX sentences.
That means they are made up of
TWO ICs
and
at least ONE DC
. It is your job to label these clauses correctly in the sentences.
1. He called the security guard and he checked the room for items which have been stolen.

2. The young man was considered a hero, for he was successful in arresting the murderer who had killed an old woman.

3. If you think you can do it, just go and do it but do not complain later that I didn’t warn you.

4. You have finished your work which I assigned to you yesterday, so you may go home now.

5. Jackie, who is a friend of mine, came to our house today but she did not tell me that she is going aboard next week.
Review the FOUR Sentence Structures: http://www.quia.com/rr/126726.html
Compound Complex Sentences
Directions: Label the following sentences as simple [S], compound [CMPD], complex [CMPLX] or compound complex [CMPD CMPLX].
Answers
1. S
2. CMPD
3. CMPD
4. S
5. CMPLX
6. CMPD CMPLX
7. CMPD CMPLX
8. S
9. CMPD CMPLX
10. S

Review the FOUR Sentence Structures: http://www.quia.com/rr/126726.html
Sentence Structures Quiz
Directions: After each sentence, select the option that best describes that sentence.
Answers
Review the FOUR Sentence Structures: http://www.quia.com/rr/126726.html
CREATE your OWN CMPD-CMPLX
Directions: Using the FOLLOWING FORMAT, create THREE CMPD-CMPLX
sentences of your OWN!
CMPD CMPLX =
IC
DC
, [FB]
IC
OR
CMPD CMPLX =
DC
,
IC
, [FB]
IC


1. ______________ since _____________, and _____________.

2. ______________ because __________, but ______________.

3. Although ____________, ___________, and ________________.
THE PERFECT CMPD CMPLX!
Directions: Using a SENTENCE STRIP, you will create YOUR own CMPD CMPLX sentence. Remember... It must include
at least TWO ICs and ONE DC. Your sentence must contain a FANBOYS conjunction and a subordinating conjunction.


CMPD CMPLX =
IC
DC
, [FB]
IC
OR
CMPD CMPLX =
DC
,
IC
, [FB]
IC
What are Phrases?
Directions: Copy the NOTES below and keep them in your BINDER.
A PHRASE is a group of two or more grammatically linked words WITHOUT A SUBJECT AND A PREDICATE --
a group of words with a subject and predicate is called a CLAUSE (IC or DC).

These are examples of PHRASES:
My cousin, leaving behind his dog, went to Hawaii.
smashing into a fence
before the first test
after the devastation
between ignorance and intelligence
broken into thousands of pieces
because of her glittering smile.

The TYPES of PHRASES are:
PREPOSITIONAL phrases
PARTICIPIAL phrases
VERBAL phrases
INFINITIVE phrases
GERUND phrases.
The Prepositional Phrase
Prepositions show relationships between words. These relationships involve LOCATION, DIRECTION, TIME, CAUSE or POSSESSION.

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE = preposition + NOUN/PRONOUN
Inventions are made around the world. (LOCATION)

Some inventions last for centuries. (TIME)

Tina is late because of the train. (CAUSE)
The Prepositional Phrase

A PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE (PP) =
preposition + noun/pronoun

Examples:

in the purse
at the mall
during the break
after lunch
over night
under the bed
between the trees


Grammar Check: Prepositional Phrases

Complete PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES handout.
(7 minutes)

We will go over your assignment, so be READY!

REMEMBER:
PP=preposition + noun/pronoun
The Prepositional Phrase
1.The sorceress's bag of winds had been stolen by the sailor.

2. In the dark of the night the sailor sneaked away from the island.

3. The sailor opened the bag of winds.

4. One of the winds filled the sails.

5. Another of the winds blew open the sorceress's window.

6. A lamp of crystal fell and shattered, waking the sorceress.

7. The eyes of the sorceress's cat glowed red with anger.

8. The sorceress of unsurpassed kindness and power awoke.

9. The winds of the bag howled for the sorceress.

10. Most of the winds returned to sorceress.

Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, write down the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE circling the preposition and labeling the noun with an N.
The Prepositional Phrase Practice # ____
1. She joined the fight against poverty.

2. The country is at war with its neighbor.

3. The girl moved to a home closer to her school.

4. The road is under repair.

5. She walked into the dance with her new boyfriend.
Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, write down the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE circling the preposition and labeling the noun with an N.
The Prepositional Phrase
Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, copy the sentences below. Put the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE in parenthesis, label the preposition and noun.
1. "I found him mumbling in a language of his own creation."

2. "'With each passing minute, I'm developing a deeper appreciation of the word mortified," he said finally."

3. "I woke up to my phone singing a song by the Hectic Glow."

4. "There were only two cars in the lot."

5. "He came home from the hospital, a few days later, finally and irrevocably robbed of his ambitions."
The Prepositional Phrase
Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, copy the sentences below. UNDERLINE the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE, circle the preposition and label the prepositional noun with an N.
1. It is an area with a beautiful view of sand and sea.

2. The table of contents is found near the front of the book.

3. The geographical center of the United States is in Kansas.

4. The first automobile show was held in New York City in 1900.

5. The inventor of the telephone was born in Scotland.


CYO Prepositional Phrase
Using the following prepositions below, CREATE FIVE ORIGINAL SENTENCES that contain PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.
With
After
During
Without
Near

Remember...
PP=preposition+noun/pronoun
QUIZ #1: Prepositional Phrases
Directions: Write down the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES in the sentences below, circle the preposition and label the noun with an N.
1. In this city, we often encounter people with crazy ideas about life.

2. At the end of the Civil War, large sections of the South had been devastated by the Union armies.

3. Men and women with great manual dexterity are often successful in sports or the arts.

4. In the evening, a warm wind came up from the Southwest.

5. Some of the most unusual animals in the world are found in the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador.

6. The vendor strolled among the people near the bandstand.

7. Fortunately, the lion turned toward his keeper instead of the child.
Appositive Phrases
An APPOSITIVE PHRASE is a NOUN/PRONOUN with modifiers that adds information to another noun or pronoun that it is placed next to. The APPOSITIVE will always add information, explain fully or identify the noun or pronoun it is next to.



EX. My uncle,
a lawyer
, is visiting us this Thanksgiving.
My teacher,
Mrs. Hart
, is very strict and does not
put up with nonsense.
The boys climbed the mountain,
one
of the highest in the West.


There are:
ESSENTIAL APPOSITIVES - The information is NECESSARY/ESSENTIAL to the meaning of the sentence. [DOES NOT NEED COMMAS]
EX. The popular U.S. President
John Kennedy
was known for
his great speeches.

NONESSENTIAL APPOSITIVES - The information is not NECESSARY/ESSENTIAL to the meaning of the sentence. [NEEDS COMMAS]
EX. Ysatis,
my daughter
, is a well-rounded student.
Identifying Appositive Phrases
Identifying Appositive Phrases #2
Directions: Copy each sentence. Underline the APPOSITIVE PHRASE in each sentence and draw an ARROW to the N/PN it gives additional information to.
1. My son, the policeman, will be visiting us next week.

2. The captain ordered the ship's carpenters to assemble the shallop, a large rowboat.

3. Walter, the playboy and writer, is very attached to his mother, Mrs. Hammon.

4. The actor Paul Newman directed only one picture.

5. Elizabeth Teague, a sweet and lovable girl, grew up to be a mentally troubled woman.

Identifying Appositive Phrases #3
Directions: Copy each sentence. Underline the APPOSITIVE PHRASE in each sentence and draw an ARROW to the N/PN it gives additional information to.
1. The poem, one of Robert Frost's best, is called "The Death of the Hired Man."

2. I can't find my notebook, the one I use for history class.

3. Dick's new suit, a gray flannel one, makes him look much older.

4. We enjoy walking, an exercise which requires no great skill.

5. The theater, an old and drafty one, is nevertheless always crowded.

6. My math teacher, Miss Holmes, has taught for twenty years.

7. The garage, a two-car one, is attached to the house.

8. My sister, a graduate of the University of Iowa, is now studying law.

9. Our dog, a cocker spaniel, is ten years old.

10. Mrs. Norbert, the president of the company, will speak at the dinner.

Combining Sentences Using Appositive Phrases
Directions: Combine the sentences. Make sure you are not creating a RUN-ON.
Combining Sentences Using Appositive Phrases
Directions: Combine the sentences. Make sure you are not creating a RUN-ON.
Jerry, an information technology consultant, has a flexible work schedule.
Judy's sister lives in Wilmington, the largest city in Delaware.
Joy, a fine singer with a captivating soprano voice, will soon star in Oliver!
Joy's friend Mary Cummings is also part of the talented cast.
Mary Cummings, Joy's friend, is also part of the talented cast.
Josh and Junior's basketball team, the Bulldogs, is in first place.
Answer Key
1. Ralph, my pet tarantula, lives in my room.
My pet tarantula Ralph lives in my room.
2. I could eat chocolate ice cream, my favorite food, at every meal.
I could eat my favorite food, chocolate ice cream, at every meal.
3. Alan, a former Eagle Scout, got lost during the hike.
4. John, a good football player, is a bully.
John, a bully, is a good football player.
5. My father, a retired baseball player, will be visiting next week.
Improving Sentences Using Appositive Phrases
Directions: Add an APPOSITIVE PHRASE of your own to add detail to the sentences below. Remember...use COMMAS.
Combining Sentences Using Appositive Phrases
Directions: Combine the sentences. Make sure you are not creating a RUN-ON.
1. Becky dressed for the wedding.
Becky was the youngest bridesmaid.

2. Eight o'clock came and went.
It was the hour of the arrival.

3. The happiest person that night was Mr. Katz.
Mr. Katz was the chef.

4. He remembers that adventure.
It was an archaeological dig.

5. Marisa broke out in laughter.
Marisa was usually a serious person.

Grammar Quiz: Appositive Phrases
Grammar Check: Gerund Phrases
Directions: Please copy the following notes about GERUND PHRASES in your binder. Copy EVERYTHING. You will NEED these notes to help complete the next assignments.
A
GERUND
is a form of a verb that ACTS AS A NOUN. It can function as a SUBJECT, an OBJECT, a PREDICATE NOUN, or the OBJECT of a PREPOSITION. A GERUND PHRASE is a GERUND and its MODIFIERS (extra words). A
GERUND PHRASE
also ACTS AS A NOUN.
EXAMPLES:

SUBJECT:
Swimming
is fun.
DIRECT OBJECT: Don dislikes
arguing
.
PREDICATE NOUN: His hobby is
gardening
.
OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION: Those shoes are perfect for
jogging
.

A GERUND/GERUND PHRASE will always answer WHAT?

What is fun?
What does Don dislike?
What is his hobby?
What are those shoes perfect for?



GUIDED PRACTICE
Directions: Write each sentence. UNDERLINE the GERUND or GERUND PHRASE in each sentence.
1. Is there a reward for returning a ring?

2. Jousting in tournaments was once popular in Europe.

3. We reward our employees by giving them bonuses.

4. Hunting on these premises is not allowed.

5. I hate raking leaves in the fall.

6. Decorating our new apartment has been expensive.

7. The people stopped listening to the announcer.

8. Bill improved his grade by studying.

9. Donnie's biggest fear was opening the cellar door.

10. Hearing people shout in study hall annoys me.
Grammar Check: Identifying Gerund Phrases
1. There are few people who question the benefits of encouraging teens.

2. Walking the path in the woods is good exercise.

3. The teacher ended Jim's disrupting behavior.

4. We should teach our children the necessity of helping others in need.

5. You should try singing tenor.

6. Kristin's dream was singing in the local musical.

7. Bart received an award for having perfect attendance.

8. The chorus began singing the song.

9. Some people enjoy mowing the lawn.

10. Reading the classics is my goal this summer.

Directions: Write each sentence. UNDERLINE the GERUND or GERUND PHRASE in each sentence.
Answer Key
1. There are few people who question the benefits of
encouraging teens
.

2.
Walking the path in the woods
is good exercise.

3. The teacher ended
Jim's

disrupting behavior
.

4. We should teach our children the necessity of
helping others in need.

5. You should try
singing tenor
.

6. Kristin's dream was
singing in the local musical.

7. Bart received an award for
having perfect attendance.

8. The chorus began
singing the song
.

9. Some people enjoy
mowing the lawn.

10.
Reading the classics
is my goal this summer.
Grammar Check: Identifying Gerund Phrases #2
Directions: Write each sentence. UNDERLINE the GERUND or GERUND PHRASE in each sentence.
Answer Key

Grammar Check: Gerund vs Appositive
Remember...

A
GERUND
is a form of a VERB (that ends in --ing) that acts as a NOUN.

An
APPOSITIVE
is a NOUN/PRONOUN that gives additional information about another NOUN/PRONOUN.


Answer Key
Directions: Label the highlighted phrases as GERUND (G) or APPOSITIVE (A). Write the phrase down with the proper label.
1. Ed never stopped
hoping
.
2. The gravy needs
stirring
.
3. My sister
Mona
deserves a second chance.
4. Bruno,
my boyfriend
, hates
shopping
.
5. Joanne practices
singing Christmas carols
.
6. Our teacher,
Mrs. Hart
, is teaching the class about gerunds.
7. The teacher accused Gail of
cheating
.
8. Kathy is dedicated to her profession,
teaching
.
9. She is practicing calligraphy,
a form of
writing
.
10.
Losing
is never a happy experience.
1. hoping - G
2. stirring - G
3. Mona - A
4. my boyfriend - A; shopping - G
5. singing Christmas carols - G
6. Mrs. Hart - A
7. cheating - G
8. teaching - A & G
9. a form of writing - A; writing - G
10. Losing - G
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
Directions: Copy ALL the grammar notes below.
GUIDED PRACTICE
A
PARTICIPLE
is a form of a VERB that can act as an ADJECTIVE.

The most common kinds of participles are
PRESENT PARTICIPLES (-ing)
and
PAST PARTICIPLES (-ed)
.

EX. PRESENT PARTICIPLE - limping, aching
PAST PARTICIPLE - confused, interrupted

EX. Irma's
shining
eyes betrayed her excitement.
The
shattered
window needs to be replaced.

A PARTICIPIAL PHRASE is participle that usually has an adverb or another complement. THE ENTIRE PHRASE ACTS AS AN ADJECTIVE.

EX. Traveling quickly, we completed the
trip in two hours.

Avoiding stops, we made it in time.
Writing Coach - PAGE 367, PRACTICE 15.1E (1-10)

PARTICIPLE or VERB
If a PARTICIPLE, what word does it describe?
1. VERB
2. growing...child
3. following...pages
4. VERB
5. VERB
6. VERB
7. unappealing...menu
8. VERB
9. painted...house
10. VERB
11. cooked in that restaurant
12. found at a garage sale
13. looking worn out
14. sweeping the floor
15. excited by the flashing lights...DOG
flashing...lights
16. growing beside the back door
17. rubbing against the chair leg
18. shaded by trees
19. packed with tourists
20. having spotted a wave
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
Answer Key
A
PARTICIPLE
is a verb form that is used as an adjective.
PRESENT PARTICIPLES
end in -ing and
PAST PARTICIPLE
S of regular verbs end in -ed.

A
PARTICIPIAL PHRASE
is a group of words that functions as an adjective in the sentence and contains a
PARTICIPLE
.

Present Participle: the
pounding
noise

Past Participle:
troubled
child

Participial Phrase:
Feeling restless,
I took a walk around the harbor.
ASSIGNMENT: Handout, p. 626.
UNDERLINE the PARTICIPIAL PHRASE
and DRAW an ARROW to the word it describes.
1. Dressed in his old uniform...Dad
2. Working hard for six months...Gladys
3. reading a newspaper...man
4. parked illegally in an alley...car
5. held at Stanley Park...concert
6. Gasping for breath...swimmer
churning...water
7. left in the playroom...toys
8. driven safely to the range...cattle
9. approaching...storm
raced over the bluffs to our left...it
10. announcing my prize in the contest...letter
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
Answer Key
REMEMBER... A
PARTICIPLE
is form of a verb that can act as an adjective.
EX. The runner,
panting
, waved to the
cheering
spectators.
The
broken
vase can be repaired by an
experienced
potter.
DIRECTIONS: Underline the PARTICIPIAL PHRASE and draw an arrow to the word it describes.

1. Having been on the road for four days, the Todds were exhausted.
2. That hymn, sung by many generations of churchgoers, is my favorite.
3. Climbing slowly, we approached the top of the hill.
4. Surprised by my question, Mrs. Osmond blushed.
5. Phil, worn out by his long trip, slept for twelve hours.
6. Watching me closely, the dog came toward me.
7. Staring out the window at the rain, Bob became more and more impatient.
8. Having been hurt in the first game, Al sat on the bench for the rest of the season.
9. The plates, brought from Denmark by my grandmother, are on display in the dining room.
10. The cookies, baked this morning, were all gone by five o'clock.
1. Having been on the road for four days...the Todds.
2. sung by many generations of churchgoers...hymn
3. climbing slowly...we
4. Surprised by my question...Mrs. Osmond
5. worn out by his long trip...Phil
6. Watching me closely...dog
7. Staring out the window at the rain...Bob
8. Having been hurt in the first game...Al
9. brought from Denmark by my grandmother...plates
dining...room
10. baked this morning...cookies
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
REMEMBER... A
PARTICIPLE
is form of a verb that can act as an adjective.
Assignment: Participles and Participle Phrases handout
ANSWER KEY
1. Laughing...David; whining...puppy
2. Chosen by the selection committee...Cindy
3. Leaping over the hurdles...Cindy
4. burned...brownies
5. Running quickly...policeman
6. NONE
7. NONE
8. Wrapped in crispy bacon...green beans
9. Having completed the training program...Henry
10. Unprepared for the bad news...family
11. Being the best on my team...I
12. tired from working out...Jill and Terry
13. Abandoned...animals
14. swinging...door
15. Being held for ransom...victims
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
REMEMBER... A
PARTICIPLE
is form of a verb that can act as an adjective.
Directions: Underline the PARTICIPIAL PHRASE and draw an arrow to the word it describes
1. Yelling with all our might, we sat in the cheering section. (2)

2. Did anyone ever tell you that you have a winning smile?

3. Feeling like a fool, I appeared from behind the curtain in a checkered costume (2)

4. Blushing, Estrella accepted the praise of her cycling buddies. (2)

5. What should we do with this picked fruit?

ANSWER KEY
1. Yelling with all our might...we; cheering...section
2. winning...smile
3. Feeling like a fool...I; checkered...costume
4. Blushing...Estrella; cycling...buddies
5. picked...fruit
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
REMEMBER... A
PARTICIPLE
is form of a verb that can act as an adjective.
Directions: Underline the PARTICIPIAL PHRASE and draw an arrow to the word it describes

1. The leaning buildings were knocked down by the wrecking ball. (2)

2. Breathing hard, the runners crossed the finish line.

3. The dog, caught between the two fierce cats, fled the yard.

4. Badly injured, the accident victims were helicoptered to the trauma center.

5. Holding our breath, we watched the hero being stalked by the villain. (2)

ANSWER KEY
1. leaning...buildings; wrecking...ball
2. Breathing hard...runners
3. caught between two fierce cats...dog
4. badly injured...victims
5. Holding our breath...we; being stalked by the villain...hero
Grammar Check: Participial Phrases
REMEMBER... A
PARTICIPLE
is form of a verb that can act as an adjective.
Directions: Underline the PARTICIPIAL PHRASE and draw an arrow to the word it describes
1. The crumpled shipment of dishes contained many cracked items. (2)

2. Tires screaming, the racing car rounded the track. (2)

3. The photographer shooting the wedding focused several pictures on the smiling parents. (2)

4. The speaker at the museum was a respected environmentalist.

5. Stumbling over the junk, I decided to clean up the garage.


ANSWER KEY
1. crumpled...shipment; cracked...items
2. Tires screaming...car; racing...car
3. shooting the wedding...photographer; smiling...parents
4. respected...environmentalist
5. Stumbling over the junk...I
Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
Guided Practice
Directions: Copy the notes below. YES, ALL OF THEM!
An
INFINITIVE
is a VERB FORM preceded by the word TO that acts as a NOUN, an ADJECTIVE or an ADVERB. An
INFINITIVE PHRASE
is an INFINITIVE with its modifiers (all the extra words) or complements. Like INFINITIVES, INFINITIVE PHRASES can function as NOUNS, ADJECTIVE or ADVERBS.

First things first...
NOUN = person, place, or thing
ADJECTIVE = word that describes a NOUN
ADVERB = word that give additional information to a VERB, ADJECTIVE and another ADVERB

Examples of INFINITIVES/INFINITIVE PHRASES
Infinitive:
To disagree
would have been foolish. (Infinitive=NOUN)
Infinitive Phrase:
To find a good mechanic
is no easy task. (Infinitive Phrase = NOUN)

More Examples
Lawrence is the opponent
to beat
. (Infinitive = ADJECTIVE)
The computer program is easy
to learn
. (Infinitive = ADVERB)


Directions: Underline each INFINITIVE. Decide if it is acting as a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.
1. Frank wants to wait here for Mary.
2. Bonnie really wanted to win.
3. Above all, we wanted to be sure of his loyalty.
4. To accept stolen goods is a criminal offense.
5. Nick wanted to get seats near the stage.
6. Where is a good place to eat?
7. Joe would be happy to help you.
8. The music began to play.
9. To plan a successful vacation takes a good deal of thought.
10. Cindy is only pretending to be ill.
Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
INDEPENDENT Practice
An INFINITIVE is a form of a verb that generally appears with the word TO in front of it and acts as a NOUN, an ADJECTIVE, or an ADVERB.

EXAMPLES:

To understand life
requires maturity and acceptance. (NOUN, Subject)
To peasants decided
to rebel
. (NOUN, Direct Object)
The soldier's only hope was
to surrender
. (NOUN, Predicate Nominative)
I have no goal except
to finish
. (NOUN, Prepositional Object)
You have only one choice,
to stay
. (NOUN, Appositive)

The children showed a willingness
to cooperate
. (ADJECTIVE)
Some people were unable
to fight
. (ADVERB)

Directions: Underline each INFINITIVE. Decide if it is acting as a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.
1. On Saturday mornings, I have one goal, to sleep late. _____
2. The students who were causing the ruckus were asked to leave. _____
3. The protestors were determined to speak. _____
4. I have no warm sweaters to wear. _____
5. To have close friends is important to me. _____
6. Sandra’s deepest desire was to perform. _____
7. Mrs. Assad wants to swim. _____
8. When Carl’s arms got tired, Tomas decided to row. _____
9. The clowns for the party were beginning to arrive. _____
10. Janine, the star runner of the track team, was eager to compete. _____

Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases
Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrase #3

Directions: Underline the INFINITIVES and INFINITIVE PHRASES and decide if it’s a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.

1. To be objective in my decision is hard. _____
2. Does Joan have enough change to make a phone call? _____
3. Always try to proofread your paper before you turn it in. _____
4. Ellen is able to swim six lengths of the pool. _____
5. The Harlow twins came to play with my little brother. _____

Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases


Directions: Underline the INFINITIVES and INFINITIVE PHRASES and decide if it’s a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.



1. The tourists asked the bus driver
to go slower
. (NOUN)

2. Their purpose for taking the tour was
to see the countryside
. (NOUN)

3 The earliest attempts
to fly
ended in embarrassment, if not injury. (ADJECTIVE)

4. Robert’s plan
to compete in a triathlon
surprised everyone. (ADJECTIVE)

5. In the spring, crabs begin
to shed their shells
. (ADVERB)

1. The tourists asked the bus driver to go slower.

2. Their purpose for taking the tour was to see the countryside.

3 The earliest attempts to fly ended in embarrassment, if not injury.

4. Robert’s plan to compete in a triathlon surprised everyone.

5. In the spring, crabs begin to shed their shells.
ANSWER KEY
Grammar Check: Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases


Directions: Underline the INFINITIVES and INFINITIVE PHRASES and decide if it’s a NOUN, ADJECTIVE or ADVERB.

1.
To err
is human;
to forgive
is divine. (2) NOUN/NOUN

2. The time
to act
is now. (1) ADJECTIVE

3. I’d like
to participate in the triathlon
, but I don’t want
to do all that running and biking and swimming.
(2) NOUN/NOUN

4. I give blood
to help someone who might need it
, but I also like
to eat the free animal crackers they give you after you’re finished

donating.
(2) ADVERB/NOUN

5. On the way to the cafeteria, I smelled the food and decided
to become a vegetarian
. (1) ADVERB


ANSWER KEY
1. To err is human; to forgive is divine. (2)

2. The time to act is now. (1)

3. I’d like to participate in the triathlon, but I don’t want to do all that running and biking and swimming. (2)

4. I give blood to help someone who might need it, but I also like to eat the free animal crackers they give you after you’re finished donating. (2)

5. On the way to the cafeteria, I smelled the food and decided to become a vegetarian. (1)

Sentence Parts
Grammar Check: Subjects and Predicates
REVIEW
Every sentence that is grammatically correct consists of two parts: a complete SUBJECT and complete PREDICATE.

Complete SUBJECT
= Noun/Pronoun that names the person, place or thing that the sentence is about.

Complete PREDICATE
= A VERB/VERB PHRASE that tells something about the complete SUBJECT.

EX.
They

were celebrating [in the streets]
.

The three clowns

[in the ring]

tumbled
.

Mardi Gras

is celebrated [in many countries]
.


Simple SUBJECT
= The NOUN/PRONOUN that cannot be left out of the complete SUBJECT.

Simple PREDICATE
= The VERB/VERB PHRASE that cannot be left out of the complete PREDICATE.

EX.
Some
people

do
not
like
sports
.


Jugs
of lemonade

covered
the table
.








Guided Practice: Subjects and Predicates
Directions: Underline the COMPLETE SUBJECT once and the COMPLETE PREDICATE twice. Circle your SIMPLE SUBJECT and SIMPLE PREDICATE.
1. The young wolves appeared restless.

2. Nathan's volunteer work helped earn him admission to college.

3. An Agatha Christie novel was found on a shelf in the bedroom.

4. The woman in the horror movie wore a long red gown.

5. The girl in the green shirt is the student body president.

6. The bank teller gave Melissa the money.

7. The express train will arrive shortly.

8. Tribal warriors attacked their enemies with primitive weapons.

9. Space exploration interest Logan.

10. My brother bought a brand new laptop for school.
1. The young wolves appeared restless.

2. Nathan's volunteer work helped earn him admission to college.

3. An Agatha Christie novel was found on a shelf in the bedroom.

4. The woman in the horror movie wore a long red gown.

5. The girl in the green shirt is the student body president.

6. The bank teller gave Melissa the money.

7. The express train will arrive shortly.

8. Tribal warriors attacked their enemies with primitive weapons.

9. Space exploration interest Logan.

10. My brother bought a brand new laptop for school.
ANSWER KEY
Grammar Check: Direct Objects
Some sentences are complete with just a
SUBJECT
and
VERB
. For example:
The crowd cheered
. However, other sentences need more information to be complete. This is where
COMPLEMENTS
come in.

A
COMPLEMENT
is a word or group of words that completes the meaning of the
PREDICATE
of the sentence.

There are FIVE kinds of
COMPLEMENTS
in English:
DIRECT OBJECTS
, INDIRECT OBJECTS, OBJECT COMPLEMENTS, PREDICATE NOMINATIVES, and PREDICATE ADJECTIVES
. Today we will be focusing only on
DIRECT OBJECTS
.

DIRECT OBJECTS are the most common of the FIVE types of COMPLEMENTS. They complete the meaning of ACTION VERBS by telling
WHO
or
WHAT
receives the action. It is a NOUN/PRONOUN or a GROUP OF WORDS ACTING AS A NOUN (ex. INF) that receives the action of a VERB.

EXAMPLES:
I

visited
the
air and space museum
.

Sticks
and
leaves

clogged
the
gutter
s.
Guided Practice: DIRECT OBJECTS
Directions: Underline the
SIMPLE SUBJECT
once, the
SIMPLE PREDICATE
twice and circle your
DIRECT OBJECT
.
1. The tree shaded the old barn.

2. Train tracks cross the intersection near my house.

3. The programs crashed their computers.

4. Chipmunks and squirrels ate the birdseed.

5. The students downloaded several new programs.

6. One tiny mouse shredded a large cardboard box.

7. The excited crowd cheered the performers.

8. The overturned truck blocked two lanes of the expressway.

9. The lawyer for the defense presented his case.

10. The center-fielder caught the pop-up.
ANSWER KEY
1. The tree shaded the old barn.

2. Train tracks cross the intersection near my house.

3. The programs crashed their computers.

4. Chipmunks and squirrels ate the birdseed.

5. The students downloaded several new programs.

6. One tiny mouse shredded a large cardboard box.

7. The excited crowd cheered the performers.

8. The overturned truck blocked two lanes of the expressway.

9. The lawyer for the defense presented his case.

10. The center-fielder caught the pop-up.
Transitional Words and Phrases
Complete handout WHAT IS A CLAUSE ? (1-7 GP) & (8-14 IP)
Preposition List

Grammar Check: More with Direct Objects
ANSWER KEY!

Grammar Check: Indirect Objects
Independent Practice #1
INDIRECT OBJECTS
are persons or things who receive the benefits of an action. In other words, when somebody does something for someone or something the person or thing it is done for is the indirect object.
Let's Take Notes... (INDIRECT OBJECTS)
EXAMPLE(s)
Tom gave
me
the book.
Melissa bought
Tom
some chocolate.
Indirect objects answer the questions 'to whom', 'to what', 'for whom' or 'for what'.
GUIDED PRACTICE!

1. Has your boss sent you a notice about the next convention?

2. John read his tiny nephew an exciting story.

3. Our father built the family a redwood picnic table.

4. The doctor sent me a bill for his services.

5. We gave my mother a book for her birthday.
More INDIRECT OBJECT PRACTICE!
Full transcript