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저널리딩_20130814_이혜수_Facial Action Coding System

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Jang-Han Lee

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Transcript of 저널리딩_20130814_이혜수_Facial Action Coding System

ㅉWhat face reveals? Facial Action Coding System (FACS) (2005)

Basic study
Single action units (AU) in FACS
FACS
comprehensive, anatomically based system for measuring all visually discernible
facial movement

Using FACS for Emotion Measurement
Example of scoring
Paul Ekman
Discrimination of genuine vs. faked
Charles Darwin
Paul Ekman
Presence
intensity duration


Applied study
Pain
Cue to deception (2005)
Darwin, deception, and
facial expression (2003)

EXTRA info
Facial Expression -> Universal? Cross-national difference?
Ekman, matsumoto, & friesen, 1997
Results
- Pain communication -> “Pain behavior”
 Important in evolution

* Measurement of facial expression

=> useful in clinical investigation
(refine diagnosis, monitoring response to
treatment
(Ekman & Friesen, 1978)
- describes all visually distinguishable facial activity
on the basis of
44 unique action units (AUs)
(30 action units (AUs) / 14 miscellaneous
actions)

- anatomically based
- not a 1:1 correspondence btw muscle groups & AUs

①. FACS Interpretations
(FACS/EMFACS Dictionary)
ㄹFACS/EMFACS emotion dictionary
: to use FACS to score only AUs that
might be relevant to emotion
: draw on a rich empirically & theoretically derived
database
Scoring
: views everything in real time
1) not all AUs are scored;
2) intensity scored on 5 levels
3) minimum requirement rules are dropped.
Scoring

: frame-by-frame or slow-motion viewing
*Example of how each Action unit is described
1. The muscular basis of each AU
2. Detailed description of the appearance change (still photograph & film example)
3. Instructions are given as to how to make the movement on one's own face
4. A rule is given specifying the minimal changes which must be observed
in order to score a slight version of each AU.
AU 15
1. Pull the corner of lips down_ Triangularis

2.

3. Pull down your lip corners downwards.
Be careful not to raise your lower lip at the same time
(do not use AU 17)

4. If the lip line is straight or slightly up in neutral face, then the lip corners must be pulled down at least slightly to score 15

If lip line is slightly down in neutral face, then the lip corners must be pulled down slightly more than neutral and not the result of AU 17 or AU 20
Intensity
- A; Trace
B; Slight
C; Marked or Pronounced
D; Severe or Extreme
E; Maximum



Happiness 6+12
Sadness 1+4+15
Surprise 1+2+5B+26
Fear 1+2+4+5+20+26
Anger 4+5+7+23
Disgust 9+15+16
Contempt 12A+14A

Example of EMFACS
- subjective across observers
Duration
- Onset point ~ Offset Point
(First frame of AU presence) ~ (Final frame of AU presence)
The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872)
“ Emotional expressions are inherited,
involuntary manifestations of one's inner state.
Lie detection
“Human deception of consequence
will be accompanied by emotional “leakage”.

Not empirically investigated

Inhibition hypothesis

: Some facial muscle completely inhibited X
Attempts to contract certain facial muscles X

Not explain why this might be so
WHY?
Empirical research

facial nucleus

: impulses to the specific muscles to contract or relax
-
Motor cortex
: impulses resulting from voluntary efforts to make a facial expression
- Other lower areas of the brain:
impulses to the facial nucleus when emotions are aroused involuntarily
* Clinical reports: distinction btw voluntary and involuntary
facial actions
Independent neural pathways
Lesions in the pyramidal systems
: impair the ability to perform a facial movement on request

Lesions in the nonpyramidal systems
: not perform a facial movement spontaneously.
- displaying “masking smiles”
(Ekman, Friesen & O'Sullivan, 1988)
: nurses motivated to mask feelings of disgust
:

only the lower,
not the upper face

* SMILE
- Duchenne smile (1862)
AU 12
AU 12 + AU 6
Micro Expression

- a fleeting but complete facial expression discordant with the expressed emotion and usually suppressed within 1/5 to 1/25s

- difficult to detect with the naked eye

Simulated expressions
:When a microexpression is not accompanied by a genuine emotion.
Neutralized expressions
:When a genuine expression is suppressed and the face remains neutral.
Masked expressions
: When a genuine expression is completely masked by a falsified expression
<Type>
Asymmetry
-
spontaneous emotional expressions are more symmetrical
than those made deliberately
- Research
<Harger & Ekman, 1985>
: Startle cue(very loud noise) -> deliberately smile
: amusing event -> spontaneous smile (more symmetry)
사진(AU 6, AU 12) genuine smile, more symmetry

: Startle cue -> spontaneous surprise response (AU 20 was more symmetrical)
Amusing event -> deliberately surprise



Duration
- long-lasting expression : more likely to faked
- Primary function of pain behavior -> enlist the aid of others
Understanding the facial display of pain
Facial expression in affective disorders
- Spontaneous expression: lasted between 2/3 of a second and 4 second (Ekman & Friesen, 1982)
Smooth expression
- difference timing between spontaneous and deliberate expressions
*
Deliberate expression

: the onset is often abrupt

: the apex (movements of maximum contraction) held too long

: the offset (the period from the apex to the disappearance of the expression) is either abrupt or in other ways appears irregular rather than smooth

- Charles Darwin (1897)

Emotion
: biologically determined and universal to human
culture

- Magaret Mead (1950)

Facial expression and their meaning
: Culturally determined through behavior
learning
process

- Ekman (1960)


Universal Expression
: Anger, Disgust, Fear, Happiness, sadness, and
surprise

Papua New Guinea
: could not have learned the meaning of expressions from
exposure to media depiction of emotion
But, certain emotion ->
display rule, culture-specific prescription
social group’s informal norms about when, where, and how one should express emotions.
Differ in the rate of recognition and intensity (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989)

American vs. Japanese

: rating on seven emotion dimensions for each photo (0-8 scale)
: similar in relation to strongest emotion depicted in the photos and the
relative intensity among the photos

* American-> higher absolute intensity ratings on photos of happiness, anger,
sadness, and surprise

“facial expression” -> immediately observable !
- Clinicians & lay people said that reliable indicator
of the quality and intensity of sufferer’s pain
Facial actions that have shown significant relationship with pain

Prkachin, 1995
Then, which specific facial expression action -> clue to pain state?

whether cues to pain are common to all pain state or specific to only some?

- Participants: 41 (male; 20, female; 21)
- 4 type of stimulation: electric shock, Cold,
Pressure, muscle ischemia
- Analysis with FACS: frequency, duration, intensity
- Results
Differences in the intensity of facial actions from baseline to pain
tolerance.
Potentially pain-related action: AU4, AU6, AU10, AU7

“relative strength any repetitive sequences of emotional expression" (Ekman, 2005)
Individual differences in facial expression
- the identification & management of emotion develop in tandem (Mayer, Roberts, & Barsade, 2008)
- positive correlation between emotion
recognition ability & the similarity of
deliberately simulated with
genuine emotional expressions (also see Kenny, 1994).
Empirical research
Do facial expressions vary with diagnosis?
Do the facial expressions predict the extent of
subsequent clinical improvement?

Participants: 17 patients
(major depression, minor depression, manic, schizophrenia)
Analysis with EmFACS
: Universal emotion
(anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness,
and happiness) + unfelt happy
Predicting clinical improvement
Does Facial Behavior Differ Between Diagnostic Groups?
- Major depression vs. Minor depression
: more sadness, disgust
: less unfelt happiness

- Manic > Major, Minor depression
: more felt happiness, unfelt happiness
: less anger, disgust, sadness

- Schizophrenia
: more fear, less of all the emotion


Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Adelphi University (1958)

-

facial expression and body movement began in 1954
- Interest: basic research on emotion & its expression,
deceit detection

- developing Facial Action Coding System
- Paul Ekman group
Frequency
Neutral
AU 4 + 9 + 10 + 25
AU 14
AU 24
AU 19 + 28
AU 1 + 2
Example of scoring
12B
6B+12B+25B
4C+17D+
23D+24D
15E+17E
Inter-rater reliability
overall agreement: .822
compared to experts
Full transcript