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Multimodality and the Teaching of Narrative
Transcript of Multimodality and the Teaching of Narrative
(Bearne and Wolstencroft, 2008) 'Children are surrounded by multimodal texts, therefore it becomes imperative to teach multimodality if they are to realise their potential as communicators in the twenty first century.'
(Bearne and Wolstencroft, 2008) images moving real drawn Our Multimodal Resource The History of Narrative Rationale and Reasoning Character Profiling Prior Learning Extended Learning Additional Resources Introduction “narrative is at the root of all legends, histories, folk tales, biographies and novels.”
myths & legends
Why Teach Narrative? What is Narrative? Stories are written or told to entertain and enthral an audience. Stories can make us sad, horrify us, make us laugh, make us excited. They create imaginative worlds that can help us understand ourselves and the things around us and take us beyond our own experience. From the earliest times, stories have been a part of the way that people have explained their world, passed on their beliefs and memories and entertained one another
(Primary Framework for Literacy, 2006). ‘Narratives help to build the literacy bridge because they are often the first and most familiar written materials introduced to young children, in the form of traditional rhyme and story books, religious texts and folk tales.’
(Whitehead, 2007, p.37). Stories are important because:
they help us make sense of the world
they allow us to experience the world vicariously - by sharing and learning from the experiences of others
they put us in touch with common culture
they help improve literacy
they extend our knowledge and experience of language forms
THEY HAVE THE PROPENSITY TO GIVE THE READER PLEASURE!
(Medwell et al., 2009) Catherine Powell
Amy Louise Llewellyn
Year 1 BAPET
PTCCE1_A The Importance of Narrative
Multimodality and the Teaching of Narrative
Our Multimodal Resource
Rationale and Reasoning for our Resource still ‘What I like about writing is that you never quite know what is going to happen next’.
Nico, age 7 Why do stories matter? ‘Narrative is like a template that we place upon our lives, so that we can understand ourselves and our world. It is through narrative that we can step out of the darkness of ourselves’
(Corbett, 2001). Film.Social Networking Sites .Computer Games . .Magazines.Internet. Commercials.Mobile Phones In an age of substantial technological change, educators need to develop curricula and pedagogy which enable children to build on their digital ‘funds of knowledge’ (Moll, Amanti, Neff & Gonzalez, 1992 cited in English at the cross roads). Despite Craft (2011) highlighting the fact that many schools are now ‘trying to teach for the 21st Century’, Bearne and Wolstencroft (2008) note the child’s ability to read digital texts still goes largely unrecognised in the literacy curriculum and its assessment.
(Bearne, 2003; 2004; Marsh, 2003; Pahl, 2002 cited in levy; English at the crossroads (2005; 2008) 'Multimodal and written texts are acts of design, relating their purpose and sense of audience’ (Bearne and Wolstencroft, 2008). Learning Styles 'cognitive, affective, and physiological traits that serve as relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to learning environments' (Keefe, 1982) OR are learning styles an 'overrated phenomenon'?!
(Sharpe, 2008) Setting the Scene 'Moving image is ... an effective tool to explore setting, narrative, structure, the creation of tension and character development'
(Parker, 2002). Why use film? 'Seeing comes before words. The child looks and recognises before it can speak' (Berger, 1972, cited in Goodwin 2004). ‘Starting from images/films can help generate ideas for uncertain writers’
Bearne and Wolstencroft (2007, p.54). WHY create a
multimodal resource? The aim of multimodal education is not merely to enable children to read or make sense of multimodal texts or to enable them to write their own; it must be also enable them to reflect systematically on the process of reading and writing themselves, to understand and to analyse their own activity as readers and writers.
(Goodwin, 2004) This resource provides an insight into the personas of the characters in the film, helping to form a basis from which children can begin to write their own story in first person from one of the other character’s point of view. Generic text structure can be expressed simply as:
An opening that usually includes a setting and introduces characters
A series of events that build up
Resolution and ending
Although this structure is evident in many stories, it can be adapted, modified or expanded.
(National Strategies, 2010) Progression in Narrative 1. Speaking – ‘Use the techniques of dialogic talk to explore ideas, topics or issues’
4. Drama – ‘Improvise using a range of drama strategies and conventions to explore themes such as hopes, fears, desires’
6. Word structure and spelling – ‘Use a range of appropriate strategies to edit, proofread and correct spelling in their own work, on paper and on screen’
7. Understanding and interpreting texts – ‘Understand how writers use different structures to create coherence and impact’
8. Engaging with and responding to texts – ‘Sustain engagement with longer texts, using different techniques to make the text come alive; compare how writers from different times and places present experiences and use language’.
9. Creating and shaping texts – ‘Set their own challenges to extend achievement and experience in writing; use different narrative techniques to engage and entertain the reader; select words and language drawing on their knowledge of literary features and formal and informal writing; integrate words, images and sounds imaginatively for different purposes.
10. Text structure and organisation – ‘use varied structures to shape and organise text coherently’.
11. Sentence structure and punctuation – ‘Express subtle distinctions of meaning, including hypothesis, speculation and supposition, by constructing sentences in varied ways; use punctuation to clarify meaning in complex sentences’.
12. Presentation – ‘use different styles of handwriting for different purposes with a range of media, developing a consistent and personal legible style; select from a wide range of ICT programs to present text effectively and communicate information and ideas’.
Year 6 Literacy Strands (Primary Framework for Literacy, 2010b) Talk Based Activities Talk is often a way of improving pupils’ writing, giving them the chance to rehearse their ideas before committing them to paper (English at the crossroads, 2008; National Literacy Framework, 2010). Our resource incorporates visual and sound, allowing for more visual or auditory learners to access the content of the text and enabling all pupils to gain greater understanding of a way in which ‘words, images and sounds can be integrated imaginatively for different purposes’ (The Primary Framework for Literacy, 2010a). Story
Mountains Structure National Curriculum and Primary Literacy Framework Curriculum Objectives National Literacy Framework objectives suggest that by Year 6 children should be able to identify and discuss the various features of a fiction text, including characters, settings, themes and dilemmas, the author's intentions, the structure and organisation of the text and the way in which language is used to create effects on the reader. Added to this, they should ‘know how various communication modes, for example visual images, video, sounds, can be used alongside or in combination with words to tell a story’, having the ability to ‘navigate an interactive non-linear text’ (National Literacy Framework, 2010b). Cross Curricular Links Examples from the National Curriculum programmes of study/stepping stones that could be linked to narrative texts in literacy include:
History/ knowledge and understanding of the world
FS: past and present events … in the lives of people
KS1 POS: the way of life of people in the more distant past.
KS2 POS: the study of… Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Tudors, Victorian Britain or Britain since the 1930s.
Geography/ knowledge and understanding of the world.
FS: stepping stone; show an interest in the world in which they live.
KS1/2 POS: localities.
(Progression in Narrative Paper, 2006) Conclusion Our resource aims to enrich narrative writing
Using our multimodal resource and activities effectively a Year 6 child is equipped with the tools to write imaginitively and independently, incorporating relevent aspects of the National Curriculum. With special thanks to the children of CityKids, Brighton, for their contribution to our resource.