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Alternate Energy City

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Natalie Chan

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Alternate Energy City

Energy Profile (>1.0 earths used) Energies to Think About Designing an Alternative Energy City How could Toronto become a more environmentally friendly energy city? Assume everyone lives in an apartment in Toronto, Canada (to minimize land footprints!) What's the verdict? look at this
cutie pie. Decreasing your carbon footprint live in a smaller home (an apartment/studio)
use more renewable sources to power your electricity
solar, hydropower, wind or biomass
if for short distances, try walking or riding a bike
if not, travel more by public transport than by car
if traveling by car, try your best to carpool (and use a smaller, lighter car)
learn to save energy
features:
compact fluorescent bulbs
energy efficient appliances
extra insulation
insulating blinds
solar panels
storm doors and windows
water saving fixtures
habits:
turn off lights when leaving rooms
use power strips to turn off stand-by lights
turn off computers and monitors when not in use
dry clothes outside whenever possible
keep thermostat relatively low in winter
unplug small appliances when not in use
use minimal power equipment when landscaping

purchase offsets for carbon emissions associated with your home energy use and transportation
try not to live in newer suburbs


living in the inner city would reduce your carbon footprint further yay, space! (area needed to absorb carbon emissions generated by home energy use and transportation) (help make you, your car or your entire household carbon neutral) (spread-out suburbs require far more energy per person for public infrastructure, housing and both personal and commercial transportation) (would require less energy for personal and commercial transportation) Decreasing your food footprint (area needed to grow crops, fish and graze animals and carbon emissions from food processing and transport) eat more vegetables and less meat cultivating crops take much less room than growing animals; meat production drives deforestation and requires high inputs of energy for processing and transportation; comes with a high carbon footprint price tag
try to buy food from farmers markets, gardens, cooperatives, natural foods markets or other local and fresh sources most food from markets are processed and are contained in excess packaging; they are also usually imported which requires a lot of energy for transportation and refrigeration buy organic or sustainably produced foods
eat one large meal and a couple of light snacks per day
have your own garden (or share) to grow your own vegetables and herbs 0.94 to be specific! no/less need for transportation (saves energy!) Decreasing your housing footprint living in an apartment saves more space than any (area occupied by your home and the area needed to supply resources used in construction and household maintenance) apartments mean taking up less land; larger apartment buildings mean more units in one building (using the same amount of land for more units = more free land) the house should be built with at least some green design features (generate up to 30% in energy savings, reduce carbon emissions by 35%, reduce water use by 30 to 50% and save 50 to 90% in waste disposal costs) use second hand furniture or furnishings made of either recycles or sustainable produced materials second hand and recycled furniture requires less resources which saves a lot of energy from production. save water
water saving features:
low flow toilets
low flow shower heads and faucets
instant water heaters on sinks
rainwater catchment system
grey water recycling system
drought tolerant landscaping
water saving habits
compost rather than use garbage disposal
minimize shower time and toilet flushing
run clothes and dish washers only when full
wash cars rarely
look for and fix leaks regularly
avoid hosing down decks, walkways and driveways these water saving features and habits may reduce water footprints by 60% or more use biodegradable or non-toxic cleaning products normal cleaning products are harmful to human health and the environment; biodegradable and non-toxic alternatives can significantly reduce or eliminate these impacts (and provide the same level of cleanliness) Decreasing your goods and services footprint save money for the future
only buy items that you really, really need (area needed to supply consumer items purchased and absorb carbon emissions from their manufacturing, transport, and disposal) the faster we buy new items, the faster we deplete resources and the more likely it is that we are exceeding the Earth's regenerative capacity don't create so much garbage garbage goes to garbage landfills which take up a lot of space; buy products which do not have a lot of excess, useless packaging so as to reduce the build up of waste recycle often paper, aluminum, glass, plastic and electronics are all recyclables; by recycling, there will be fewer damands for raw materials, less energy consumption, less air and water pollution, lower waste-disposal bills, and cheaper goods buy items labeled as recycled, natural, organic or made of alternative fibers he just loves solar energy Toronto! I pointed it on the map! Can you find it? ahh! there's so much wind! but not in Toronto Hydroelectricity Toronto is literally right next to Lake Ontario (a great source of water), so Toronto has a benefit for hydroelectricity
According to the study done by the Paul Scherrer Institut and the University of Stuttgart, hydroelectricity produces the least amount of greenhouse gases Toronto! (a power that is generated from the energy of flowing water) (minimizes our footprint) Toronto! Lake Ontario fairly low construction cost (sale of electricity will cover the construction costs after around 10 years) so close! Wind Energy plentiful, renewable, clean and produces no greenhouse gas emissions during operation and uses little land (energy which is converted into a useful form of energy using wind turbines, windmills, etc.) (minimizes our footprints) Toronto generally doesn't have a very high wind speed
high construction costs
takes up a lot of space Verdict: a good source of energy for Toronto i drew this myself Verdict: Not worth it!
If it takes so much money just to build it and there isn't even much wind, then it's just a waste of money. i feel the light breeze Nuclear Energy (energy created by the breaking apart of the nucleus of a cell (usually uranium)) does not emit any greenhouse gases in operation
radioactive waste is produced (the topic of nuclear energy is very controversial (mainly because of the radioactivity)) greater maintenance costs compared to renewable energy
expensive to build a nuclear power plant
produces an ample amount of energy Verdict: Solar Energy Renewable and clean
Toronto doesn't have bad solar energy potential (one power plant could possibly already be enough for the whole of Toronto) In the beginning of the new energy plan, nuclear energy would be used a lot because it is so efficient (but it is only short-term use) oh nuclear energy... (converting the radiant light and heat from the sun into useful forms of energy; technologies include: solar heating, solar photovoltaic and solar thermal electricity) (however, Toronto, like everywhere else, isn't brightly lit 24/7) costly (it is even more expensive to increase the efficiency of the solar energy) not very efficient Toronto Verdict: It would lean more towards no, mainly because of the high cost and the inefficiency. i'm sweating (and the costs that would have to be put into making it more efficient) Geothermal Energy (thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth) sustainable and environmentally friendly (it still releases greenhouse gases but the emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels) Toronto has some geothermal potential (it is a sedimentary basin) geothermal wells don't usually don't have to be more than 3km deep (doesn't cost too much (cost effective) Verdict: The potential geothermal energy is not strong enough to power much of Toronto. 5% would of Toronto's energy would be geothermal. 60% of Toronto's energy would be hydroelectricity. 0% of Toronto's energy would be used as wind energy 80% of Toronto's energy would be used as nuclear energy
but in 20-30 yrs, the usage of nuclear energy should decrease Why does Toronto require a new energy plan? So... Toronto as a whole, consumes more than 20% of Ontario's electrical power. that's crazy! Combined with all the energy consumed in buildings, industrial processes, city infrastructure, transportation systems and the manufacturing of the goods and products consumed, Toronto uses over 720,000,000,000 kWh of energy annually. With a population of more than 2.6 million, we consume almost 30,000 kWh for each city resident. That is the equivalent of leaving thirty-three 100 watt light bulbs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. And of those 720,000,000,000 kWh of energy consumed, 41% is used a electricity, 58% as natural gas and only 1% as renewable energy. Our energy usage has become so bad that it now has the potential to risk our health and the local economy. And that is why Toronto is in dire need of a new energy plan Goal to Reach in 50-60 yrs: 0% of Toronto's energy would be used as solar energy Natural Gas a lot of carbon emissions Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, with other hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide. (they are already trying to improve with the amount of carbon emissions) Considered one of the cleanest fossil fuel (it doesn't necessarily mean it's a good choice of energy) There is a limit to natural gas (natural gas is not renewable, and there is actually a gas depletion right now) Relatively cheap Verdict: It's cheap and people are attempting to improve the excess gas emissions. At the beginning, natural gas can be used to start things off. So 20% of Canada's power will be used as natural gas. (the percentage should decrease as time passes) Toronto's budget: $8.750 billion What are the Prices? Building Prices nuclear power plant: 7.4 billion (let's pretend we're just rebuilding all of Toronto's energy sources) natural gas well: $3.9 million hydroelectric power plants: $1.6 billion geothermal power plant: $0.2 billion the nuclear power plant and the natural gas well will be built first and as we are reimbursed, we can slowly start our plan for the geothermal and hydroelectric power plant Price/person (first 10 years) nuclear prices: 2.19¢/kWh 80% is nuclear energy 80% of 30,000kWh/year = 24,000kWh/year 2.19¢/kWh x 24,000kWh/year = 52,560¢/year = $525.60/year geothermal prices: 2.92¢/kWh natural gas prices: 1.75¢/kWh 20% is natural gas 20% of 30,000kWh/year = 6,000kWh/year (per person) (per person) 1.75¢/kWh x 6,000kWh/year = 10,500¢/year = $105.00/year At the end of 10 years:
= $1,639,560,000 Total amount for one year: each person paid an average of $241.76
$630.60 x 2.6 million Total amount in 10 years: $1,639,560,000 x 10years = $16,395,600,000 ] - $7,403,900,000 Amount Reimbursed After 10 Years: Money taken to build nuclear power plant and natural gas well: $7,403,900,000 After these were built, we were left with: $1,346,100,000 After 10 years of operation, we earned: $16,395,600,000 In total, we now have: $17,741,700,000 After 50 years (and assuming all prices stay the same): (per person) 5% is geothermal energy 5% of 30,000kWh/year = 1,500kWh/year 2.92¢/kWh x 1,500kWh/year = 4,380¢/year = $43.80/year hydropower prices: 3.95¢/kWh 60% is hydropower 60% of 30,000kWh/year = 18,000kWh/year 3.95¢/kWh x 18,000kWh/year = 71,100¢/year = $711.00/year nuclear prices: 2.19¢/kWh (per person) 30% is nuclear energy 30% of 30,000kWh/year = 9,000kWh/year (per person) 2.19¢/kWh x 9,000kWh/year = 19,710¢/year = $197.10/year natural gas prices: 1.75¢/kWh (per person) 5% is natural gas 5% of 30,000kWh/year = 1,500kWh/year 1.75¢/kWh x 1,500kWh/year = 2,625¢/year = $26.25/year Work Cited http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/energy-and-resources/natural-gas-winning-the-race-for-energy-efficiency/article4465567/
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/labs/lab/energy/
http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=E_ERTWG_XWWN_NUS_MDW&f=A
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf02.html
http://lgdata.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/docs/517/218028/GT-3sdarticle.pdf
http://geo-energy.org/geo_basics_plant_cost.aspx
http://www.opg.com/power/hydro/new_projects/ntp/faq.asp
http://www.nei.org/Key-Issues/reliableandaffordableenergy/Economic-Growth
http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/electricity_generation.cfm
http://www.investtoronto.ca/InvestAssets/PDF/Reports/GTA-renewable-energy-industry.pdf
http://www.ontario-sea.org/Storage/29/2100_Toronto%E2%80%99s_Sustainable_Energy_Plan.pdf
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