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Chapter 40 Basic Priciples of Animal Form and Function

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R. Aaron Ramey

on 21 November 2017

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Transcript of Chapter 40 Basic Priciples of Animal Form and Function

Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Chapter 40 - Bio 150
Animal Hierarchy of Organization
Organism
: Contains a number of organ systems that function together to achieve the properties of life

Organ system
: Two or more organs that perform a vital body function

Organ
: Two or more tisses that perform a specific task

Tissue
: A group of cells that perform a common function; animal tissues include epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous tissue

Cell
: The smallest unit of life
Anatomy studies the form of an organism's structures and physiology studies the function
Animal Tissues
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
Covers or lines all body surfaces

Functions in protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and filtration

Contains closely packed cells that rest on a
basal surface
(i.e.
basement membrane
)

Structure defined by two criteria, number of cell layers and cell shape
Cell layers
Simple
: one

Stratified
: more than one

Pseudostratified
: one that looks like more than one
Cell shape
Squamous
: flat

Cuboidal
: roughly the same length in all directions

Columnar
: longer in one direction than the others
Connective Tissue
Found throughout the body

Binds and supports other tissues

Composed of cells separated by an
extracellular matrix (ECM)
ECM composition
Protein fibers
:
collagen
that is strong and rope-like,
elastic fibers
, and/or
reticular fibers
that are thin and delicate fibers that form a net-like structure

Ground substance
fills in the rest of the space between the fibers in the ECM
ECM fibers loosely weaved together

Functions to bind epithelium to underlying tissues and to hold organs in place
Also called dense connective tissue

ECM fibers (mostly collagen) packed together

Forms
tendons
(connects muscle to bone) and
ligaments
(bone to bone)
Little ECM, cells filled with fat that pushes everything else to the edge

Functions to insulate, store energy, and cushion the body
Strong but flexible

Acts as a shock absorber on the ends of bones
Strong and inflexible due to minerals such as calcium in the ground substance

Functions in support, protection, movement, and calcium storage
Liquid ECM (
plasma
) contains proteins, dissolved material, and water

Cells include
red blood cells
that carry oxygen,
white blood cells
that fight infection/cancer/foreign material, and
platelets
that can stick together to start the clotting process
Muscle Tissue
Most abundant tissue type in most animals

Functions in movement

Cells contain large amounts of contractile proteins that cause them (and the tissue) to contract
Connects to bone to cause movement

Long cells also called
muscle fibers

Voluntary

Multinulcleated
striations
In heart only, contracts to pump blood

shorter than skeletal muscle cells

involuntary

one nucleus
striations
junction between two cells
Found in hollow organs to control movement of contents inside

Involuntary

One nucleus

Shorter than skeletal muscle cells

No striations
Nervous Tissue
Composed of
neurons
(communicating cells) and
neuroglia
(support cells with some communication ability)

Functions by detecting a stimulus, processing the information, and sending an output to cause the body to respond
Communication fast along the length of the neuron due to electrical impulse
receive incoming signal
processes signals and decides if outgoing signal will be sent
transmits outgoing signal, causing chemicals called neurotransmitters to be released from neuron when it reaches the end

neurotransmitters
signal a muscle, gland, or another neuron
Human Organ Systems
Know the main functions
Homeostasis
Relatively stable internal body conditions

Maintained mainly by organ systems

Negative Feedback
A method of maintaining homeostasis when a change in one direction causes an change in the opposite direction
Positive Feedback
A method of maintaining homeostasis when a change in one direction causes an change in the same direction
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