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Reporting Category 1 United States STAAR Review

Us History STAAR Review
by

Donna Sue Perkins

on 29 July 2016

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Transcript of Reporting Category 1 United States STAAR Review

Reporting Category 1
History
United States History
STAAR Review
30 Questions From This Category Will Be On The STAAR Test
Major Eras in US History from 1877 to Present
Analyzing Political, Economic, and Social Issues
Unites States as A World Power
Progressive Area Reforms & Leaders and the Passage of 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th Amendments
Significant Events, Social Issues, & Individuals of the 1920's
Domestic & International Impact of US Part in World War II
Cold War Conflicts
Impact of American Civil Rights Movement
Political, Economic, & Social Factors in US from 1970-1990
Emerging Political, Economic, & Social Issues in US from 1990 to 21st Century
Donna Sue Perkins
December 2013
Credits :

Some Material was adapted from a TAKS review prepared by Kip Harmon, Revised by Scott Crossno and Laura Ewing
Assembled by Pearland and Dawson High School Social Studies Departments


Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900
Development of the West
Populism and Agrarian Discontent
Progressive Era to New Era, 1900–1929
Great Depression and World War II, 1929–1945
1945 to the Present
Westward Expansion
California Gold Rush (1849) – After gold was discovered in California, over 40,000 people migrated from the East to “strike it rich.”

Great Plains – Grassland of Central North America that extends from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains.

Homestead Act (1862) – Law that provided 160 acres to anyone who was willing to settle land in the West.
Exodusters – African Americans who migrated to Kansas after Reconstruction.
Cattle Drives – As demand for beef increased, cowboys drove cattle along cattle trails to be shipped to the East by railroad. Famous trails include the Chisholm, Western, and Goodnight-Loving.
During the Rise of Industrial America serious problems in rural America developed, where most of the population lived. And many small farmers turned to social movements and politics to remedy those ills.
For example, during the 1880s, the population of Nebraska a faster rate of growth than that of any other state in the Union. Taking advantage of cheap land offered by the railroads, Civil War veterans and European immigrants rushed in to start farms or launch small businesses to supply all the new residents.
Then, near the end of the decade, a nasty mix of calamities put an end to the boom.
*A massive blizzard in 1888 killed stock animals across the northern plains, ruining Nebraskans who had invested nearly everything they had in pigs and cattle.
*Then in 1889, a bumper harvest of corn—Nebraska’s largest crop—resulted in the lowest prices in memory. Some farmers resorted to burning their corn for fuel instead of selling it to buy coal.
*A year later the worst drought since the Civil War destroyed millions of acres of corn, wheat, and oats. The health of Nebraska’s urban economy depended upon the bounty of its farms. Bankrupt businesses and unfinished buildings scarred the streets of Lincoln and Omaha
It is a tragic but well-documented rule of economics that whenever one major group of society grows rich, another is bound to suffer. During the Gilded Age farmers and agrarian workers were the ones who were most hurt by this exploitation.
Corrupt rail companies, conspiring trusts, a depression, and swiftly dropping crop prices led to the general rising discontent.
The Gilded Age
Empire Building
Immigration and Migration
Business During the Gilded Age

Andrew Carnegie – Business tycoon who controlled most of the Steel industry. Carnegie was also known as a “Captain of Industry” and a “robber baron.”. “The Gospel of Wealth” was Carnegie’s famous essay about the role of industrialists.
John Rockefeller – Business tycoon who owned Standard Oil and Controlled 90% of the oil industry in the late 1800’s. He was able to control the industry by making Standard Oil a trust.


Monopolies – Situation in which one company controls the supply of a product or service.

Trusts – Small companies join together to form one large company, usually as a monopoly.
Reactions to Big Business

Sherman Antitrust Act – Outlawed business monopolies

Labor Unions – Organizations that protected the interests of the worker.
- Labor unions dealt with the dangerous working conditions and long working hours that workers were faced with.
- They helped end child labor practices.
- Famous labor unions include the Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor (AFL).
- Labor unions helped organize strikes to protest the injustices of the workplace.

Celebrate Freedom Week
Industrialization & Urbanization

Industrialization – The rise of a manufacturing economy and decline of an agricultural economy.

Urbanization – The large growth of cities. With urbanization came a large range of urban problems including sanitation, transportation, and crowded living conditions.
Jane Addams – Founder of Chicago’s Hull House, which offered shelter, counseling and education. Addams campaigned for feminists and child labor reform.
Settlement houses – community centers that helped immigrants address the problems of squalid living conditions, disease, illiteracy, and unemployment.
Political cartoons by Thomas Nast helped raise awareness of political corruption.
Immigrants faced harsh living conditions and discrimination.
• 300,000 Chinese immigrants arrived between 1851 and 1883.
• An increase of Southern and Eastern immigrants occurred after 1890. They were known as the “New Immigrants” and their arrival increased social tension.
• Before 1890, most immigrants came from Western and Northern Europe. These were known as the “Old Immigrants.”
About 20 million European immigrants arrived in the U.S. between 1870 and 1920.
Tenements – Apartments built in city slums to house large numbers of people. Many immigrants were forced to live in poorly built tenements in and overcrowded and unhealthy neighborhoods.
Farm Crisis (1880s-1890s) - Farmers had over farmed their land, were being overcharged to ship products and were deep in debt. Would lead to support of Populist Party.
Populism – The movement of the people, born with the founding of the Populist Party in 1892. William Jennings Bryan was their leader.
Sweat shops – A small factory where workers work many hours in bad conditions for little pay. Immigrants (and children) were considered cheap labor and paid very little for their work.
Child Labor was a major problem during the Gilded Age.
Goals of Progressivism:
- Protect social welfare
- Create economic reform
- Political reform of government
Important terms:
Muckraker
– Reporters and writers who exposed government corruption and the abuses of big business.
Suffrage
– The right to vote
Important Legislation:

16th
Amendment – (1913) Established the federal
income tax.

17th
Amendment – (1913) The
direct election of U.S. Senators
. Made govt. more responsive to the people.

18th
Amendment – (1919) The prohibition of
alcohol.

19th
Amendment – (1920) The right to
vote for women.
Grievances of the Declaration of Independence
Centralized power in England left minimal say by colonists over taxation and trade
Disliked control by monarch and Parliament
Strong Parliament with no representation by the colonists, especially on issues of taxation.
Central control of court system
Troops quartered in homes
Many colonists believed that individual rights not protected and that property could be taxed and taken away without representation

Articles of Confederation:

Weak central government and strong state government: confederation
No executive branch to enforce laws
Congressional power limited with only one vote per state. Congress had no power to collect taxes nor to settle disputes between states.
No national court system which led to inability to deal with grievances between states and individuals
Troops could not be quartered in homes
Individual rights protected through strong state governments that were closer to “home” with citizens having the right to vote.

Corrections by the
U. S. Constitution
Established federal system with strong central government but shared powers with states.
Established checks and balances
Separation of power and checks and balances
Separation of powers and checks and balances with House of Representatives based on population and Senate based on equal state representation. Federal government able to collect taxes and able to settle disputes between states.
Set up national and state court system with the Supreme Court serving as the highest authority on constitutional issues
3rd amendment protected citizens from quartering troops
Bill of Rights added to the U. S. Constitution to protect individual rights. Propertied men could vote.


Thomas Jefferson
– Author of the Declaration of Independence and 3rd President of the United States. Negotiated Louisiana Purchase.
George Washington
Commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution. President of Constitutional Convention, 1787. He was also the 1st President of the United States.
Declaration of Independence
– Lists of grievances against King George III and justifies the colonies breaking away from England.
Loyalists
– Americans who supported Great Britain during the revolution.

Unalienable Rights
– Rights that cannot be taken away: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Causes of the Revolution:
-
The British taxed the colonies for revenue to pay for the French and Indian War.
- “No taxation without Representation!” – Colonists resented being taxed without having a voice in Parliament.
- Tax acts include the Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act.
- The Boston Massacre
- The Intolerable Acts
Patriots
Americans who favored independence from Great Britain during the revolution
1775 -
American Revolution began
1776
* Declaration of Independence signed
1781
Articles of Confederation serves as the constitution for the new government
1783
American Revolution officially ends
Vietnam War
1787
* Philadelphia Convention writes the U. S. Constitution, which replaces the Articles of Confederation

Declaration of Independence
(1776) – The Bill of Rights and the Constitution address grievances from the Declaration of Independence. It also lists the unalienable rights: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Written by Thomas Jefferson.


Magna Carta
(1215) – Limited the king’s powers; provided trial by jury

English Bill of Right
s (1687) – Influenced the Constitution by forbidding cruel and unusual punishment; granting the right to bear arms; laws must be passed by the legislative branch; taxes must be approved by the legislative branch
.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.
That whenever any form of government becomes destructive to these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security
The Articles of Confederation
(1781) – First form of government established by the thirteen states. Replaced by the U.S. Constitution because it had a weak central government, stronger state government.
Ratification
– to formally approve to go into effect, 9 out of 13 states had to ratify the Constitution
Preamble
is the introduction of the Constitution that states its purpose
Separation of Powers
– Divides the powers of the government into three branches
Legislative Branch- makes the laws Executive Branch – executes the laws Judicial Branch – interprets the laws

Checks and Balances
– Makes sure no branch of government becomes too powerful.
Example: The President can veto a bill and Congress has the power to override the veto.
Federalism
– Power is shared between the states and national government with the national government having more power.
Limited Government
– Power of the government is restricted by the U.S. Constitution. “No one is above the law.”
Individual Rights
- The individual rights protected in the Bill of Rights include economic rights related to property, political rights related to freedom of speech and press, and personal rights related to bearing arms and maintaining private residences.
Republicanism
– A system in which people vote for elected representatives to run the government.
Popular Sovereignty
– The people hold supreme power. Addressed in the preamble…“We the people…”
The Bill of Rights
-rights of U. S. citizens
o The first ten amendments of the Constitution
o Protect individual rights and liberties
o The Bill of Rights was necessary in order for some states to ratify the Constitution

Amendment Freedoms Hand Signals
10th Powers that have not been dealt with are reserved for the states.
Place hands behind back and say, “powers not listed and not prohibited, nod to right and say, “are reserved to the states”
1st Freedom of speech, religion, and press; right to assemble; right to petition

One finger pointing in the air, “Free Expression
2nd Right to bear arms
Make a gun with two fingers, “Bear Arms”
3rd No quartering of soldiers during peace time Make “okay” sign with three fingers extended, “Quartering Soldiers”
4th No unlawful search & seizure
Pretend to hide something behind four fingers extended with thumb not visible, “Search and Seizure”
5th No double jeopardy; cannot be compelled to be a witness against yourself Cover mouth with five fingers of open hand, “Remain silent, Due Process”
6th The right to a fast and public trial Make a criminal mask with three fingers on each hand, “Criminal Jury Trial”
7th Trial by jury Use two fingers of one hands to take imaginary money out of open palm of other hand, “Civil War Trial”
8th No cruel or unusual punishment Make figure 8 with hands and legs like person being punished, “Cruel and Unusual Punishment”
9th Rights reserved to the people
Place hands behind back and say, “rights not listed” nod to left and say “retained by the people”
Reconstruction Amendments Following Civil War
15th Amendment Granted Voting Rights to Adult Males, 1870
13th Amendment Abolished Slavery, 1865
14th Amendment Defined citizenship as belonging to anyone born in the United States and cannot be taken away without due process of the law , 1868
Native Americans and A Way of Life
Battle of Wounded Knee
– U.S. soldiers massacred 300 unarmed Native Americans in 1890. This ended the Indian Wars.
Buffalo –
The Great Plains Indians relied on the buffalo to continue their way of life. When the buffalo was killed off, so was the lifestyle for the Plains Indians
.
Reservations –
Plots of land given to Native Americans to live on as white settlers moved West.
Dawes Act –
U.S. law that attempted to assimilate Indians by giving them individual plots of land
.
Technology on the Great Plains
Soddy
– a house built of mud and grass that was settled because of a lack of wood on the Great Plains.
Barbed Wire
– Used to fence in land on the Great Plains,eventually leading to the end of the open frontier.
Steel Plow
– Farm machine used to break up soil to allow the planting of crops. The steel plow made farming more efficient
Windmill
– allowed dry-land farming by bringing up underground water to irrigate crops on the Great Plains.
Transcontinental Railroad
-
connected the U. S.
Initiative
– Procedure by which citizens can propose a law to be placed on a ballot.

Referendum
– A vote on an initiative.

Recall
– Procedure by which a public official may be removed from office by popular vote.

The photographs of
Jacob Riis
helped expose the poor living conditions of the inner-city:
Theodore Roosevelt’s Impact
Trustbuster – Term used to describe Roosevelt’s attempt to reform big business by breaking up trusts.
Conservation – The preservation of wilderness areas.
Meat Inspection Act – Regulation of the preparation of foods and the sale of medicines.
Bull Moose Party – Roosevelt’s political party in the election of 1912. Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate.
Important People:

Woodrow Wilson
– The last President of the Progressive Era. Wilson passed the Clayton Antitrust Act which continued to crack down on monopolies.
Susan B. Anthony
– Leader of the women’s suffrage (right to vote) movement.
W.E.B. Du Bois
– Early civil rights leader and founder of the NAACP. Du Bois demanded equality for African-Americans.
Eugene V. Debs
– Labor leader who attempted to form a labor union of skilled and unskilled workers. In 1912, he ran for President under the Socialist Party as a third-party candidate. He won 6% of the popular vote
Upton Sinclair
– Author of
The Jungle
, a book that describes the terrible conditions of meat-packing plants and the struggles the immigrants faced. Led to the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act.
U.S.S. Maine – U.S. warship blown up in Havana Harbor off the coast of Cuba. The Spanish were blamed and war was declared.
U. S. Expansionism
Hawaii
(1898) –Queen Liliuokalani was removed from power and Hawaii was annexed by the United States in 1898.
Imperialism
the process of a stronger nation controlling a weaker territory through political, economic, or military means
U. S. Expansionism
Alaska (1867) –
Purchased from Russia in 1867. Alaska was known as “Seward’s Folly” and was initially considered a bad purchase
Teddy Roosevelt and Imperialism
Open Door Policy
– Ensured that the U.S. could trade with China
Rough Riders – Volunteer cavalry unit led by Teddy Roosevelt that gained fame at the battle of San Juan Hill.
Roosevelt Corollary – Teddy Roosevelt declared that the U.S. would act as an international police power in Latin America.
Panama Canal Man-made waterway that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. Roosevelt was President when construction began in 1904.
Spanish American War (1898)
Causes of the Spanish-American War
Spanish cruelty – Spain’s military abused power and mistreated Cubans
Yellow Journalism – News that exaggerates the truth in order to get a reaction
De Lome Letter – Letter intercepted from a Spanish ambassador criticizing President McKinley of the United States
Results of the Spanish-American War
- Spain loses most of its empire
- The Platt Amendment allows the U.S. to control Cuba
- The U.S. acquired the territories of the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico
- The U.S. increases its strength as a world power
The United States emerged in the last third of the nineteenth century as an industrial powerhouse, producing goods that then circulated around the world. A work force was necessary to sew the clothing, dig the coal, forge the steel, operate the railroads, and the thousands of factories, mills, mines, and workshops that spread over the United States
Newcomers came primarily from Europe and constituted the bulk of the laborers who made industrialization possible. The two largest non-European immigrant groups in this period included French Canadians and the Chinese. Over 7,800,000 immigrants arrived during a 20 year period. Immigration was a serious issue in American life and became the focus of much political debate and contention.
The first and only, restriction of a specific group on the basis or national origin or race came in 1882 with the passage of a temporary Chinese Exclusion Act, which became permanent in 1900 by congressional act.
US Supreme Court case in 1875, Henderson v. the Mayor of New York, debate that raged in America over immigration. In that case the Court ruled that the various states could not regulate immigration individually from abroad as they chose, but that this power lay in the hands of Congress.
In 1885 Congress passed the Foran Act, which prohibited the migration of contract labor, that is, women and men hired abroad and whose fare had been paid by an American employer.
In 1891 founded the Bureau of Immigration.
In 1892, the immigrant-receiving station at Ellis Island opened its doors (with smaller stations in Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Galveston, and San Francisco)
In 1877—dubbed “the year of violence”—tens of thousands of workers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, and elsewhere shut down the rail system for more than forty days in the Great Railway Strike.
May 4, 1886 - Haymarket Square in Chicago ended when a bomb was tossed into a group of police officers trying to break up the crowd. The police fired into the crowd and in the process created a group of martyrs to the cause of labor.
In 1901 Leon Czolgosz, the son of immigrants and an anarchist, assassinated President William McKinley.
• American Indians were not granted citizenship until after WWI
Political Issues
Indian Policies
• Resettled American Indians on reservations in western areas of the US in order to make room for whites in desirable areas
• Destruction of the buffalo and Plains cultures, assimilate children by removing them from families and placing in boarding schools
Growth of Political Machines
Tammany Hall, Boss Tweed; helped acclimate new immigrants into urban life but also influenced elections through corruptions
Civil Service Reform
Important civil service reform were the two Tenure of Office Acts of 1820 and 1867,Pendleton Act of 1883.
Proponents denounced the distribution of office by the winners of elections to their supporters as corrupt and inefficient.
Demanded nonpartisan scientific methods and credential be used to select civil servants.
Beginnings of Populism
Politically oriented coalition of agrarian reformers in the Middle West and South
(Farmer’s Alliance) organized into People’s Party or Populism
Often represent issues that major parties ignore
Can end up splitting the major party with which they have the most similarities leading to a win from other party
Economic Issues
Ruthless tactics used to destroy competition, create monopolies, and keep down workers’ wages; created unsafe working conditions; polluted the environment and wasted natural resources
Industrialization
Growth of Labor Unions
Farm Issues
Cattle Industry Boom
Rise of Entrepreneurship
Free Enterprise
Pro’s of Big Business
Con’s of Big Business
Social Issues
The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) advocated for the prohibition of alcohol. The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was one of the first groups to argue for women's suffrage.
Women
Minorities
Children
Immigrants
Urbanization
Social Gospel
Philanthropy of Industrialists
Rise of American philanthropy (referred to by Andrew Carnegie as the "Gospel of Wealth") that used private money to endow thousands of colleges, hospitals, museums, academies, schools, opera houses, public libraries, symphony orchestras, and charities.
Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early 20th century United States and Canada. The movement applied Christian ethics to social problems, especially issues of social justice such as excessive wealth, poverty, alcoholism, crime, racial tensions, slums, bad hygiene, child labor, inadequate labor unions, poor schools, and the danger of war.
Urbanization (the rapid growth of cities) went hand in hand with industrialization (the growth of factories and railroads), as well as expansion of farming.
The largest numbers of immigrants were comprised of Europeans seeking economic opportunity and Africans who were forcibly brought to the U.S. as slaves; faced harsh living conditions and discrimination
Child labor refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child labor became an issue in the early 20th century, with the National Child Labor Committee pushing for the abolition of all child labor in exchange for compulsory education.
Jim Crow legislation prevented blacks from voting and serving on juries and created a system of legal racial segregation in public and private facilities such as schools, hospitals, trains, restaurants, stores, lunchrooms, restrooms, and fitting rooms
Many blacks voted with their feet and left the South to seek better conditions; they moved to Northern cities during what became known as the Great Migration
Making possible the transition to an urban industrial nation; railroad became the first large-scale business enterprise and the model for most large corporations
Labor unions, such as carpenters, printers, shoemakers, railroad workers, and farmers grew steadily in the industrial cities after 1870. These unions used frequent short strikes as a method to attain control over the labor market, and fight off competing unions
Because of the failure of the Grange to solve agrarian problems through its self-help programs, farmers began to become more militant. The Farmers Alliance, a much more politically-oriented organization, began to attract more and more support in the 1880s as it demanded a governmental response to the plight of the farmer
Cattle industry moves into western and southwestern plains; rise in beef demands created cattle drives to railroads to ship cattle to East; Famous trails include Chisholm, Western, & Goodnight-Loving
Organization of productive resources by a person
willing to take risk to start a business;
Belief that businesses can operate competitively for a profit with little government involvement/regulation; hallmark of American economic policy; Robber Barons: called this because of ruthless tactics they used to destroy competition and keep down workers’ wages.
Efficiencies of large-scale production meant prices lowered, making goods more affordable; helped raise standard of living; introduced innovative practices which created more jobs; led to introduction of new inventions and technologies
Rise of manufacturing economy and the
decline of the agricultural economy
Growth of Railroads
Missionaries
Protestants viewed they could speak in the best interests of the country; idea led to young men, some women, being sent out around the country and around the world to spread American ideas on politics, society, and the economy through what they believed to be the driving force behind the success of the United States,
5. Obama raised more money in this election than any candidate in history.
Many times the two parties will make an alliance with a third party that has many supporters.
This law revised federal welfare policies. Bi-Partisan legislation revised funding and eligibility for welfare. Among other changes, assistance was limited to a total of five years and funding was provided by the Federal government to the states as block grants.
Oprah Winfrey – supervising producer and former host of top-rated,award winning The Oprah Winfrey Show for two decades; global media leader and philanthropist
Identify Significant Social and Political Advocacy Organizations, Leaders, and Issues
Across the Political Spectrum
In response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, the United States initiated an international military campaign known as the War on Terror (or the War on Terrorism). Led by the United States and the United Kingdom with North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) support, the War on Terror was waged initially against al-Qaeda and other militant organizations but soon expanded to include Saddam Hussein and Iraq.
The communiqué indicated that the United States and China pledged to work toward normalized relations. They also found diplomatic language that enabled them to temporarily set aside the testy issue of American recognition of Taiwan so they could move forward.

Détente was a permanent relaxation in international affairs during the Cold War rather than just a temporary relaxation (the so-called "thaw"). Detente is a term usually associated with the relations between America, Russia and China.
26th Amendment - (1971) gave 18 year olds the right to vote
Rosa Parks – Refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. After she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized.
Booker T. Washington – Early African-American leader who believed African-Americans should achieve economic independence before social equality.

- Poll taxes
- Literacy tests
- The Grandfather clause
- Racial violence with the Ku Klux Klan and others
War Powers Act
– A law passed in 1973 that limited the President’s right to send troops into battle without Congressional approval.
The Cold War Era

Sputnik (1957) – The first man-made satellite to be launched into outer space. Sputnik was a success for the Soviet Union and a symbolic success for communism. This caused the United States to increase interest in its space program and a space race developed between the United States and the Soviet Union.
On November 22, 1963, John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
United States Involvement in World Affairs
End of Cold War
Throughout the 1980’s, the Soviet Union fought an increasingly frustrating war in Afghanistan. At the same time, the Soviet economy faced the continuously escalating costs of the arms race. Dissent at home grew while the stagnant economy faltered. During 1989 and 1990, the Berlin Wall came down, borders opened, & free elections ousted Communist regimes everywhere in eastern Europe. In late 1991 the Soviet Union itself dissolved into its component republics. The Iron Curtain was lifted and the Cold War came to an end.
Persian Gulf War
Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28; by that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, simmering conflict in the troubled region led to a second Gulf War–known as the Iraq War–that began in 2003.

Balkans Crisis
In November 1992, U.S. naval vessels took part in the maritime enforcement of the U.N. embargo of the belligerents. U.S. Air Force transport aircraft have dropped tons of humanitarian aid to besieged enclaves. U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aircraft participate daily in the enforcement of the U.N. "no-fly zone" over Bosnia-Hercegovina, have shot down Bosnian Serb aircraft, and have been the principal participants in NATO bombing missions supporting the U. N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Bosnia- Hercegovina. American planes have been fired on by Bosnian Serb anti-aircraft batteries and surface-to-air missiles and one USAF F-16 has been shot down. U.S. Marines have already undertaken military action on the ground in Bosnia to rescue downed Air Force pilot Captain Scott O'Grady. To the south, over 500 U.S. soldiers are in Macedonia to deter expansion of the conflict.
9/11
On September 11, 2001, 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Often referred to as 9/11, the attacks resulted in extensive death and destruction, triggering major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism and defining the presidency of George W. Bush. Over 3,000 people were killed during the attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., including more than 400 police officers and firefighters.
Global War on Terror
Leaders
Bill Clinton – 42nd President of the US; Democrat, third president to be impeached ; was acquitted by the Senate
Hillary Clinton – First Lady of Bill Clinton; Only First Lady to be elected to a position in the government after being First Lady; Came close to winning a presidential nomination of any woman in history; served as Secretary of State under Obama
Barack Obama – First African American President of the US, elected in 2008
Bill Gates – Developed small software business in his garage that eventually employed numerous Americans and set the standard for computer software
Billy Graham – Powerful evangelical preacher; conducted many evangelical crusades and counseled the majority of Presidents from Truman through Obama
Robert Johnson – Founder of television network BET (Black Entertainment Television)
Estee Lauder – listed as one Time most influential business people in 1998, Estee Lauder grew up in New York and developed a world renowned beauty company. The basis of entrepreneurial skills were learned in her father’s hardware store and working for her uncle
Lionel Sosa – Founder of largest Hispanic advertising agency in Texas; Named among top 25 Most Influential Hispanics by Time magazine in 2005
Sonia Sotomayor – First Hispanic to serve on the Supreme Court, nominated by Obama
Sam Walton – small-town general store owner who believed he could bring important goods to America . His store Walmart is now known as an industry leader in supply cahin operations and brings low prices and common goods to communities across the world
Issues
triggered the government to enact the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, an economic stimulus package designed to create jobs, promote investment, and increase consumer spending.
2008 Recession
Engineering Failure; wind and storm surge at high tide was overwhelming resulting in death and loss of property
Levee Failure in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina
Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
as part of a federal effort to “end welfare as we know it.” TANF replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), which had provided cash welfare to poor families with children since 1935.TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) was designed to be a safety net for families going through a hard time. When a family didn't have enough money, the government would provide them with enough money to get through the month or whatever time until they could get back on their feet again. unfortunately, families began to depend on this as their sole income, which is not enough to support someone for an extended period of time.
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
OPEC- An organization of 12 oil producing nations that stabilize the oil markets by balancing supply and demand; the US is not a member but our gas prices are impacted by their decisions
Analyze the Impact of Third Parties on Presidential Elections
The problem with being a single-issue party is that often one of the two major parties will "steal" the issue, finally addressing it and thereby making the third party unnecessary.
A third party is a minor alternative party to the Democrats and the Republicans, which arise from issues that are neglected for the major parties, but are important to the citizens.
They occur when people have different views on government philosophy, such as the Socialist and the Communists, from economic protest, such as the Agrarians, or sectionalism, such as the Dixiecrats, or the green party who campaign for the environment.
Third parties tend to grab people by focusing on one issue like the environment (Green Party), sectionalism (Dixiecrats), economic protests (Populists), ideology (Communist), or magnetic personalities (Bull Moose Party and TR).
In modern days third parties use more than just one of those. They create a little competition and the votes that they receive can change the outcome of the presidency like when Al Gore ran in 2000.
Third parties do the same at Congressional levels. They also make the two parties have to appeal to the interests of the third party’s supporters so that they can have the votes of those people.
Discuss the Historical Significance of the 2008 Presidential Election
1. Barack Obama is the first African-American ever to be elected president of the United States.
2. Joe Biden is the first Roman Catholic ever to serve as vice president.
3. It is estimated that 136.6 million Americans voted for president this election, up from 122.3 million in 2004. That would give 2008 a 64.1 percent voter turnout rate, the highest since 1908.
4. States achieved record voter turnout numbers of African-Americans and Hispanics. Whites are estimated to have made up 74 percent of the 2008 electorate, down from 81 percent in 2008 because of the increase in black and Hispanic voting. In North Carolina, blacks make up 22 percent of the population, but 31 percent of newly registered voters were black.
Economic Globalization Organizations
GATT – General Agreement and Tariffs and Trade

NAFTA – North American Free Trade Agreement between US, Canada and Mexico
United States Involvement in the Middle East
Support for Israel

US has been a leader in helping keep the peace in Middle East due to on-going conflicts between Israel and Arab neighbors. US sponsored the creation of Israel and serves as protector and ally.
Camp Davis Accords

The 1978 Camp David Accords resulted from meetings led by President Carter at Camp David in Maryland and led to 1979 Israel-Palestinian Peace Treaty.

Iran-Contra Affairs

secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. The Iran-contra affair was the product of two separate initiatives during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The first was a commitment to aid the contras who were conducting a guerrilla war against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The second was to placate "moderates" within the Iranian government in order to secure the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon and to influence Iranian foreign policy in a pro-Western direction

Marines in Lebanon

During the Lebanese Civil War, a multinational force including 800 U.S. Marines lands in Beirut to oversee the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon. It was the beginning of a problem-plagued mission that would stretch into 17 months and leave 262 U.S. servicemen dead.
.
Iran Hostage Crisis


On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 American hostages. The immediate cause of this action was President Jimmy Carter’s decision to allow Iran’s deposed Shah, a pro-Western autocrat who had been expelled from his country some months before, to come to the United States for cancer treatment.
However, the hostage-taking was about more than the Shah’s medical care: it was a dramatic way for the student revolutionaries to declare a break with Iran’s past and an end to American interference in its affairs. It was also a way to raise the intra- and international profile of the revolution’s leader, the anti-American cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.
The students set their hostages free on January 21, 1981, 444 days after the crisis began and just hours after President Ronald Reagan delivered his inaugural address. Many historians believe that hostage crisis cost Jimmy Carter a second term as president.
Richard Nixon’s Leadership in the Normalization of Relations with China
Nixon announced in mid-1971 that he would travel to China in February 1972. He also began loosening trade restrictions with China. On February 28, the last day of Nixon's trip, the U.S. and China jointly issued what is now known as the "Shanghai Communique."
Policy of Détente
Civil Rights Movement
Important Terms
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) – Supreme Court decision that made segregation illegal in public schools.
The Little Rock Nine – Group of African-American students that were integrated into an all-white school, Little Rock High School, in 1957
24th Amendment – Abolished the poll tax.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Made discrimination based on race, religion, or national origin in public places illegal and required employers to hire on an equal opportunity basis.
American Indian Movement (AIM) – Oragnization of the Native American Civil Rights movement. Focusing on recognition of their rights, AIM temporarily seized some federal government properties in the early 1970’s
National Organization of Women (NOW) – founded in 1966 to support “full equality for women in America.” Gloria Steinem was a leader of this movement.
Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) – Supreme Court case dealing with affirmative action programs designed to increase minority representation in colleges and professions.
Civil Rights Movement
Important People
Cesar Chavez –Helped organize mostly Spanish-speaking farm workers into the United Farm Workers of America. The success of this union led to other civil rights reforms for Hispanic Americans, including bilingual education.
Martin Luther King, Jr. – Civil Rights leader during the 1950’s and 60’s. He helped organize the Montgomery bus boycott to protest segregation on buses. He organized the March on Washington where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. King was assassinated in 1968.
Malcolm X – Black Muslim leader who argued for separation, not integration, and influenced the Black Power movement. He changed his stance but was assassinated in 1965.
Early African-American Leaders
W.E.B. Du Bois – Early civil rights leader and founder of the
NAACP. Du Bois demanded equality for African-Americans.
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
The Struggle for Freedom
Slavery
– Bound in servitude as the property of another person. The slave trade brought slaves from Africa to the colonies and the U. S.
Abolition movement –
The movement to end slavery. Famous abolitionists include Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863) –
during the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln freed all the slaves in the Confederate states. Slave states loyal to the Union were allowed to keep their slaves.
13th Amendment –
Abolished slavery
14th Amendment –
Gave all U.S. citizens equal protection under the law regardless of color.
15th Amendment –
Gave African-American men the right to vote

Early Struggles for Equality
Segregation
– separation of races
Jim Crow laws
– Southern race laws that encouraged segregation and discrimination against African-Americans
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
– Supreme Court decision that upheld segregation and said that “separate but equal” facilities were legal.
Techniques used to prevent voting:
Berlin Wall (1961)
– A wall built by the Soviets to separate East and West Berlin. The wall stood until 1989 when communism collapsed in the Soviet Union.
Bay of Pigs (1961)
– A failed invasion of Cuba planned by the United States government. The U.S. used Cuban exiles to invade Cuba, but were soundly defeated by the Cuban military.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
– A standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union when it was discovered that the Soviets had installed missiles pointed at the United States. The United States pledged not to invade Cuba when the Soviet Union removed the missiles.
Vietnam War (1954-1975)
– A war between the Communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
- At home, the nation was divided over U.S. involvement in the war.
- The United States withdrew and South Vietnam was overtaken by communists in 1975.
Domino theory – The belief that if a nearby nation becomes communist, surrounding nations will follow suit. Was used as a rationale for containment.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution – Congressional approval that gave President Lyndon B. Johnson the power to escalate the war in Vietnam.

Hawks – Supporters of the Vietnam War who believed the U.S. should increase military force in order to win the war.
Doves – Critics of the Vietnam War who believed the U.S. should withdraw.
Cold War-strained relations between the U. S. and U.S.S.R. with competition often in non-military ways.
Containment – The policy that the United States should prevent communism from spreading to other nations.

United Nations (1945) – International organization formed after WWII to serve as a peacekeeper in world conflicts. The U. S. and Soviet Union used the UN to promote their beliefs during the Cold War.
Truman Doctrine (1947) – U.S. policy that gave military and economic aid to countries threatened by communism.

Marshall Plan (1948) – Program, proposed by Gen. George Marshall, to help European countries rebuild after WWII. The United States offered economic aid to the war-torn countries.
NATO (1949) – North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A military alliance formed between the United States, Canada, and ten western European countries.

Berlin Airlift – U.S. operation that flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet Union set up a blockade in 1948.

Korean War (1950-1953)
 After WWII, Korea was divided between North and South at the 38th parallel.
 North Korea (Communist) invaded South Korea (Democratic) in 1950.
 As a result, the United States sent troops to help the South Koreans.
 In 1953, the war ended in a stalemate but South Korea remained a democracy.

The Rosenbergs (1951) – An American couple who were accused of Communism and helping the Soviet Union obtain information about the atomic bomb. They were found guilty and sentenced to death.

Nuclear weapons – In 1952, the U.S. successfully detonated the H-bomb, the first nuclear weapon. The Soviet Union exploded a nuclear weapon in 1953. The arms race followed as both countries amassed more nuclear weapons.
Joe McCarthy – Senator from Wisconsin who, in the 1950’s, became famous by accusing people of being Communists without providing evidence. His technique was called -
McCarthyism (1954) – Witch-hunt of suspected Communists.
POST-WAR AMERICA (1945-1974)
Life under Harry Truman (1945-1952)
GI Bill – A 1944 law that gives military veterans financial and educational benefits.
Taft-Hartley Act – Law passed in 1947 that struck a blow to the power of the labor union. The bill overturned many rights won by unions under the New Deal.
Suburbs – Communities built on the outskirts of Major cities. Levittown was the first suburb community.
The Baby Boom – The period from the end of World War II through the mid-1960s marked by unusually high birth rates.
Life under Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1960)
Interstate Highway Act (1956) – Authorized the building of a national highway system. The new roads encouraged the development of suburbs away from the city.
Rock N’ Roll – Form of music that became popular in the 1950’s.
Life under John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Kennedy and Richard Nixon were involved in the first televised debate.
Peace Corps – Volunteer program that helped developing nations.
New Frontier – Kennedy’s program that addressed social and international concerns and the expansion of the space program.
NASA – The United States’ space agency that sent Americans into outerspace. In 1969, the first man landed on the moon.
World War II (1941-1945)
Important Dates
1939 – Adolf Hitler invades Poland. WWII begins.
1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii. As a result, the U.S. enters the war.
1945 – Germany is defeated to end the war in Europe. The atomic bomb is dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the war in the Pacific.
Gen. George Marshall
– Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army during World War II. He oversaw all military operations in the War in Europe. After the war, he was responsible for the Marshall Plan.
Allied Powers (Leader)
Great Britain (Winston Churchill)
France (Charles DeGaulle)
United States (Franklin D. Roosevelt- Harry S.Truman)
Soviet Union ( Joseph Stalin)
Axis Powers (Dictator)
Germany (Adolf Hitler)
Italy (Benito Mussolini)
Japan ( Hideki Tojo)
Causes of World War II
- Harsh treatment of Germany after World War I.
- The rise of dictators and totalitarianism in Europe.
- Germany’s invasion of Poland.
The War in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor
– On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, as a result, the U.S. enters the war.
Battle of Midway
– The turning point in the war in the Pacific. This pivotal battle dealt a severe blow to the Japanese navy.
Island-hopping
– Allied naval strategy to reach Japan by taking one island at a time.
The atomic bomb
– Powerful weapon dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Harry Truman made the decision to drop the bomb in an effort to reduce American casualties. As a result, WWII ends.
The War in Europe
The Holocaust
– The mass murder of 6 million Jews and others in Nazi concentration camps.
Two-front war
– Germany was forced to fight British and American troops from the West and Russia from the East. This divided Germany’s army in two and helped the Allies gain the advantage in Europe.
Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)
– On June 6, 1944, Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower led an Allied attack on German-controlled France. The Allied forces won the battle, causing German forces to retreat
The Homefront
-Entering WWII helped the United States
end the Great Depression
.
-Rationing:
Wartime restriction of items used by the public.
-Internment of Japanese-Americans
, Italians and Germans: Forcing over 100,000 Japanese-Americans to relocate to crowded prison camps during WWII.
-During the war,
women and minorities
played a large role at home. Women and minorities were asked to fill the jobs that were left behind by soldiers going overseas.
Japan ( Hideki Tojo)
Attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 ; Attacks at Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway; Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths
Development of Atomic Weapons

The Manhattan Project, the effort to quickly develop an atomic bomb, or nuclear fission warhead. It was perhaps the most profound military development of the war, and had a great impact on the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States
US Office of War Information


created in 1942 to both craft and disseminate the government’s message. This propaganda campaign included specific goals and strategies. Artists, filmmakers, and intellectuals were recruited to take the government’s agenda (objectives) and turn it into a propaganda campaign. This included posters found across American-from railway stations to post offices, from schools to apartment buildings.
Liberation of Concentration Camps
On July 24,1944, Soviet soldiers moving through Lublin, Poland, captured the Majdanek extermination camp before its German operators could destroy the evidence of what had taken place there. Upon arrival, they found hundreds of dead bodies, along with gas chambers, crematoria, and thousands of living prisoners in varying states of starvation. Although the West had received reports of such atrocities for some time, this Soviet discovery was the first absolute proof. On January 27, 1945, Soviet troops liberated the Auschwitz concentration camp complex, where they discovered some 7,000 prisoners, including young children, who had not been evacuated by the SS. American soldiers, too, witnessed evidence of the Holocaust and Nazi atrocities as they marched into the interior of Germany, liberating the major concentration camps such as Buchenwald, Dachau, and Mauthausen as well as hundreds of subcamps, including Ohrdruf (a subcamp of Buchenwald). Though the liberation of Nazi camps was not a primary objective of the Allied military campaign, US, British, Canadian, and Soviet troops freed prisoners from their SS guards, provided them with food and badly needed medical support, and collected evidence for war crimes trials.
*George Patton
Colorful and celebrated tank commander for the Third Armored Division who spearheaded the final attack into Germany in WWII
Marcus Garvey
– Publisher, Journalist, and Black Nationalist; Founder of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League
Eugenics
the social movement claiming to improve the genetic features of human populations through selective breeding and sterilization
- Overconfidence of American consumers led to the widespread use of credit.
The Scopes Trial
– The famous “Monkey Trial” that pitted creationism against Darwin’s theory of evolution. The trial represented the clash between science and fundamentalist religion.
The Harlem Renaissance
–Period of African-American cultural creativity in music, art, and literature during the 1920’s, centered in Harlem. Ex: poet Langston Hughes.
The paintings of Georgia O’Keeffe, including those focusing on New York City:
- Decline in agricultural prices
- Unequal distribution of income.
- Overproduction of consumer goods.
- Consumer overconfidence & buying goods on credit.
- Buying stocks on margin for quick profit
- Bank failures
Important Date
1929 – The Stock Market Crash
The Great Depression, 1929-1940
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945):
Defeated Hoover in 1932. Implemented the New Deal to help with the Great Depression. Gave fireside chats on the radio to communicate with the American public.
.Dust Bowl – Term used to describe the area of the Great Plains where heavy droughts had dried up the farmland. This forced many residents of the Great Plains to relocate.
John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath – Famous novel that describes the hardships of the Great Depression. In the novel, a family from Oklahoma moves to California to escape the Dust Bowl.
-
WWII brought us out of the Depression by creating jobs in industry and the military.
Recall
A public official can be removed by popular vote
19th gave women with the right to vote
• The national political leaders of the Progressive Era included Theodore Roosevelt; Robert M. La Follette, Sr.; Charles Evans Hughes; and Herbert Hoover on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith on the Democratic side.
W.E.B. DuBois
Early civil rights leader, published the “The Souls of Black Folks” in 1903 and helped found the NAACP in 1909; Advocated for Pan-Africanism ( all African descent people should fight oppression together; eventually left the NAACP and believed in black separatism
M
ilitarism
Nations built large armies to help them secure their empires.
A
lliances
European nations signed secret treaties with each other that created a system of alliances.
I
mperialism
Competition between European countries to create empires.
N
ationalism
Strong feelings of pride for one’s country.
Causes of World War 1 (1914-1918)
Immediate Cause:
Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

The immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary. In June 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated him and his wife while they were in Sarajevo, Bosnia which was part of Austria-Hungary. This was in protest to Austria-Hungary having control of this region. Serbia wanted to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina. This assassination led to Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia. When Russia began to mobilize due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances.
Reasons for US Entry into World War I (1914-1918)

On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson went before a joint session of Congress to request a declaration of war against Germany. Wilson cited Germany’s violation of its pledge to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare in the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean, and its attempts to entice Mexico into an alliance against the United States, as his reasons for declaring war.
Close Ties with the Allies
– Americans and British spoke the same language. We shared the notion of democracy. Many Americans traced their ancestry to Great Britain.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – German policy of sinking any ships in the water, including merchant and passenger ships.
Lusitania – British passenger ship that was destroyed by a German submarine. 128 Americans were killed.
Important Dates
1914 – World War I begins in Europe
1917 – The United States enters WWI on the Allied side
1918 – The Allies win WWI when Germany surrenders
Gen. John Pershing
– The commander of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I. Under his leadership, American forces helped end the stalemate and led the Allies to Victory.
Allied Powers

- Great Britain-
- France
-The United States
- Russia
- Serbia
Central Powers
- Germany
- Austria-Hungary
- The Ottoman Empire
- Bulgaria
American Expeditionary Forces
– Led by General John J. Pershing; Military force created to fight the Germans in World War I
Progressive Era Reforms

Gave people more say in how the government is run and operated, making a more democratic government
Initiative
Citizens can introduce new legislation and can propose a new law by petition
Referendum
Submitting a proposed public measure or statue to direct popular vote
Recall
A public official can be removed by popular vote
Progressive Era Amendments
16th
Allowed Income Tax

17th
Allowed the direct election of senators, increasing the public’s influence over the government

18th
outlawed the manufacturing, sale, or transport of alcohol

19th
gave women with the right to vote
The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s. Key points include:

• Characteristics of the Progressive Era include purification of the government, modernization, a focus on family and education, prohibition, and women's suffrage.

• Many Progressives sought to rid the government of corruption, and muckraking became a particular type of journalism that exposed waste, corruption, and scandal on a national level.

• The national political leaders of the Progressive Era included Theodore Roosevelt; Robert M. La Follette, Sr.; Charles Evans Hughes; and Herbert Hoover on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al Smith on the Democratic side.
Muckrackers and Reform Leaders
Upton Sinclair
Wrote the book The Jungle to expose conditions in US meat packing industry causing public uproar and leading to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.

Susan B. Anthony
Advocated for women’s suffrage

Ida B. Wells
African reformer and leader in the anti-lynching crusade and women’s suffrage movement

W.E.B. DuBois
Early civil rights leader, published the “The Souls of Black Folks” in 1903 and helped found the NAACP in 1909; Advocated for Pan-Africanism ( all African descent people should fight oppression together; eventually left the NAACP and believed in black separatism
The Great Depression, 1929-1940

Causes of the Great Depression
- Decline in agricultural prices
- Unequal distribution of income.
- Overproduction of consumer goods.
- Consumer overconfidence & buying goods on credit.
- Buying stocks on margin for quick profit
- Bank failures
Important Date
1929 – The Stock Market Crash
Life during the Great Depression
Unemployment
– Unemployment rose as high as 25% during the Great Depression.
“Hoovervilles”
– Shantytowns on the outskirts of the cities of homeless and uemployed people.
Bread lines and soup kitchens
– Methods by which the needy could obtain free or low-priced food.
Dust Bowl
– Term used to describe the area of the Great Plains where heavy droughts had dried up the farmland. This forced many residents of the Great Plains to relocate.
John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath
– Famous novel that describes the hardships of the Great Depression. In the novel, a family from Oklahoma moves to California to escape the Dust Bowl.
Programs during the Great Depression

Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam) – Dam built on the Colorado River to help stimulate business and provide jobs.

The New Deal: Roosevelt’s program to fight the Great Depression.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
– Law that attempted to raise crop prices by lowering production.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
– Public works program that gave jobs to young men. The workers planted trees, fought forest fires and built public parks.

Works Progress Administration (WPA)
– Created jobs by hiring writers and artists.
New Deal Programs still in effect today:
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) – Provided insurance for people’s bank accounts.

SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) – Govt. agency that regulates the stock market.

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – Program that built dams in the Tennessee Valley area in order to control flooding and provide electric power.

***Social Security Act*** -- The most important act of the New Deal. Social Security provided unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, old age pensions, and insurance for families.

-FDR battles the Supreme Court – The Supreme Court had declared several New Deal programs unconstitutional. In order to get his programs passed, FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court, a tactic known as court-packing.

-WWII brought us out of the Depression by creating jobs in industry and the military.

World War II (1941-1945)
Important Dates
1939 – Adolf Hitler invades Poland. WWII begins.

1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii. As a result, the U.S. enters the war.

1945 – Germany is defeated to end the war in Europe. The atomic bomb is dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end the war in the Pacific.
Important People
Franklin D. Roosevelt – President of the United States during WWII. Declared war on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Harry Truman – President of the United States during WWII. Made the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan.

Gen. Dwight Eisenhower – U.S. general in Europe during World War II. He was in charge of the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day).

Gen. Douglas MacArthur – U.S. general in charge of the Allied forces in the Pacific Ocean.

Gen. Omar Bradley – U.S. general who led the U.S. 1st Army during the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day).

Gen. George Marshall – Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army during World War II. He oversaw all military operations in the War in Europe. After the war, he was responsible for the Marshall Plan.
Allied Powers (Leader)
Great Britain (Winston Churchill)
France (Charles DeGaulle)
United States (Franklin D. Roosevelt- Harry S.Truman)
Soviet Union ( Joseph Stalin)
Axis Powers (Dictator)
Germany (Adolf Hitler)
Italy (Benito Mussolini)
Japan (Hideki Tojo)
Causes of World War II
- Harsh treatment of Germany after World War I.
- The rise of dictators and totalitarianism in Europe.
- Germany’s invasion of Poland.
Japan (Hideki Tojo)
Attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 ; Attacks at Philippines, Wake Island, Guam, Malaya, Thailand, Shanghai and Midway; Bataan Death March begins as 76,000 Allied POWs including 12,000 Americans are forced to walk 60 miles under a blazing sun without food or water toward a new POW camp, resulting in over 5,000 American deaths

Germany (Adolf Hitler)

Nazis invade Poland , bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland, invade Denmark and Norway; invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Germans bomb Paris ; German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic; bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England; German troops enter Romania; massive air raid on London; Attack Soviet Union; Hitler declares war on US; air raid on Stalingrad; massacre of millions of Jews
Italy (Benito Mussolini)
Italy attacks Ethiopia; Italians occupy British Somalia in East Africa; invades Egypt; invades Greece
Aggressions by Axis Powers
Major Issues of World War II
Holocaust
the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community

Internment of Germans, Italian and Japanese Americans
Under Executive Order 9066,after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the US evicted nearly 120,00o residents of Japanese descent from the Pacific coast and transferred them to 27 “relocation centers”. Also, Italian and German people were detained in camps. All three nationalities were targeted and not given due process under the law.

Executive Order 9066
In an atmosphere of World War II hysteria, President Roosevelt, encouraged by officials at all levels of the federal government, authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan; dated February 19, 1942

Development of Conventional Weapons
Armored tanks, guided torpedoes and missiles by wires or remote controls, fighter jets and first helicopter used; proximity fuses and specialized bombs; napalm used a little at end of war; race to design better weapons; radar, sonar and depth charges to locate and sink German subs.

Development of Atomic Weapons
The Manhattan Project, the effort to quickly develop an atomic bomb, or nuclear fission warhead. It was perhaps the most profound military development of the war, and had a great impact on the scientific community, among other things creating a network of national laboratories in the United States


Military Contributions of World War II Leaders

*Omar Bradley
Commanded 1st US Army during D-Day Invasion,lead liberation of Paris,won the Battle of the Bulge
*Dwight Eisenhower
34th President;Prior to Presidency,served in WWII as commander of Allied Forces in North Africa,Sicily, & Italy; Promoted to General after D-Day;created interstate highway system as President
*Douglas MacArthur
Commanded of the US Army in the Pacific during WWII
*Chester A. Nimitz
Commander of the US Navy and Allied land and sea forces in the Pacific WWII
*George Marshall
Chief of Staff that coordinated the war effort from Washington DC
*George Patton
Colorful and celebrated tank commander for the Third Armored Division who spearheaded the final attack into Germany in WWII
Life under Harry Truman
(1945-1952)
GI Bill – A 1944 law that gives military veterans financial and educational benefits.

Taft-Hartley Act – Law passed in 1947 that struck a blow to the power of the labor union. The bill overturned many rights won by unions under the New Deal.

Suburbs – Communities built on the outskirts of Major cities. Levittown was the first suburb community.

The Baby Boom – The period from the end of World War II through the mid-1960s marked by unusually high birth rates.

Life under Dwight Eisenhower (1953-1960)
Interstate Highway Act (1956) – Authorized the building of a national highway system. The new roads encouraged the development of suburbs away from the city.

Rock N’ Roll – Form of music that became popular in the 1950’s.

Life under John F. Kennedy (1961-1963)
Kennedy and Richard Nixon were involved in the first televised debate.
Peace Corps – Volunteer program that helped developing nations.
New Frontier – Kennedy’s program that addressed social and international concerns and the expansion of the space program.
NASA – The United States’ space agency that sent Americans into outerspace. In 1969, the first man landed on the moon.
On November 22, 1963, John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.
Life under Lyndon B. Johnson (1963-1968)
Great Society – Lyndon B. Johnson’s program that addressed America’s social problems including health care, civil rights, and urban decay.
The War on Poverty – Johnson’s agenda designed to help poor Americans. This included the Head Start program and Job Corps Training.
Medicare (1965) – Federal program that provides health insurance to Americans over the age 65.
Medicaid (1965) – Program that provides health insurance for people on welfare.
HUD (Housing and Urban Development) – The federal department responsible for the major housing programs in the United States.
Johnson’s Civil Rights record – Civil rights was a focal point during the Johnson administration and many laws were passed during his Presidency including:
 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Made discrimination based on race, religion or national origin in public places illegal.
 The Voting Rights Act of 1965 – eliminated literacy tests for voters.
 24th Amendment – abolished the poll tax.
 The Civil Rights Act of 1968 – Prohibited discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.


Life under Richard Nixon (1969-1974)
26th Amendment – Gave voting rights to Americans 18 years and older.
Nixon’s trip to China – In 1972, Nixon visited China, a Communist nation, to open up diplomatic and economic relations. This was seen as a success with the American public.
Watergate – A political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice; led to the resignation of Richard Nixon in 1974.
The Cold War Era
Cold War-strained relations between the U. S. and U.S.S.R. with competition often in non-military ways.
Containment – The policy that the United States should prevent communism from spreading to other nations.
United Nations (1945) – International organization formed after WWII to serve as a peacekeeper in world conflicts. The U. S. and Soviet Union used the UN to promote their beliefs during the Cold War.
Truman Doctrine (1947) – U.S. policy that gave military and economic aid to countries threatened by communism.
Marshall Plan (1948) – Program, proposed by Gen. George Marshall, to help European countries rebuild after WWII. The United States offered economic aid to the war-torn countries.
NATO (1949) – North Atlantic Treaty Organization. A military alliance formed between the United States, Canada, and ten western European countries.
Berlin Airlift – U.S. operation that flew food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet Union set up a blockade in 1948.
Korean War (1950-1953)
 After WWII, Korea was divided between North and South at the 38th parallel.
 North Korea (Communist) invaded South Korea (Democratic) in 1950.
 As a result, the United States sent troops to help the South Koreans.
 In 1953, the war ended in a stalemate but South Korea remained a democracy
The Rosenbergs (1951) – An American couple who were accused of Communism and helping the Soviet Union obtain information about the atomic bomb. They were found guilty and sentenced to death.
Nuclear weapons – In 1952, the U.S. successfully detonated the H-bomb, the first nuclear weapon. The Soviet Union exploded a nuclear weapon in 1953. The arms race followed as both countries amassed more nuclear weapons.
The Cold War Era
Joe McCarthy – Senator from Wisconsin who, in the 1950’s, became famous by accusing people of being Communists without providing evidence. His technique was called -
McCarthyism (1954) – Witch-hunt of suspected Communists.
Sputnik (1957) – The first man-made satellite to be launched into outer space. Sputnik was a success for the Soviet Union and a symbolic success for communism. This caused the United States to increase interest in its space program and a space race developed between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Vietnam War (1954-1975) – A war between the Communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
- At home, the nation was divided over U.S. involvement in the war.
- The United States withdrew and South Vietnam was overtaken by communists in 1975.
Domino theory – The belief that if a nearby nation becomes communist, surrounding nations will follow suit. Was used as a rationale for conatinment.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution – Congressional approval that gave President Lyndon B. Johnson the power to escalate the war in Vietnam.
Hawks – Supporters of the Vietnam War who believed the U.S. should increase military force in order to win the war.
Doves – Critics of the Vietnam War who believed the U.S. should withdraw.
War Powers Act – A law passed in 1973 that limited the President’s right to send troops into battle without Congressional approval.

Berlin Wall (1961) – A wall built by the Soviets to separate East and West Berlin. The wall stood until 1989 when communism collapsed in the Soviet Union.
Bay of Pigs (1961) – A failed invasion of Cuba planned by the United States government. The U.S. used Cuban exiles to invade Cuba, but were soundly defeated by the Cuban military.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – A standoff between the United States and the Soviet Union when it was discovered that the Soviets had installed missiles pointed at the United States. The United States pledged not to invade Cuba when the Soviet Union removed the missiles.
Richard Nixon’s Leadership in the Normalization of Relations with China
Nixon announced in mid-1971 that he would travel to China in February 1972. He also began loosening trade restrictions with China. On February 28, the last day of Nixon's trip, the U.S. and China jointly issued what is now known as the "Shanghai Communique." The communiqué indicated that the United States and China pledged to work toward normalized relations. They also found diplomatic language that enabled them to temporarily set aside the testy issue of American recognition of Taiwan so they could move forward.
Life Under Gerald Ford
Term: 1974–1977. Ford became Vice President after Nixon's Vice President resigned in disgrace, and President after Nixon resigned. His pardon of Nixon was unpopular, probably costing him reelection.
Famous Fact: Ford is the only President never elected President or Vice President.
Life Under Jimmy Carter
Term: 1977–1981. Carter had success promoting Middle East peace. But soaring oil prices, high inflation, and the Iran hostage crisis made him look weak and ineffectual.
Famous Fact: Since leaving office, Carter has traveled the world doing charity work.
Life Under Ronald Reagan
Term: 1981–1989. Reagan is credited with reviving national pride after the turmoil of the 1960s and 1970s. He enjoyed great popularity, though his conservative policies were controversial.
Famous Fact: Reagan is the only President to survive after being wounded by a would-be assassin.
Life Under George H.W. Bush
Term: 1989–1993. During Bush's term, the Soviet Union collapsed and the Cold War ended. He also led the U.S. in the 1991 Gulf War against Iraq. But economic troubles at home cost him his reelection bid.
Famous Fact: Bush was the first sitting Vice President to be elected President since Martin Van Buren.
Life Under George W. Bush
Term: 2001–2008. Just eight months after being sworn in, President Bush had to unite a mournful country after the September 11th terrorist attacks. A self-proclaimed wartime commander-in-chief, President Bush, like his father, led the United States into war against Iraq.
Famous Fact: Before focusing on national politics, George Bush was the managing partner and part owner of the Texas Rangers baseball team from 1989-1998.
Life Under Bill Clinton
Term: 1993–2000. Clinton achieved goals such as passage of the NAFTA trade agreement and cuts in the budget deficit. But his popularity was uneven and opponents tried to link him to several scandals.
Famous Fact: At 16, Clinton met President Kennedy at the White House. It inspired his interest in politics.
Life Under Barack Obama
Term: 2009–2013; 2013–2017
Famous Fact: Barack Obama is the first African American president of the United States.
Support for Israel
US has been a leader in helping keep the peace in Middle East due to on-going conflicts between Israel and Arab neighbors. US sponsored the creation of Israel and serves as protector and ally.
Camp Davis Accords
The 1978 Camp David Accords resulted from meetings led by President Carter at Camp David in Maryland and led to 1979 Israel-Palestinian Peace Treaty.
Iran-Contra Affairs

secret arrangement in the 1980s to provide funds to the Nicaraguan contra rebels from profits gained by selling arms to Iran. The Iran-contra affair was the product of two separate initiatives during the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The first was a commitment to aid the contras who were conducting a guerrilla war against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. The second was to placate "moderates" within the Iranian government in order to secure the release of American hostages held by pro-Iranian groups in Lebanon and to influence Iranian foreign policy in a pro-Western direction.
Iran Hostage Crisis

On November 4, 1979, a group of Iranian students stormed the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 American hostages. The immediate cause of this action was President Jimmy Carter’s decision to allow Iran’s deposed Shah, a pro-Western autocrat who had been expelled from his country some months before, to come to the United States for cancer treatment. However, the hostage-taking was about more than the Shah’s medical care: it was a dramatic way for the student revolutionaries to declare a break with Iran’s past and an end to American interference in its affairs. It was also a way to raise the intra- and international profile of the revolution’s leader, the anti-American cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The students set their hostages free on January 21, 1981, 444 days after the crisis began and just hours after President Ronald Reagan delivered his inaugural address. Many historians believe that hostage crisis cost Jimmy Carter a second term as president.
Marines in Lebanon
During the Lebanese Civil War, a multinational force including 800 U.S. Marines lands in Beirut to oversee the Palestinian withdrawal from Lebanon. It was the beginning of a problem-plagued mission that would stretch into 17 months and leave 262 U.S. servicemen dead.
Persian Gulf War
Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein ordered the invasion and occupation of neighboring Kuwait in early August 1990. Alarmed by these actions, fellow Arab powers such as Saudi Arabia and Egypt called on the United States and other Western nations to intervene. Hussein defied United Nations Security Council demands to withdraw from Kuwait by mid-January 1991, and the Persian Gulf War began with a massive U.S.-led air offensive known as Operation Desert Storm. After 42 days of relentless attacks by the allied coalition in the air and on the ground, U.S. President George H.W. Bush declared a cease-fire on February 28; by that time, most Iraqi forces in Kuwait had either surrendered or fled. Though the Persian Gulf War was initially considered an unqualified success for the international coalition, simmering conflict in the troubled region led to a second Gulf War–known as the Iraq War–that began in 2003.
Balkans Crisis In November 1992
U.S. naval vessels took part in the maritime enforcement of the U.N. embargo of the belligerents. U.S. Air Force transport aircraft have dropped tons of humanitarian aid to besieged enclaves. U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aircraft participate daily in the enforcement of the U.N. "no-fly zone" over Bosnia-Hercegovina, have shot down Bosnian Serb aircraft, and have been the principal participants in NATO bombing missions supporting the U. N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) in Bosnia- Hercegovina. American planes have been fired on by Bosnian Serb anti-aircraft batteries and surface-to-air missiles and one USAF F-16 has been shot down. U.S. Marines have already undertaken military action on the ground in Bosnia to rescue downed Air Force pilot Captain Scott O'Grady. To the south, over 500 U.S. soldiers are in Macedonia to deter expansion of the conflict.
9/11
On September 11, 2001, 19 militants associated with the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda hijacked four airliners and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the United States. Two of the planes were flown into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Often referred to as 9/11, the attacks resulted in extensive death and destruction, triggering major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism and defining the presidency of George W. Bush. Over 3,000 people were killed during the attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C., including more than 400 police officers and firefighters.
2008 recession triggered the government to enact the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, an economic stimulus package designed to create jobs, promote investment, and increase consumer spending.

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996
as part of a federal effort to “end welfare as we know it.” TANF replaced Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), which had provided cash welfare to poor families with children since 1935.TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) was designed to be a safety net for families going through a hard time. When a family didn't have enough money, the government would provide them with enough money to get through the month or whatever time until they could get back on their feet again. unfortunately, families began to depend on this as their sole income, which is not enough to support someone for an extended period of time.
Welfare Reform Act of 1996
This law revised federal welfare policies. Bi-Partisan legislation revised funding and eligibility for welfare. Among other changes, assistance was limited to a total of five years and funding was provided by the Federal government to the states as block grants.
Bill Clinton’s Impeachment
The House of Representatives approved, 228 to 206, the first article of impeachment, accusing Mr. Clinton of perjury for misleading a Federal grand jury last Aug. 17 about the nature of his relationship with a White House intern, Monica S. Lewinsky. The grand jury testimony took place due to allegations of sexual harassment from another woman, Paula Jones. Impeachment decree, William Jefferson Clinton has undermined the integrity of his office, has brought disrepute on the Presidency, has betrayed his trust as President, and has acted in a manner subversive of the rule of law and justice, to the manifest injury of the people of the United States. The Senate did not pass the House’s impeachment.
Watergate
In May 1972, as evidence would later show, members of Nixon’s Committee to Re-Elect the President broke into the Democratic National Committee’s Watergate headquarters, stole copies of top-secret documents and bugged the office’s phones. Nixon arranged to provide hundreds of thousands of dollars in “hush money” to the burglars. Then, he and his aides hatched a plan to instruct the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to impede the FBI’s investigation of the crime. This was a more serious crime than the break-in: It was an abuse of presidential power and a deliberate obstruction of justice.
Community Reinvestment Act of 1977
An act of Congress enacted in 1977 with the intention of encouraging depository institutions to help meet the credit needs of surrounding communities (particularly low and moderate income neighborhoods).
US Patriot Act of 2001
The title of the act is a ten-letter acronym (USA PATRIOT) that stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001
United States Movement to a World Power
Spanish-American War
American imperialism increase despite protests at home; increased the size of the Navy; US emerges as world power; Acquired territories of Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico
US Expansionism
Moving the US in a position as world power by expanding influence; sought new markets in foreign lands; spreading democracy throughout the world
Henry Cabot Lodge
Supported American expansion as a way to increase national pride, spread civilization, and gain world power
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Historian and author of a book on the importance of the navy to the country’s power
Theodore Roosevelt
“Rough Rider” during Spanish-American War; expansionist policies as President increased the US role in Latin America & the world; reasserted the Monroe Doctrine
Sanford B. Dole
Negotiated the annexation of Hawaii to Us in 1898; served as president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Hawaii after Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown
Zimmerman Note
– Telegram sent by Germany, proposing that Mexico ally itself with Germany if the United States entered the war. In return, Mexico would receive land that it had lost to the United States
Important People
Archduke Franz Ferdinand –
Archduke of Austria Hungary Assassinated by a Serbian in 1914. His murder was one of the Causes of World War I.
Woodrow Wilson –
President of the United States during World War I. Wilson wanted to fight the war “to make the world safe for Democracy.”
Henry Cabot Lodge –
U.S. Senator who opposed the League of Nations.
World War I Key Terms:
Trench Warfare
– Opposing sides attack from ditches instead of on an open battlefield.
New weapons introduced during the war:
machine guns, poison gas, tanks, and airplane warfare or “dog fighting.”
Stalemate
– A situation where neither side can gain an advantage in combat.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
– Woodrow Wilson’s proposal for peace after WWI. Wilson called for freedom of the seas, ending secret treaties, a League of Nations and other peaceful measures.
League of Nations
– International organization formed after WWI to help solve disputes between countries. The United States did not join due to fears of being pulled into another international war
Treaty of Versailles
– The treaty that ended WWI. It blamed Germany for WWI and handed down harsh punishment. The treatment of Germany in the treaty helped lead to the rise of Adolf Hitler and WWII. The U. S. did not ratify the treaty. Instead, the U. S. signed a separate agreement with Germany
Isolationism
- US stance prior to both World Wars that is was better to be isolated from world affairs than be entangled in foreign conflicts, stems in part from Washington’s farewell Address
Neutrality
- Initially, public opinion, led by Wilson, advocated for neutrality and preferred the U.S. stay out of the European conflict. Despite demands for preparedness, Wilson kept the military small and made no preparation for war.
Battle of Argonne Forest
- Americans launched the most massive attack in American history when they started their offensive in the region between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest. On September 26, 1918 the American General John J. Pershing assembled over 600,000 American troops with 40,000 tons of supplies and 4,000 artillery pieces at hand. The Americans had heavy losses but by early November the Americans had shattered the German defense and opened a hole in the German lines.
Progressive Era Reforms
Gave people more say in how the government is run and operated, making a more democratic government
Initiative
Citizens can introduce new legislation and can propose a new law by petition
Referendum
Submitting a proposed public measure or statue to direct popular vote
Progressive Era Amendments
16th Allowed Income Tax
17th Allowed the direct election of senators, increasing the public’s influence over the government
18th outlawed the manufacturing, sale, or transport of alcohol
The Progressive Era was a period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Key points include:
• Characteristics of the Progressive Era include purification of the government, modernization, a focus on family and education, prohibition, and women's suffrage.
• Many Progressives sought to rid the government of corruption, and muckraking became a particular type of journalism that exposed waste, corruption, and scandal on a national level.
Muckrackers and Reform Leaders
Upton Sinclair
Wrote the book The Jungle to expose conditions in US meat packing industry causing public uproar and leading to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act.
Susan B. Anthony
Advocated for women’s suffrage
Ida B. Wells African reformer and leader in the anti-lynching crusade and women’s suffrage movement
Important People
Henry Ford –
Automobile manufacturer who created the Model T and began to mass-produce the automobile. Ford used the assembly line to speed up production and satisfy demand. The assembly line lowered the prices to make the automobile more affordable for an average American
William Jennings Bryan –
The prosecutor in the Scopes Trial. He supported creationism in school. He is also famous for the “Cross of Gold” speech that argued against using the gold standard to back money.
Clarence Darrow –
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial he argued that evolution should be taught in schools.
Charles Lindbergh –
American pilot who made the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic Ocean.
Glenn Curtiss –
“Father of Naval Aviation” and “Founder of the American Aircraft Industry”
Political Issues
Red Scare –
The fear that Communists were going to take over the United States in the 1920’s. This fueled people’s suspicions of foreigners and led to immigrant quotas.
Teapot Dome Scandal –
The prime example of corruption during Warren G. Harding’s Presidency.
Isolationism –
the policy or doctrine of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities
Nativism –
fear of immigration
Social Darwinism –
held that the social classes had no obligation towards those unequipped or under-equipped to compete for survival.
The Roaring Twenties
Social Issues
Women’s Issues in the 1920’s
- Flappers embraced urban attitudes and fashions.
- Women began to demand more freedom and assert their independence.
- A double standard between men and women still existed.
Prohibition –
Reform movement that banned the sale and consumption of alcohol. It also increased organized crime
18th Amendment –
Prohibition is enacted and alcohol is illegal
19th Amendment –
(1920) Women given the right to vote.
21st Amendment –
The 18th Amendment is repealed and Prohibition ends.
The Roaring Twenties
Cultural Issues
The Jazz Age –
Term coined by F. Scott Fitzgerald to describe the 1920’s.
Jazz –
A popular form of music. Famous jazz composers include Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington.
The Great Migration –
The mass migration of African-Americans to Northern cities from 1910-1930.
Economic Issues: Causes of Prosperity during the 1920’s
- Government policies that reduced govt. interference in business
-
The growth and use of the automobile industry
-
Efficient production techniques such as the assembly line
- Mass consumerism from the American public
Causes of the Great Depression
Life during the Great Depression
Unemployment – Unemployment rose as high as 25% during the Great Depression
Bread lines and soup kitchens – Methods by which the needy could obtain free or low-priced food.
“Hoovervilles” – Shantytowns on the outskirts of the cities of homeless and unemployed people.
Presidents During Great Depression
Herbert Hoover (1929-1933):
President when the Great Depression began. Hoover is criticized for allowing the Depression to deepen. He was defeated when voters looked to the federal government for help.
Programs during the Great Depression
Hoover Dam (Boulder Dam) –
Dam built on the Colorado River to help stimulate business and provide jobs.
Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) –
Law that attempted to raise crop prices by lowering production.
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) –
Public works program that gave jobs to young men. The workers planted trees, fought forest fires and built public parks.

Works Progress Administration (WPA) –
Created jobs by hiring writers and artists.
New Deal Programs still in effect today:
FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) –
Provided insurance for people’s bank accounts.
SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) –
Govt. agency that regulates the stock market.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) –
Program that built dams in the Tennessee Valley area in order to control flooding and provide electric power.
***Social Security Act*** --
The most important act of the New Deal. Social Security provided unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, old age pensions, and insurance for families.
-FDR battles the Supreme Court –
The Supreme Court had declared several New Deal programs unconstitutional. In order to get his programs passed, FDR tried to add more members to the Supreme Court, a tactic known as court-packing.
The New Deal:
Roosevelt’s program to fight the Great Depression.
Aggressions by Axis Powers
Germany (Adolf Hitler)

Nazis invade Poland , bomb Scapa Flow naval base near Scotland, invade Denmark and Norway; invade France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Germans bomb Paris ; German U-boats attack merchant ships in the Atlantic; bombing offensive against airfields and factories in England; German troops enter Romania; massive air raid on London; Attack Soviet Union; Hitler declares war on US; air raid on Stalingrad; massacre of millions of Jews
Italy (Benito Mussolini)
Italy attacks Ethiopia; Italians occupy British Somalia in East Africa; invades Egypt; invades Greece
Important People
Franklin D. Roosevelt –
President of the United States during WWII. Declared war on Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Harry Truman –
President of the United States during WWII. Made the decision to use the atomic bomb on Japan
Gen. Dwight Eisenhower –
U.S. general in Europe during World War II. He was in charge of the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day).
Gen. Douglas MacArthur –
U.S. general in charge of the Allied forces in the Pacific Ocean.
Gen. Omar Bradley –
U.S. general who led the U.S. 1st Army during the Invasion of Normandy (D-Day).
*Omar Bradley
Commanded 1st US Army during D-Day Invasion,lead liberation of Paris,won the Battle of the Bulge
*Dwight Eisenhower
34th President;Prior to Presidency,served in WWII as commander of Allied Forces in North Africa,Sicily, & Italy; Promoted to General after D-Day;created interstate highway system as President
*Douglas MacArthur
Commanded of the US Army in the Pacific during WWII
*Chester A. Nimitz
Commander of the US Navy and Allied land and sea forces in the Pacific WWII
Military Contributions of World War II Leaders
*George Marshall
Chief of Staff that coordinated the war effort from Washington DC
Major Issues of World War II
Holocaust

the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. "Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire." The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community
Internment of Germans, Italian and Japanese Americans
Under Executive Order 9066,after the bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, the US evicted nearly 120,00o residents of Japanese descent from the Pacific coast and transferred them to 27 “relocation centers”. Also, Italian and German people were detained in camps. All three nationalities were targeted and not given due process under the law.
Executive Order 9066
In an atmosphere of World War II hysteria, President Roosevelt, encouraged by officials at all levels of the federal government, authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan; dated February 19, 1942
Development of Conventional Weapons

Armored tanks, guided torpedoes and missiles by wires or remote controls, fighter jets and first helicopter used; proximity fuses and specialized bombs; napalm used a little at end of war; race to design better weapons; radar, sonar and depth charges to locate and sink German subs.
Major Military Events of World War II
Battle of Midway

The Battle of Midway, fought over and near the tiny U.S. mid-Pacific base at Midway atoll, represents the strategic high water mark of Japan's Pacific Ocean war. Prior to this action, Japan possessed general naval superiority over the United States and could usually choose where and when to attack. After Midway, the two opposing fleets were essentially equals, and the United States soon took the offensive.
US Military Advancement through Pacific Islands After the Battle of Midway, the United States launched a counter-offensive strike known as "island-hopping," establishing a line of overlapping island bases, as well as air control. The idea was to capture certain key islands, one after another, until Japan came within range of American bombers. Led by General Douglas MacArthur, Commander of the Allied forces in the Southwest Pacific, and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet.
Bataan Death March

The Battle of Bataan ended on April 9, 1942, when US General Edward P.King surrendered to Japanese General Masaharu Homma. 75,000 soldiers became prisoners of war, 12,000 Americans and 63,000 Filipinos were gathered in groups of 100 to march 65 miles to Camp O’Donnell in Tarlac province; 60,000 men survived the death march to be held in cramped, diseased conditions with limited food and water, 2/3rds of Americans died in Japanese custody at end of war
Normandy Invasion D Day


On 6 June 1944 the Western Allies landed in northern France, opening the long-awaited "Second Front" against Adolf Hitler's Germany. Though they had been fighting in mainland Italy for some nine months, the Normandy invasion was in a strategically more important region, setting the stage to drive the Germans from France and ultimately destroy the National Socialist regime
Fighting War on Multiple Fronts

A front is a line of battle. World War II, being a true world war, was fought on many fronts:
1.The African and Mediterranean Front
2.The Atlantic Ocean
3. The Russian Front
4.The European Front
5.The Pacific Front

usually executed by two or more separate forces simultaneously or nearly simultaneously, in the hope that their opponent will be forced to split their fighting force to deal with both threats, therefore reducing their odds of success
American Patriotism on the Home Front
Military Enlistment

38.8% (6,332,000) of US servicemen & servicewomen were volunteers 61.2% (11,535,000) were draftees; The primary task facing America in 1941 was raising and training a credible military force. Concern over the threat of war had spurred President Roosevelt and Congress to approve the nation's first peacetime military draft in September 1940. By December 1941 America's military had grown to nearly 2.2 million soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines.
Volunteerism


The war effort on the "Home Front" required sacrifices and cooperation. "Don't you know there's a war on?" was a common expression. Rationing became part of everyday life. Americans learned to conserve vital resources. They lived with price controls, dealt with shortages of everything from nylons to housing, and volunteered for jobs ranging from air raid warden to Red Cross worker
War Bonds


To help fund this effort, the government turned to ordinary Americans. The United States Treasury offered Americans a series of War Bonds they could purchase during the war. You could purchase a $25 War Bond for $18.75. The government would take that money to help pay for tanks, planes, ships, uniforms, weapons, medicine, food, and everything else the military needed to fight and win. That’s the investment in your country. Ten years from the time you purchased your War Bond you could redeem it and get $25.
Victory Gardens

Planted and maintained by ordinary citizens; planted in backyards, parking lots and vacant lots; produced over 1 billion tons of food
Tuskegee Airmen

Determined young men who enlisted to become America’s first black military aviators at a time when the US military stilled practiced racial segregation; participated in over 15,000 sorties and earned over 100 Flying Crosses
Navajo Code Talkers

Navajo American Indians were recruited by the military to encode, transmit and decode messages ;Navajo language was used to develop a code that was not broken by the enemy in WWII
Opportunities for Women & Ethnic Minorities


Military and economic expansion created labor shortages. To fill the gap, government and industry encouraged women to enter the workforce. Though most working women continued to labor in more traditional employment like waitressing and teaching, millions took better-paid jobs in defense factories.
Obstacles for
Women & Ethnic Minorities

In 1941, black labor leader A. Philip Randolph threatened to organize a protest march on Washington, D.C. if the government didn't bar racial discrimination in defense plants with government contracts. Faced with this threat, President Roosevelt banned such discrimination and created the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) to investigate bias charges.
Millions of women, including many mothers, entered the industrial workforce during the war. They found jobs in especially large numbers in the shipbuilding and aircraft industries. "Rosie the Riveter" became a popular symbol of patriotic womanhood. Though defense jobs paid far more than traditional "female" occupations, women were still often paid less than men performing comparable work. Moreover, at war's end, women were expected to leave the factories to make way for returning male veterans.
Flying Tigers

Americans who volunteered to serve as pilots fighting the Japanese in China prior to the US entering the war
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