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The Wonderful World of Waterskiing

The History, Evolution, and Controversies of Waterskiing

Dominique Bivins

on 12 October 2011

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Transcript of The Wonderful World of Waterskiing

The Wonderful World of Water Skiing The History, Evolution, and Controversies of the Sport Vattenskida! Swedish meaning 'to ski on a body of water'
First reference to water skiing termed in 1921 Water skiing was first invented on June 28, 1922 by an 18-year-old by the name of Ralph Samuelson. Ralph reasoned that if it was possible to ski on the snow, then perhaps the same could be done on water. This pioneering event took place in Lake City, Minnesota, on Lake Pepin. •Ralph Samuelson circa 1922 Ralph Samuelson Makes First Water Skiing Jump On July 8, 1925, Ralph
Samuelson smeared lard on a half-sunken diving platform and jumped at a height of 60 feet off the ramp's raised end, making him the first ever water ski jumper. Today, ramps are twice as high and jumps are twice as long. In that same year, he made another breakthrough by attaching a 200-foot sash cord attached to a World War I flying boat powered with a 300 horsepower engine. He was pulled behind it with a speed of 80 mph. This made him the first speed skier. As water skiing grew in popularity, the sport quickly evolved into an entertainment activity with various destinations around the US and eventually the world. by Richard Trammel, Dominique Bivins and Daniel Lyerly

Sport Management
Dr. Ken Wright
July 2011 Equipment... ...Checklist And the boat... As for proper water skiing equipment, the first skis Samuelson tried were barrel staves. When those didn't work, he experimented with snow skis. Those didn't work either, so he used the curved wood from the barrels called staves. Samuelson curved the barrel staves and tied them to his feet with straps of leather. Then he used heavy-duty twine attached to a boat driven by his brother Ben, and the rest is history. The brothers kept experimenting until July 2, 1922 when they found out that leaning backwards with the stave tips pointing upwards made water skiing possible and safe. Ralph fashioned the first dedicated water skis from lumber he purchased and shaped. Ralph made his bindings from leather strips and used a long window sash as a ski rope. Ralph Samuelson's attempt was a great milestone in the history of skiing, as this paved the way for the development of Water Skiing as a sport. From then on, Water Skiing became popular. In fact, more and more water ski enthusiasts contributed in the improvement and in making other people aware of the joys of Water Skiing. In 1924, Fred Waller created his own Skis at Long Island Sound, which he patented and called 'Akwa-Skees'. After Waller made his patented equipment into the marketplace, water skiing became a hugely popular exhibition game by the late 1920s and early 1930s. In 1939, the 1st national championship of water skiing occurred in Long Island, New York, at Jones Beach. Four years later, Don Ibsen, pictured here, was the first West Coast skier. In 1929, Count Maximilian Pulaski introduced water skiing at the French Riviera, while Dan Haines of New York organized the AWSA, the American Water Ski Association. This has been the primary governing body for Water Skiing since 1939. For the modern skier, you'll need just the basic equipment to enjoy the sport. Skis include combination pairs, slalom skis or trick skis. A rope is an additional vital equipment piece for skiing. The rope must have a tiny bit of elastic flexibility and grip size will depend on the hand size of the individual skier. The handles are designed out of plastic or rubber. Finally, a life preserver is important when it comes to the equipment for water skiing. You must not go water skiing without one. One piece of equipment most recreational skiers will not have to own is a powerful ski boat. In 1925, W.C. Meloon forms the Florida Variety Boat Company in Pine Castle, Florida later renamed Correct Craft. For the next 80 years, Correct Craft has been making superior ski boats. Originally made of wood, staring in the early 1960's Correct Craft buys the south Florida boat company, Ski Nautique, which had started making boats from fiberglass. The evolution of the ski boat continues with the introduction of the carbon-fiber Super Air Nautique hull that can cost up to $100,000. Water Skiing Museums and Schools The American Water Ski Educational Museum is a sporting museum and training club located in Polk City, FL. focused on preserving the heritage of US water skiing. The American Water Ski Educational Museum is filled with interesting artifacts and historic information about water skiing history. There is a selection of antique skis, including the first pair of water skis used donated by Ralph Samuelson, a 1954 Correct Craft boat, and ropes dating back to 1922. There is also a library with a wide range of titles about skiing. The Museum also houses the Water Ski Hall of Fame. The purpose of the Water Ski Hall of Fame is to honor the accomplishments of skiers, pioneers, and officials whose dedication and competitive achievements at National and International levels have brought lasting fame to the sport of water skiing. The American Water Ski Educational Museum is also a place for the entire family to relax and learn how to ski. It only makes sense that in Florida, water skiing should be a big tourist attraction for the whole family. At this location, water ski training starts as soon as a young person can confidently walk, as seen in this future enthusiast. The Museum also administers several key
educational scholarship funds, making financial assistance available to young persons within the water ski community who qualify. Water skiing advocates environmentally sound techniques by using cables instead of boats in a lot of water ski and wake boarding parks around the world. Cable skiing is simply water-skiing where the skier is not pulled by a boat, but by an overhead cable that is suspended 8-12 meters above the water’s surface by specifically designed pylons. Cables eliminate using fuel which, in turn, is good for everybody. Wakeboarding is the newest spin off of water skiing. It involves riding a wakeboard over the surface of a body of water and was developed from a combination of water skiing, snow boarding and surfing techniques. Wakeboarding is organized by the International Waterski and Wakeboard Federation (IWWF) and has been part of part of the World Games since 2005. Wakeboarding arose in the early 1980s after the advent of ski boarding. Starting in Scotland, then on to Australia, "Skurfing", as it was renamed, found America when Howard Jacobs started throwing back flips on the St. Johns River in Jacksonville Florida in 1984. Governing Bodies USA Water Ski International Water Ski & Wakeboarding Federation Competitive
Water Skiing USA Water Ski is the national governing body of organized water skiing in the United States. USA Water Ski is a member of the International Water Ski Federation (world governing body), the Pan American Sports Organization and the United States Olympic Committee. The largest and most active water ski federation in the world, USA Water Ski has a paid staff of 10 persons. Headquartered in Polk City, Fla., the staff serves more than 20,000 members across the country. Nearly 80 percent of USA Water Ski’s members are involved in tournament competition each year; the remainder are recreational water skiers. USA Water Ski offers many programs such as: water ski instructor certification; learn to ski clinics; officials’ education; legislative assistance; safety training and information dissemination; affiliation of state federations and local water ski clubs; public communications and media information; industry relations; and local, national and international competition ranging from novice to world-level tournaments. Approximately 630 local water ski clubs throughout the United States are affiliated with USA Water Ski. The clubs provide a working base in almost any locale for development of USA Water Ski programs, and in addition are the local organizers for nearly all water ski competition in the United States. Purpose: "To promote and support the development of water skiing all over the world without discrimination or distinction for race, colour, religion or political persuasion." The International Waterski & Wakeboard Federation was founded in Geneva, Switzerland in1946 as the International Water Ski Union. In 1955 the name was changed to World Water Ski Union. The current name of International Waterski & Wakeboard Federation was adopted on New Years Day, 1989. The IWSF is divided into 3 regions: The Pan American, Europe & Africa, and Asia & Australia. It is the world governing body for water skiing. Although water skiing is recognized as a sport by the Olympics, it is not contested during the games. The IWSF is working closely with the IOC to help the sport become contested in future games. Issues Doping: All athletes are expected to perform drug-free as described according to the World Anti-Doping Code. Athletes requiring an exemption for therapeutic use must have a TUE. If an athlete is tested positive, he/she will be disqualified from competition and must be re-tested before re-entering competition. After the third offense, the player will receive a lifetime ban from competition. The next International Competition for USA Water Skiing will be held October 14, 2011 to October 30, Guadalajara, Mexico at the Pan American Games. Although anyone can qualify to compete in the tournament, there is a stringent qualifying process to be considered for the team. Most skiers are already involved in US Waterski through various tournament entries, however competition is open to all participants once they have qualified. Listings of the events being held in the last part of the month of July are listed below. •7/27 - 7/30 AWSA Southern Regional Championships -- Mulberry, Fla.
•7/28 - 7/30 AWSA Eastern Regional Championships -- Canajoharie, N.Y.
•7/29 - 7/31 AWSA Midwest Regional Championships -- Center City, Minn.
•7/29 - 7/31 AWSA South Central Regional Championships -- Cypress, Texas
•7/30 - 7/31 NSSA Eastern Regional Championships -- Scotia, N.Y.
•7/30 - 7/31 NSSA Midwest Regional Championships -- Cedar Rapids, Iowa USA Water Ski Executive Committee regulates the qualification process. Judges are also pulled from the USA Water Ski Committee. Below is an example of HOW athletes are chosen for competition. It lists the qualification process for all athletes that wish to compete in this particular event. A. Provide the minimum eligibility requirements for an athlete to be considered for nomination to the Team:
1. Citizenship: Athletes must be citizens of the United States at the time of nomination and hold a valid U.S. passport that will not expire for six months after the conclusion of the Games.
2. Minimum International Water Ski Federation standards for participation (if any):
3. Be a current, active USA Water Ski (USAWS) member. B. Tryout Events
1. The 2011 Pan American Games team will be selected utilizing an athlete’s team selection scores from International Waterski and Wakeboard Federation (IWWF)-sanctioned tournament performances between and inclusive of April 30, 2011 and August 7, 2011 and a Pan American Ranking List extracted from IWWF class tournament performances (for the prior twelve (12) months) reported to IWWF as of August 8, 2011 at 11:59 PM. C. The 2011 Pan American Games team will be comprised of four members. The male/female ratio for the four team members may be either 3 males/1 female, 3 females/1 male or 2 males/2 females. Athletes wishing to be considered for the 2011 Pan American Games team shall notify USA Water Ski of their Notice of Interest on or before July 11, 2011. Athletes who submitted a Notice of Interest, performances will be extracted from World Ranking List tournament performances utilizing data from two different tournaments at different sites, as compiled and reported pursuant to IWWF ranking list procedures held between and inclusive of April 30, 2011 and August 7, 2011. To be considered, all performances must be reported (through each tournament's local organizing committee or scorer) to IWWF not later than August 8, 2011 at 11:59 PM (PDT). Some types of competition include:
Men's/Women's Jump
Men's/Women's Slalom
Men's/Women's Tricks 2011 US Disabled Water Ski Team The History of Disabled Waterskiing

Water skiing has been adapted so that physically disabled athletes can participate and compete. Tournaments offer slalom, tricks and jumping events for vision impaired individuals (blind or partially sighted), multiplegics (paraplegics and quadriplegics), leg amputees (above and below knee), arm amputees and athletes with both arm and leg disabilities. The skiers in the latter three categories compete with the same water ski equipment used by able-bodied athletes and have the option of using a prosthesis. Vision impaired athletes do not require
special equipment. However, they are guided by another skier in the jumping event, although they must be released before they go over theramp and use audible signals instead of buoys in the slalom course. Multiplegic athletes use a sit ski, which is larger than the ski of an able-bodied skier and includes a cage similar to that used in snowskiing. A narrower slalom course than that set out for able-bodied competitors is an option for those whose disability is greater such as quadriplegics and athletes with both arm and leg disabilities. RULES - In 1989, each region had its own set of IWSF world rules for the disabled. By 1991, one set of rules, keyed to the IWSF able-bodied rules, had been approved. A more sophisticated set was finalized, including all the necessary appendices, and keyed specifically, rule by rule, to the IWSF rules in 1992. 1994 witnessed the addition of a tournament handbook, which by 2001 contained sections on classification, interpretations, and records (record standards and a complete record series). 2009 - The ninth world championships was held Sept. 3-6 in Vichy, France, with 47 competitors from a record 18 countries, the newest country being Austria. There were four world records set, one of them (a jump) having stood for 20 years. The United States broke its 4-4 team-title tie with Great Britain in garnering the prestigious team title, ahead of Italy and France, both on the podium for the first time ever.

CATEGORIES -The original categories were as follows: Arm amputees (A); Leg Amputees (L & LP); Multiple Plegics -Paraplegics & Quadriplegics – (MP1, MP2 & MP3); Blind & Vision Impaired (V1, V2 & V3); Deaf; Les Autres (the others) RECORDS - The first world records were set at the 1991 World Trophy with the provision that there were at least 4 contestants in the event. Performances from the 1989 World Trophy that qualified under this stipulation, and were not exceeded at the 1991 event, were also grandfathered in as records. 1995 witnessed the tracking of regional records for the first time. The University of Alabama Water Ski Team was founded in the 1970's and competes around the country in local and national events. The team competes in slalom, trick, and jump classifications. • Lake Harris in Tuscaloosa acts as the official team lake facility.
• Two TOP 10 finishes in the last two Nationals.
• Has consistently fielded World Class Water Skiers throughout the years.
• In the past two years, the UA Water Ski Team has placed second and third at the Collegiate Nationals Water Ski Championships. Another example of the dedication and drive for victory always present in University of Alabama Athletics! Roll Tide! References History of Water Skiing
http://www.fantasywaterski.com USA Water Ski
http://www.usawaterski.org Alabama Water Ski Team
http://urec.ua.edu/scwaterski.cfm American Water Ski Educational Foundation
http://www.waterskihalloffame.com/ Team USA Water Ski
http://waterski.teamusa.org Nautique Ski Boats
http://nautique.com International Waterski & Waterboard Federation
http://www.iwsf.com Olympic Sports
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