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Photolithography: Photoresist Development and Advanced Lithography

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Muhammad Fariduddin Mat Nuh

on 14 November 2013

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Transcript of Photolithography: Photoresist Development and Advanced Lithography

Chapter 15
Photoresist Development and Advanced Lithography

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
1. why and how a post-exposure done (conventional and DUV) resist.
2. Describe the -ve and +ve resist.
3. List and discuss 2 most common resist development methods.
4. State why a hard bake done after resist.
5. Benefits of a post-develop inspection.
6. 4 different alternatives for advanced lithography and their challenging.
7. Benefit for the advanced resist process of top surface imaging

Post-exposure Bake
(PEB) for DUV
(PEB) heats the resist, which causes the acid catalyzed deprotection reaction. the acid remove the protecting group from the resin and the exposed resist is now soluble in the developer solution. In term of control, uniformity and latitude requirements.
Post-exposure Bake
(PEB) for Conventional I-Line
reduction in the standing wave defect from reflective surfaces during exposure.
drive out remaining solvents that are left in the resist (7-4%) before exposure (5-2%).
Hard Bake
Post-Development Exposure
Evaporates Residual Solvent in Photoresist
Hardens the Resist
Improves Resist-to-Wafer Adhesion
Prepares Resist for Subsequent Processing
Higher Temperature than Soft Bake, but not to Point Where Resist Softens and Flows
This is a City|We Arrive Alive... :)
Reduction of Standing Wave Effect Due to PEB
Temperature Uniformity
90 - 30 degree Celsius (1 to 2 minutes).
depend on type of resist use.
can effect the amount of CD variation in the resist during the develop step.
PEB Delay
few minute will permits the acid to neutralize due to amine contamination from the ambient air.
the neutralization occurred on the top surface of the resist, creating a thin, less-soluble inhibition layer that led the formation of a T-top.
Use a liquid chemical developer to dissolve the soluble regions of the resist that were formed during the mask exposure. Resist development is to accurately replicate the reticle pattern in the resist material.
Photoresist Development Problem
Negative Resist
Positive Resist
Develop Methods
1. Continuous spray development.
2. Puddle development
2 most common development techniques
Continuous spray development
Puddle development
Developer Temperature
Developer Time
Developer Volume
Exhaust Flow
Wafer Chuck
Resist Develop Parameters
Characteristics of Hard Bake:
Resist Hardening with Deep UV (chapter 16 & 17)
Softened Resist Flow at High Temperature
Develop Inspect
Post-Develop Inspection to Find Defects
Find Defects before Etching or Implanting
Prevents Scrap
Characterizes the Photo Process by Providing Feedback Regarding Quality of the Lithography Process
Develop Inspect Rework Flow
Develop Inspect Rework Flow
Advanced Lithography
Extreme UV (EUV)
Ion Projection Lithography (IPL)
Photolithography Improvements
1. Reduction in wavelength of the UV light source.
2. Increase in numerical aperture.
3. Chemically amplified DUV resists
4. Resolution enhancement techniques (e.g., phase-shift masks and optical proximity correction).
5. Wafer planarization (chemical mechanical planarization, or CMP) to reduce surface topography.
6. Advances in photolithography equipment (e.g., stepper and step-and-scan).
Concept for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
Concept of SCALPEL
Advanced Lithography
Advanced Resist Processing
Development trend of photoresist and lithography
DESIRE Process
Ion Projection Lithography
Concept of X-ray Photomask
Develop Trends of Photoresist and Lithography
Top-Surface Imaging
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