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Interactive Tag Clouds: A Tool Supporting New Possibilities for Dialog in Online Language Learning
Transcript of Interactive Tag Clouds: A Tool Supporting New Possibilities for Dialog in Online Language Learning
-- Lave and Wenger 1991 [where] co-constructed knowledge – larger than individual knowledge – is developed through discussion and collaboration
--Johnson 2001 Interactive Tag Clouds A Tool Supporting New Possibilities for Dialog in Online Language Learning Stephen L Tschudi Richard Medina David Hiple Language Learning Center
University of Hawaii at Manoa
firstname.lastname@example.org Inquiry based-learning A student-centered, active learning approach focusing on questioning
problem-solving "Involve me and I will understand."
--Bass CULTURA.MIT.EDU ONLINE CAFÉS http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/onlinecafes/?page_id=505 Word association in CULTURA CULTURA Word association
- display results Word association results
displayed as tag clouds Tag clouds Spatially meaningful
representations of data knowledge management method
generate more flexible presentations of data
create meaningful visual interpretation
integration of knowledge from different practice communities
--Salonen 2007 Task: Create a personal response Interactive Tag Clouds visually appealing
better representation of authentic input
co-constructed in virtual space Word Association Pilot project tag cloud gallery discussion Pilot project tag cloud gallery discussion thumbnails of small-group tag clouds Small-group tag cloud example: UH students from the "Surf"
group -- manipulating results from "diversity in values" word-association set "Diversity in Values:
Group the words according to their basic semantic content. For example, you could group together all words that concern money, group together all words that concern social welfare, and so forth. The specific groupings are up to you." Tag cloud task Sample cloud Discussion thread Participants requested to compare and contrast tag clouds in the gallery and discuss results. "When I looked at the groups working on the tag clouds on the topic "diversity in values," I thought that three of the groups’ groupings were extremely different. (In contrast to) the words concerning “food culture,” which had very clear groupings, these words on values were a bit complicated. I found the groupings made by the UH students particularly difficult to analyze; they had a very complex pattern. If we could discuss these words in person, it would definitely be very interesting, and discussion would be lively." --Ysabel Winthrop Comment on "Surf" group (UH) tag cloud result Topics & Tag Cloud Groups Each group was split into two tag cloud-making teams of three people at one location Hot Pot Group ASU Sichuan U. (3 people) (3 people) Tag Cloud Pilot Study
(Overview) Tag Cloud Pilot Study an online exchange
with three cohorts: Arizona State University
University of Hawaii
Sichuan University Total of 45 participants Online Cafes Environment Prompts for Sichuan Prompts for Arizona Prompts for Hawaii Responses to each prompt are collected into three tag clouds grouped by cohort... "diversity in values"
Sichuan cohort responses ...from Arizona ...from Hawaii Three tag clouds are merged in the Tag Cloud Activity... Interactive Tag Clouds... students at each site work in small groups to produce an "interpretation" of the juxtaposed collection of words... each group's work is subsequently shared in the "Tag Cloud Gallery"... affordances awareness behavior cohesion &
community What affordances did the technology provide, and were they exploited? semantic and cultural differences reflected in a visual-spatial medium
automatic linking of comment to currently visible cloud
enabling side-by-side comparison of work by multiple groups "Looking at each team’s categorized words, it seems that Americans tend to divide words into clusters, while Chinese tend to put words into lists. The origin of this distinction may be because American education is relatively relaxed/easy and Chinese education is more stringent, but it is most likely because Americans were influenced by this activity's English name 'tag clouds,' affecting our grouping methods." --UH student "Categorizations done by the Sichuan University students were mostly (based on) linear thinking; among the vertical columns we can see the basis for each classification. Because of the characteristics of this way of thinking, often their categories were numerous and fine-grained. The (shape characterizing the) thinking of the U.S. students, on the other hand, seemed to be more of a net-like circle, and among the words, like a net, a multitude of connections. I think the cloud reflects differences in Chinese and Western ways of thinking. This is very interesting..." --Sichuan student personal reflection on meanings and thought processes
“think-aloud” reflection on processes of observation and analysis
evidence that they recognize and value this tool Was there student awareness of the affordances of the tool? "When I looked at the groups working on the tag clouds on the topic "diversity in food culture," I thought that the groupings by the ASU students, the Sichuan University students, and the UH students were relatively similar. Although the groups that the Sichuan students made were more complex, still, in general, they put words for certain types of food together, names of certain dishes together, and then put words related to taste together. I think this is very interesting -- there was no group that separated food into types and then grouped dishes and flavors with each type." --ASU student What behaviors were modeled by the instructor? Was there uptake? Teacher’s first “model” posting mentioned:
a specific cloud (deixis)
specific examples from the cloud that illustrated teacher's argument First substantive student post clearly reflects her picking up on teacher’s cues
Goes beyond teacher posting by comparing MULTIPLE clouds on the same topic
Mentions groupings that were unique to two out the four work groups in that topic What behaviors were modeled by the instructor? Was there uptake? "I think the groupings in the topic 'diversity in values' were particularly interesting, since the method of classification used by each of the work teams in this topic was different. Take the Sichuan University work team in the Hot Pot group for example: one of their distinct features was the category they created on the extreme right. The words in this grouping are all quite negative. The work teams from other universities in the Hot Pot group created no similar classification. ASU's Hot Pot group work team also had special classifications, such as one devoted to words related to religion. Perhaps the students at ASU felt religious values were particularly important?"
--ASU student "I think the tag cloud produced by the Sichuan University work team of the Wangjianglou Group was very successful. This group took results from all three universities (three colors, two languages) and mixed them all together. This highlighted the differences among Arizona, Hawaii, and Sichuan. For example, among the blue words there were many individual sports, but among the green words we see many more "non-sports" type activities, such as poker, Mahjongg, dice, and a number of nature-related activities such as camping, travel, scenery and so on. I am not sure why board games were placed together with tourism and nature. Overall, the Sichuan University work team of the Wangjianglou Group undertook classification of all the words at a deeper level of scrutiny and consideration." To what extent are cohesion and community evident in the thread? Minimal dialogue or deixis (referring to other people’s postings)
Task did not necessitate/specify communication
Evidence of sarcasm, praise, and other emotional responses to cloud groupings Tschudi, S. L., Hiple, D., & Chun, D. (2009). Fostering community and cohesion in asynchronous online courses. In I. Lancashire (Ed.), Teaching literature and language online, Options for Teaching series (pp. 121-146). New York: Modern Language Association. ISBN: 9781603290562. "Regarding your thoughts on the structure of the cloud created by the Sichuan (work group of the Grand Canyon group): I think what you said makes a lot of sense. In fact, I did not notice this unbalanced structure at the beginning. Thank you for mentioning it."
--UH student "I think the most interesting grouping was the 'utensils' grouping, because, according to the analysis of the Panda group, a restaurant apparently can be considered a utensil."
--UH student What directions are indicated for future development of the Tag Cloud tool and the design of tasks that use it? Enable remote collaboration by multiple users to manipulate tag cloud without status conflict
In general, limit number of participants in a single activity series to around 30
In each word association task, limit number of responses requested
Strongly recommend that task designers incorporate a chaining element into discussion task, rather than simply "discuss / compare" "I think [name of school] did a good job on diversity in food culture. [Describes classification scheme.] I believe I could not have succeeded in making such a classification." --US student Bass, R. (2000). Hyper activity and under construction: Learning culture in a wired world. http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/bassr/hauc3-00_files/v3_document.htm Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Johnson, C. M. (2001). A survey of current research on online communities of practice. Internet and Higher Education 4(2001), 45–60. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Salonen, J. (2007). Self-organising map based tag clouds: Creating spatially meaningful representations of tagging data. OPAALS Conference 2007. http://matriisi.ee.tut.fi/hypermedia/julkaisut/2007-salonen-som-clouds.pdf