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Poli 1223 - Founders Timeline
Transcript of Poli 1223 - Founders Timeline
The American Revenue Act of 1764 made trading sugar, molasses and other goods much more expensive and hurt the colonies' economy. For instance, the tax made rum more expensive for trade in the Caribbean, as well as lumber, flour, and other farm goods. This restricted the colonies to trade primarily with Britain.
The Boston Massacre, 1770
The Intolerable Acts, 1774
In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British punished the colonies by passing five new laws that were called the "
Coercive Acts of 1774
," including the
Boston Port Act
, which restricted who could have access to the boats in the harbor; the
Massachusetts Government Ac
t, which regulated elections; and made the
Quartering Act stronger
, which had legalized the garrison of troops wherever British commanders chose. The Acts made the colonists even angrier at England.
First Continental Congress,
Sept 5-Oct 26, 1774
At the First Continental Congress, colonial leaders attempted to find a way to force Britain to listen to their grievances. They proposed the first united government among the colonies, made up of a Grand Council of elected colonists and a President General representing the King of England. That plan was defeated, but they did pass the "Association," which united the colonies in resistance to the import of English goods.
Lexington and Concord, 1775
On April 19 came the first actual battle of the Revolutionary War. General Gage sent British soldiers to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock in a secret mission. However, a signal in Boston's North Church warned the colonists: two lanterns meant the British were coming by boats. The colonial militia called "Minutemen" met the British soldiers on the
. A shot was fired which was later called "the shot heard 'round the world." The British killed some colonists and marched to
but more militiamen came and pushed them back. The war had begun.
Revolutionary War and Constitutional Timeline
The Tea Act, 1773
The Tea Act led directly to the Boston Tea Party, which was an important escalation in hostilities. The Tea Act forced the colonists to buy millions of pounds of British tea, but the colonists refused, worried about the existing taxes being too high, and many ships were turned back and lots of tea rotted on the docks. The ships that remained were the target of great resentment, which led directly to dumping tea into the harbor.
Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty" speech, 1775
Henry's famous speech was an important moment in the congress. He argued that the longer the colonies waited to go to war with Britain, the weaker they became. Many loyalists did not want war. He also argued that God was on the side of the colonists, and compared living under British rule to slavery. The speech ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death," which has long been considered the cry of true patriots.
Fort Ticonderoga was an old fort from the French and Indian War, but contained cannons and powder that were badly needed by the colonists. Two militia leaders, Benedict Arnold from Connecticut, and Ethan Allan, leader of a militia group called the Green Mountain Boys from Vermont, worked together and captured the fort on May 10, 1775.
Second Continental Congress,
The Second Continental Congress, which began on May 10, 1775, was much different from the first. By this time, the colonies were openly at war with England. It was decided that a Continental Army would be raised and George Washington would be the commander. The gathering in Philadelphia authorized the printing of money and wrote a direct appeal to King George III to ask for peace. Instead, the King hired Hessian mercenaries to fight the colonists. The war was escalating and America had its first real independent government.
George Washington made Commander in Chief, May 10, 1775
George Washington was a wealthy farmer from Virginia. He was put in charge of the Army because of his experience: He had already been a British colonial officer in command of Virginia's Frontier Forces. When selected, he immediately left the Second Continental Congress to join the troops gathering in Boston and took command there.
The Crossing of the Delaware River, Christmas Night, 1776
Washington proved his brilliance as a commander with a sneak attack on the British, putting his troops in flat-bottomed boats and crossing the icy Delaware River late on Christmas Night and into the next morning in the darkness.
Signing of the French Alliance, Feb. 6, 1778
The signing of the French Alliance was important because French troops joined the new Continental Army and the French navy was engaged to fight the English navy, which had dominated the fighting in the cities during the Revolutionary War up to that time. In time, the French, Spanish and the Dutch joined the war on the side of the Americans. The Dutch provided loans drawing them into the war. The addition of 10,000 French regular troops and 29 warships was later essential to winning the Battle of Yorktown, which effectively ended the war.
The adoption of the Articles of Confederation, March 2, 1777
The Articles of Confederation was the first formal declaration creating a new independent country called the "United States of America." In this document, the representatives from all 13 of the original colonies agreed to be a new nation and many of the powers were defined which were later included in the new Constitution.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
The United States of America and Great Britain signed a peace treaty in Paris in 1783, ending the hostilities in the former colonies. This was a great relief to Britain, which was severely strained by the financial burden of fighting the Americans and France, Spain and the Dutch separately.
The Signing of the United States Constitution, Sept. 17, 1787
The Constitution of the United States of America defined how the independent government was going to work in this new country. It created a new form of government with checks and balances between the legislative, executive and judicial branches and gave more control to the civilian population than almost any government before it. Two of the primary authors were Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, who is called the "father of the Constitution" and was the author of the Bill of Rights. Parts of it were also based on a confederacy of the Iroquois tribes, which was studied by Ben Franklin. The former colonies were finally able to stop fighting their war of independence and begin the equally challenging job of creating a new society which depended on the rule of people rather than kings.
“No Taxation without Representation”: “No Taxation without Representation” is a slogan originating during the 1760s that summarized a primary grievance of the British colonists in the Thirteen colonies: they were taxed without having any representatives to defend them in England.
British forces are forced to evacuate Boston because George Washington put cannons on Dorchester Heights that overlooks the city from the south. The British realized they could not defend their position in Boston Harbor so 11,000 British troops and some 1,000 Loyalists left Boston.
Battles of Trenton and Princeton Dec. 26 , 1776
The day after General George Washington crossed the Delaware River north of Trenton, New Jersey, he defeated Hessian and British forces and took Trenton, New Jersey. The American army suddenly looked more formidable than before, and more and more recruits joined the the fight, beginning to see that it could be won.
The Evacuation of Boston March 17, 1776
Battles of Saratoga, NY
Battle of Princeton was a battle in which General George Washington's revolutionary forces defeated British forces near Princeton, New Jersey, giving the colonists one of their first victories.
September 19 and October 7, 1777
Reject Conservative support for the Monarchy
Prefer liberal -rational control of the legislature
The Development of Political Space:
Pursuit of Flourishing
Dane laws - Viking emphasis on individual rights - the volk; Robin Hood
Freedom, to seek the good
God vs. Gold
Enlightenment vs. Covenant
Gold and Enlightenment
God and Covenant
The Puritan model
included: a covenant where God established the church and the civil government of a colony. The Civil government was to execute people who practiced witchcraft, fined other religions, and restricted political office and voting to church members only. The emphasis was on the interdependence of church and state. This model framed human nature as corrupt and in need of a strong and strict government to stop sinfulness.
The Enlightenment model:
a series of rational decisions are made to create a free society where individuals could choose to follow their conscience and seek their fortunes while preserving their virtues. The Civil government was to be a neutral referee and not allow any church group to gain an upper hand and begin persecuting other religions groups. The emphasis was on Religious Toleration and the separation of church and state. This model framed religious intolerance as the main source of war and civil conflict.
Structure of the Government: Checks and balances
The Political culture was overwhelmingly Christian
The Colonial Founding Period
The Loading of the Gun
Pulling the Trigger
French and Indian War, 1756-63
Otherwise known as the Seven Years War, this was the start of the hostilities between the colonies and Britain. This war was in North America and also in Europe and left Britain
deep in debt
. To pay for this debt, the British began taxing the colonies heavily. Though the colonists had wanted to defeat the French, they didn't want to be taxed without consent, and began to resist the English. This also marked the beginning of an agreement between the English and Native Americans that the colonists would stay out of Native lands.
The Pre-war formulation
Who did the colonialists send to England to negotiate representation in Parliament?
An enlightenment soul that was both a brilliant scientist and an immoral freethinker.
What if he had won representation in Parliament?
The political culture in 1760 was composed of the following ideas:
men are sinners, in need of salvation, and Grace
men should be free to choose the religion of their choice
culture was a dynamic aristocratic mix of democratic liberalism and protestant Christianity.
Universal public education - most people could read, write and cipher
The Church and state should be separated
Most of the colonies preferred one sect over the others
Everyone should seek the good and practice the virtues
Diversity was far safer than uniformity
The Civic model was employed to encourage citizens
to guard their civil rights from the abuse by the
The Scottish Enlightenment was the dominant form of thinking in the colonies
Key European Concepts that formed political substance in the colonies included:
Locke - Legislative dominance
1618-1648 - 30 Years War prevented royal interference in the new colonies
Core belief in public Education
c1650 Rev. Samuel Rutherford wrote the "Lex, Rex (The Law as Prince)" and argued rulers derive power from the people
Mutual consent forms a government
Romans 13: 1-4
II Samuel 16:18 (people + Lord choose the King
Judges 8:22 (Men of Israel chose Gideon)
Judges 9:6 (Men of Shechem made Abimelech King)
II Kings 14:21 (The People made Azariah king
I Samuel 12: 1
I Chronicles 23: 3
Samuel was chosen over David (God's choice for King)
We the People ........ordain this Constitution for the USA.
Summary of the Colonial Period
Jamestown, Vir., 1607, John Smith, 1619 slavery begins, 1619 House of Burgess formed
Plymouth, 1620, Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 by the Puritans. Intolerant.
N.H., 1623, John Wheelright, escaped religious intolerance in MA
N. Y., 1624, Dutchman Peter Minuit buys Manhattan for 24 dollars,
Md., 1634, Lord Baltimore, Freedom of Religion for Catholics only (Litherlands arrived in 1740)
Conn., 1635, Thomas Hooker, sought religious freedom from Massachusetts
R.I. 1636, Roger Williams sought religious freedom from Massachusetts, (Baptists)
De., 1638, Peter Minuit, New Sweden Co., log cabins,
N.C., 1653, Virginians move to NC.
S.C., 1663, Eight noblemen chartered with Charles II
N.J., 1664, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carter
N.Y., 1664, English take over New Amsterdam and change it to New York
Penn., 1682, William Penn, founded for Religious Freedom for Quakers
Georgia, 1732 James Edward Oglethorpe, debtor colony
After the French and Indian Wars, the British were hard pressed to raise taxes inside England in that the tax burden was already quite high.
The British now had a larger territory in the New World and defense costs were skyrocketing.
Tax the people who were getting the benefit of military protection.
The battle over taxation was now to begin.
Note: The British somehow lost their cultural tradition of negotiation before tribute. Why?
The Stuart monarchy was a firm believer in the
Divine Right of Kings
and insisted on absolute control over taxes.
The Problem of
The Puritans drove anyone out who did not follow their prescribed religious views. They attacked the Indians and massacred them. They killed Quakers.
Catholics persecuted Protestants
The Dutch Reformed in NY were intolerant. Etc.
The struggle for religious tolerance grew out of the need to recognize diversity, pluralism, and secularization.
Rhode Island passed the first religious toleration acts in the 1630s. Even for Non-Christians.
Maryland was second in an effort to avoid wars between Protestants and Catholics.
Stamp Act Repealed
Parliament passes the
Butcher's Hall not governor's Hall
Orderly troops - not on a smoke break
Officer - or no officer in charge
The five dead men, how many were African Americans? (____)
Dec 16, 1773
APRIL 18, 1775
PAUL REVERE RIDES
2 lanterns if by the Charles River
The Colonialist lost the first battle but later in the day, they handed the British a healthy taste of guerrilla warfare and chased the British back to Boston.
May 10, 1775
Proved to be a critical day
After the U.S. Constitution was signed on Sept. 17, 1787, it took quite a while for each state to ratify, or approve, it. Federalists under Alexander Hamilton, wanted to create a strong federal government with a central bank and standing army, while anti-Federalists like Thomas Jefferson favored a weak central government and strong states. The "Great Compromise" settled a dispute between those who wanted each state to have equal representation and those who wanted it apportioned by population, creating a House of Representatives distributed by population and a Senate with two equal representatives each. Since the House was apportioned by population, the "three-fifths compromise" weakened the southern states by counting each slave as only part of a person. All the states finally ratified the Constitution by May 1790. During this time, George Washington was elected the first president of the U.S. on Feb. 4, 1789.
Ratification of the Constitution, 1787-90
Adoption of the Bill of Rights
The View of a Living Document
The View of a closed document
Similar to the 10 Commandments; nearly unalterable.
Jefferson's view of a "new constitution every generation or so."
British example of Common Law and case by case editing; summarized in edited volumes
9Th and 10Th Amendments imply there are future yet undiscovered rights
What is a perpetual union?
Was the perpetual union as outlined in the Articles of Confederation violated or fulfilled?
Sovereign Citizen Movement
Can Texas Secede?
The wartime economy had exhausted the colonists, and on August 29, 1786, an armed rebellion was led by war veteran Daniel Shays against the state of Massachusetts in response to poor conditions. This added urgency to the need to reform the Articles of Confederation and to hold a Constitutional Convention.
Shay's Rebellion, 1786
The call for radical changes
A series of compromises
actually more than 10
The Legal Concept of Incorporation
Pros and Cons
Slavery and Privacy
Reject the federal view that it can force the states to comply with federal rules.
Strict Construction of the Constitution - cannot amend the Constitution via any other way.
It is the dominant view today.
The Political Elites were advocates of the Enlightenment
Was in continuous session until the end of the war.
Siege of Boston
15,000 minute men militia surround Boston from April 19th to March 17, 1776.
The British finally withdrew.
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 17, 1775
Minutemen battle professional British troops and win.
The Congress failed to lead:
Chaos: each state for its own sake; Hobbes seemed to be oh so true.
New York Businessmen began making deals and smaller states feared a takeover.
61% to 38%
The New Count of USA had a choice; fall into chaos or form a stronger government.
Big vs. Small States
One executive or two
Slaves - zero or 3/5ths
The Ant-Federalists lost because they were unable to govern well.
The Federalists won because they had created a superior government
The winning hand????
British surrender at Yorktown
French sign an alliance with the USA
February 6, 1778
March 17 - British Withdraw from Boston
July 4 - Declaration of Independence
Dec 26 - Washington's troops cross the Delaware
Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence which was heavily influenced by Locke.
The document is the next to the last Natural Law document produced in the USA. (Articles of Confederation 1777 is the last)
The Constitution is a positive law document fashioned after Hobbes' theory.
Which one is a more accurate portrayal?
USSR - Russian federation - Ukraine
Federalist Argument is:
Greater Size produces more security and prosperity
General Cornwallis loses the battle of Yorktown and surrenders on October 19, 1781
French Naval Blockade
1785 Land Ordinances
1787 North West Ordinance (five new territories)
Key- the new states would not be slave states
Nicknamed the INTOLERABLE ACTS
The Threats to the new Government:
Love for family over government
Love of gods
Love of self
Love for ambitions
Love for deception
March 17, 1766
Stamp Act Passed
Feb 17, 1765
In the same year, Parliament passed the
Quartering Act (1765)
forcing colonialists to house and feed British troops
Can you name the first President of the USA?
Richard Henry Lee
Arthur St. Clair
Hint, George Washington is the 11th president of the USA.
Plutarch was the most often quoted by the founders from among the classical writers
Plutarch - Parallel Lives
1st - Montesquieu - men are evil and need God's laws - three departments
2nd -William Blackstone
3rd - Locke - Enlightenment science
4th - Hume - Enlightenment science
5th - Classical writers
The Federalists Favored a more vigorous federal government. The form that was worked out is: a constituted, federated, democratic REPUBLIC.
The American Political Culture are the shared common political beliefs of the citizenry.
Liberty ------ Equality
Majority Rule ------ Minority Rights
Economic Opportunity ------- Economic results
Rule of Law
Popular consent and Sovereignty
Religious diversity, freedom and tolerance
The Rights of an Englishman had become the standard for all of the colonies, even if you were Swedish, Dutch, or French Catholic.
The most common language was a toss up between German and English.
The Colonialists enjoyed land, economic freedoms and low taxes.
All of that was about to change.
In New England, the Sons of Liberty and the Daughters of Liberty were founded to fight British laws.
The Stamp Act Congress convened. They passed the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. They requested representation in Parliament.
Colonialists boycotted tea.
The British sent 4,000 troops to stop the protests and to keep order.
4,000 additional troops were sent in.
Congress passed the
Declaration of Rights and Resolves:
demanded the right to petition and assemble, a trial by your peers, freedom from a standing army, and the right to select representatives who would be the only ones who could levy taxes.
Eight Americans died in the battle at Lexington. One wounded man was Prince Estabrook, an African American serving in the militia
Unable to tax, administrate, judge, print money, or create treaties was causing huge problems.
Great Compromise or the Connecticut Compromise
Virginia Plan vs New Jersey Plan
bicameral Senate and House
North wanted to tax slaves and the south wanted more representation.
Indirect election of the President: discuss the way it was expected to work: Large states nominate and small states choose
Respect for the law (monotheism)
Representation in the form of a Republic
Responsibility to be moral
Right to Resist Evil
The French and Indian War
Was a critical turning point
what false ideas did Revere put in the picture?
at least four
Crispus Attucks is believed to have been born around 1723, in Framingham, Massachusetts. His father was likely a slave and his mother a Natick Indian. A 1750 ad in the Boston Gazette sought the recovery of a runaway slave named "Crispas," but
all that is definitely known about Attucks is that he was the first to fall during the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770.