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U.S. History II: Section 5 - The Progressive Era
Transcript of U.S. History II: Section 5 - The Progressive Era
THE DRIVE FOR REFORM
WOMEN MAKE PROGRESS
HOW DID WOMEN OF THE PROGRESSIVE ERA MAKE PROGRESS AND WIN THE RIGHT TO VOTE?
a wide-ranging political response to industrialization, immigration, urbanization, and the concentration of corporate power.
What we're going to learn:
The Drive for Reform
Teddy Roosevelt's Square Deal
Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom
- Progressivism - Social Gospel - Initative
- Muckrakers - Settlement House - Referendum
- Lincoln Steffens - Jane Addams - Recall
- Jacob Riis - Direct Primary
ROOSEVELT'S SQUARE DEAL
WILSON'S NEW FREEDOM
What areas did Progressives think were in need of the greatest reform?
Progressivism was the movement that believed the social challenges caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration in the 1890s and 1900s could be addressed.
Progressives believed that honest and efficient government could bring about social justice.
Progressives were reformers who:
Believed industrialization and urbanization had created social and political problems
Were mainly from the emerging middle class
Wanted to reform by using logic and reason
Progressives believed honest and efficient government could bring about social justice.
they wanted to end corruption
they tried to make government more responsive to people's needs
they believed that educated leaders should use modern ideas and scientific techniques to improve society.
Progressives targeted a variety of issues and problems.
Corrupt Political Machines
Trusts & Monopolies
Safety & Inequities
A writer who uncovers and exposes misconduct in politics or business - their investigative reporting uncovers and dramatizes societal ills
Jacob Riis exposed the deplorable conditions poor people were forced to live under in "How the Other Half Lives"
The naturalist novel portrayed the struggle of common people.
Upton Sinclair's novel, "The Jungle" provided a shocking look at meatpacking in Chicago's stockyards.
Progressive novelists covered a wide range of topics:
Theodore Dreiser's "Sister Carrie" discussed factory conditions for working women.
Francis Ellen Watkin's "Iola Leroy" focused on racial issues.
Frank Norris's "The Octopus" centered on the tensions between farmers and the railroad.
Jane Addams led the settlement house movement.
Her urban community centers provided social services for immigrants and the poor.
Christian reformers' believed in the Social Gospel - a reform movement that emerged in the late 19th century that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles.
Progressives succeeded in reducing child labor and improving school enrollment.
In the 1900s, the U.S. had the world's worst rate of industrial accidents!
In 1911, 156 workers died in the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire. Many young women jumped to their deaths or burned. Worker safety was an important issue for Progressives.
To reform society, Progressives realized they must also reform government
Government could not be controlled by political bosses and business interests
Government needed to be more efficient and more accountable to the people.
Cities and states experimented with new methods of governing.
In Wisconsin, Governor Robert M. La Follette and other Progressives reformed state government to restore political control to the people.
DIRECT PRIMARIES: election in which the citizens themselves vote to select nominees for upcoming elections
INITIATIVES: process in which citizens put a proposed new law directly on the ballot
REFERENDUM: process that allows citizens to approve or reject a law passed by a legislature
RECALL: process by which voters can remove elected officials from office before their term ends.
Progressive governors achieved state-level reforms of the railroads and taxes
Two Progressive Governors, Theodore Roosevelt of New York and Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey, would become Progressive Presidents.
On the national level, in 1913, Progressives helped pass the 17 Amendment, providing the direct election of United States Senators.
- Florence Kelley - National Consumer's League (NCL)
- Temperance Movement - Margaret Sanger
- Ida B. Wells - Suffrage
- Carrie Chapman Catt - National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
- Alice Paul - 19th Amendment
In the early 1900s, many women were no longer content playing a limited role in society. Activists helped bring about Progressive reforms including women's suffrage.
Women would continue the struggle to expand their roles and rights in the future.
By the early 1900s, a growing number of middle-class women wanted to do more than stay at home as wives and mothers.
Colleges like Pennsylvania's Bryn Mawr and New York's School of Social Work armed middle-class women with education and modern ideas.
However, most poor women continued to labor long hours, often under dirty and dangerous conditions.
Progressive reforms addressed working women's conditions
They worked long hours in factories and sweatshops, or as maids, laundresses or servants.
They were paid less and often didn't get to keep their wages.
They were intimidated and bullied by employers
Reformers saw limiting the length of a woman's work day as an important goal and succeeded in several states.
In Muller v. Oregon, the Supreme Court ruled that states could legally limit a women's work day. This ruling recognized the unique role of women as mothers.
In 1899, Florence Kelley advocated for women to receive fair prices for goods they had to buy to run their homes.
The WTUL also created the first workers' strike fund, which helped support families who refused to work in unsafe or unfair conditions.
Progressives supported the temperance movement.
They felt that alcohol often led men to spend their earnings on liquor, neglect their families, and abuse their wives.
The Women's Christian Temperance Union grew steadily until the passage of the 18th Amendment which banned the sale and production of alcohol in 1919.
In 1916, Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic. She believed that having fewer children would lead to healthier women.
She was jailed. The courts eventually ruled that doctors could give out family planning information.
In 1921, Sanger founded the American Birth Control League to make information available to women.
Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells founded the National Association of Colored Women or NACQ in 1896.
The NACW supported day care centers for the children of working parents.
Wells also worked for suffrage, to end lynchings, and to stop segregation in the Chicago schools.
Ultimately suffrage was seen as the only way to ensure that government protected children, fostered education, and supported family life.
Since the 1860s, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton worked relentlessly for women's suffrage. Still, by the 1890s, only Wyoming and Colorado allowed women to vote.
In 1917, social activists led by Alice Paul formed the National Woman's Party. Their radical actions made the suffrage movement's goals seem less dramatic by comparison.
The NWP picketed the White House.
Hundreds of suffragettes were arrested or jailed.
Carrie Chapman Catt
President of the National American Suffrage Association, Carrie Chapman Catt, promoted a two-part strategy to gain the vote for women.
(1) The NAWSA lobbied Congress for a constitutional amendment.
(2) Supporters, called suffragettes, used the referendum process to pass state laws.
Not all women supported suffrage.
The National Association Opposed to Woman's Suffrage feared voting would distract women from their family roles.
Many men and women were offended by Alice Paul's protests in front of the White House. A mob shredded her signs and pickets.
In June 1919, the Nineteenth Amendment was passed by Congress. The amendment stated that the vote "shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex."
- Theodore Roosevelt - Square Deal
- Hepburn Act - Meat Inspection Act
- Pure Food & Drug Act - John Muri
- Gifford Pinchot - National Reclamation Act
- New Nationalism - Progressive Party
In 1901, 43-year-old Theodore Roosevelt became the United States' youngest president, rising quickly as a Progressive idealist.
About T.R.'s Early Life:
shortly after graduation from Harvard, he was elected to the NY State Assembly
following the death of his wife three years later, he headed west to become a rancher
he had a reputation for being smart, opinionated, and extremely energetic.
In 1889 he returned, earning a reputation for fighting corruption on New York City's Board of Police Commissioners.
Chosen by President McKinley to be Assistant Secretary of the Navy, he resigned to organize the Rough Riders at the start of the Spanish-American War
He returned a war hero and was elected Governor of New York in 1898.
As Governor, his Progressive reforms upset Republican leaders. To get him out of New York, President McKinley agreed to make Roosevelt his running mate in 1900. They won easily.
But, in 1901, William McKinley was assassinated.
As President, Roosevelt dominated Washington.
He was so popular that even a toy, the teddy bear, was named after him.
Roosevelt greatly expanded the power of the presidency and the role of government beyond that of helping big business.
His Square Deal program promised fairness and honesty from the government.
He used the power of the federal government on behalf of workers and the people.
In 1902, TR threatened a federal take-over of coal mines when owners refused to compromise on hours.
This was the first time the federal government stepped into a labor dispute on the side of workers.
The Departments of Labor and Commerce were established to prevent capitalist from abusing their power.
Roosevelt took on the railroads after the courts stripped the Interstate Commerce Commission's authority to oversee rail rates.
Elkins Act (1903): allowed the government to fine railroads that gave special rates to favored shippers, a practice that hurt farmers.
Hepburn Act (1906): empowered the ICC to enforce limits on the prices charged by railroad companies for shipping, tolls, ferries, and pipelines.
Roosevelt was known as a trust buster. He used the Sherman Antitrust Act to file suits against what he saw as "bad" trusts, those that bullied small businesses or cheated customers.
T.R. backed Progressive goals to protect consumers by making the federal government responsible for food safety.
The Meat Inspection Act provided for federal inspections and monitoring of meat plants.
The Pure Food & Drug Act banned the interstate shipment of impure or mislabeled food or medicine.
T.R. had a deep reverence for nature, which shaped his policies.
As a Progressive, Roosevelt supported Gifford Pinchot's philosophy on the preservation of resources.
Pinchot felt that resources should be managed & preserved for public use.
T.R. also admired John Muir, who helped establish Yosemite National Park - & to set aside thousands of acres of forestland.
Roosevelt added 100 million acres to the National Park and Forest System
The National Reclamation Act (1902): gave the federal government the power to distribute water in the arid west, effectively giving government the power to decide where and how water would be dispensed.
In 1908, T.R. retired. But he soon disagreed with his successor William Howard Taft on several issues
Taft did not share T.R.'s views on trusts but this was not the only area in which they disagreed.
William Howard Taft
Taft believed that a monopoly was acceptable as long as it didn't unreasonably squeeze out smaller companies.
When Taft fired Gifford Pinchot and overturned an earlier antitrust decision, T.R. angrily decided to oppose Taft and ran for president again.
T.R. promised to restore government trust-busting in a program he called "New Nationalism"
T.R.'s candidacy split the Republican Party, which nominated Taft
T.R. then accepted the nomination of the Progressive Party (Bull Moose Party), setting up a three way race for the presidency in 1912.
- Woodrow Wilson - New Freedom
- Sixteenth Amendment - Federal Reserve Act
- Federal Trade Commission - Clayton Antitrust Act
What steps did Wilson take to increase the government's role in the economy?
Woodrow Wilson used the expanded power of the presidency to promote a far-reaching reform agenda.
Some of Wilson's economic and antitrust measures are still important in American life today.
The split in the Republican Party (Taft/T.R.) allowed Woodrow Wilson, the Democrat, to win easily in the Electoral College, though he did not receive a majority of the popular votes.
Wilson felt that laws shouldn't allow the strong to crush the weak. His "New Freedom" plan was similar to T.R.'s "New Nationalism". It called for strict government controls over corporations.
The Underwood Act allowed for the creation of a graduated income tax, first permitted in 1913, under the newly ratified Sixteenth Amendment.
Progressives felt it was only fair that the wealthy should pay a higher percentage of their income in taxes than the poor.
Revenue from income taxes would more than offset the loss of funds from the lowered tariffs.
Wilson passed the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. It established a system of regional banks to hold reserve funds for the nation's commercial banks.
Still in place today, the Federal Reserve protects against any one person, bank, or region from controlling interest rates.
Wilson strengthened antitrust laws. Like T.R., he focused on trusts that used unfair practices.
The Federal Trade Commission (1914) monitored businesses to prevent monopolies, false advertising, and dishonest labeling.
In 1914, the Clayton Antitrust Act defined specific activities in which businesses could not engage.
It protected unions from being defined as trusts, allowing them more freedom to organize.
Wilson passed several Progressive laws that supported workers.
In 1916, the Workingman's Compensation Act provided wages for temporarily disabled civil service employees.
In 1916, the Adamson Act provided for an 8-hour day for railway workers.
Wilson did not always support workers, as show in the Ludlow Massacre.
In 1913, coal miners went on strike in Ludlow, Colorado.
The company refused their demands and evicted workers from company houses.
Workers set up tents outside the company.
The Colorado National Guard was called. The Guardsmen fired on the tents and killed 26 people. Wilson sent federal troops to restore order and break up the strike.
The Progressive Era had a lasting effect on government, the economy, and society.
Political Reforms Included:
These reforms gave Americans:
Control over their private lives
Control over business
Progressive management of natural resources has impacted our environment including national parks, dams, and forests
Progressive legislation has profoundly impacted our economy including antitrust laws, the Federal Reserve System, and consumer protection. Water distribution remains a hotly debated issue - especially in the West.
Many issues still remain involving dishonest sellers, unfair employment practices, and problems in schools, cities, the environment, and public health.
Progressives succeeded in establishing the idea that government can take action in these areas.
Learning Goal 5:
Students will be able to evaluate the cause and effects of American Progressivism at the beginning of the 20th century
Quiz 5 - 20 Points
1. What areas did Progressives think were in need of the greatest reforms?
2. Explain the significance of the Hull House.
3. What happened at the Triangle Shirtwaist factory? What reforms did
this lead to?
4. How was Muller vs. Oregon both good and bad for the progressive
5. How was the progressive movement a direct contradiction to Social
Darwinism during the Gilded Age?
6. Did the progressive movement make any long lasting contributions to
American society? Explain.
7. Was Roosevelt's Square Deal an accurate reflection of his presidency?
8. What really caused the sudden upsurge in concern for preserving
America’s environment at the beginning of the twentieth century?
9. How did the progressive party affect the presidential election of 1912?
10. What steps did Wilson take to increase the government's role in the