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US History 1880-1950

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Anna Clough

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of US History 1880-1950

US History 1880-1950
Anna Clough

by: Anna Clough
Growth of industry
What Were The Big Industries
Andrew Carnegie
John D. Rockefeller
Vertical and Horizontal Integration
Consumerism and Social
Why Did Industrialism Grow Now?
Answers: Unions and Populism
Plentiful Natural Resources
Growing Population (31.5 to 76 million from 1860-1900)
High Immigration (14 million)
Gov. Assistance (tariffs, subsidies)
investment capital
New inventions (Bessemer steel process, electric lights, telephone, sewing machine
Consumerism: department stores (consumer places)

Social Darwinism: "survival of the fittest" where weak fall and strong survive
Knights of labor wanted
8 hr. work day
equal pay for men and women (equal work)
Pullman Strike
American Railway Union
Pullman town
nation-wide strike
"The People's Party"
wanted to put power back into the hands of the "average citizen" (farmers, workers)
protest against the power of banks, railroads, powerful businessmen
1896 election, William Jennings Bryan- was defeated by big business
McCormick Harvesting Machine Company
Singer Sewing Machine Company
Five-And-Ten-Cent stores
Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company
started working at 12 years old in a cotton factory for $1.20 / 72 hour week
at 14 he started working in a telegraph office
at 17 started work at Pennsylvania railroad
invested in a railroad car company and oil wells
at 20 started his own business manufacturing iron bridges
introduced Bessemer converter and open-hearth steelmaking method
"The man who dies rich, dies disgraced"
donated more than 350 million to worthy causes by the time he died
founded a business that refined kerosene from petroleum, eventually became standard oil company
Purchased as many oil refineries as he could
owned 40 oil companies and owned 90% of the nations pipelines and 84% of the oil
"The day of individual competition is past and gone"
by 1911 his fortune was greater than 1 billion
Oil corporation was known as horizontal integration
Vertical Integration: One business controls all aspects of production
controls areas of raw materials to production to areas of the finished product and transportation
Horizontal Integration: Merges all competing companies in one area of business
controls all the same areas of the production of the product
"let them do it"
economic transactions are free from governmental intervention
"free market"
Laissez-faire - Capitalism
Progressive activists
Progressive Ideals
Upton Sinclair
Lived in cities unlike populists
believed trained experts could analyze and conquer crime and alcoholism and political corruption
praised business owners feared big business power but respects methods that they use
Upton Sinclair as a "muckraker"
purpose- To give the general public a reality of how foods are made

Meat Inspection Act, 1906
outlawed misleading labels
outlawed dangerous chemical preservatives

Pure Food and Drug Act
banned the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure food

1938, Food and Drug administration (FDA) was established (to inspect food/labels)
The Old Imperialism
The Monroe Doctrine
North and south America no longer areas for european colonization
U.S won't interfere with european affairs of any nation in western hemisphere
european powers stay east of prime meridian
Manifest Destiny
God/fate has created a destiny to do certain things
The New Imperialism 1890's-1910's Causes
1. Immigration
High population
2. 1893 Panic
economic depression
growth will bring U.S out of it
3. American men
show how strong they are by controlling navy
4. Sea Power
wanted to dominate
5. National Pride
Spanish-American War
Date: 1898
U.S.S. Maine: lead U.S opinion towards war with Spain and involvement in the Cuban independence war
Yellow Journalism: uses eye catching headlines, no well-researched facts
Started with Cuba fighting for independence from Spain
As a result of the war the U.S got new territories, Phillipinnes, Guam, Puerto Rico, annexed Hawaii
World War 1
Dates: 1914-assasination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, 1917- Russia leaves allies U.S enters
M: militarism- build up
A: Alliances
I: Imperialism
N: Nationalism
Allies: England, France, Italy, Russia, U.S
Axis: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
U.S in World War 1
Zimmerman Telegram:
Declaration of War:
Growth of Government:
Committee on Public Information:
Wilson's Fourteen Points
Wilson gave his speech about the fourteen points, January 8th 1918
promised that all countries that signed the treaty would get trade equality and removal of economic barriers after the war
recomended the moving of certain borders
allowed new international conduct: freedom of ocean travel and trade, open agreements, and arms reductions
League of Nations: an international imediating body
mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike
thought it could bond all nations of the world
The Versailles Treaty
Points of the fourteen points were ignored
Allied powers excluded Germany and Russia from being in the "big four"
Allied powers got to keep their own colonies, and the league of nations would give them control of central power colonies
the mandated colonies would be ruled by the league of nations
Japan spread its influence into China
June 28th 1919, league of nations was signed
Red Scare
Anti-Communist panic
Two communist parties formed in the US in 1919
this caused much fear among the people in the US
although there were only 70,000 people in the groups combined people still had fear
The fear was that there would be a communist revolution in the US
they had fear because of the other communist revolts around the world, Hungary, Bavaria, Russia
Red scare
communist groups formed in the US
eight bombs exploded around the country (believed to be the bolshevik plan to take over the world)
Unions/Strikes seen as "Red"
Race Riots
African-American migration north
Marcus Garvey:
Remnants of Progressivism
Conservatives and Business
Henry Ford
Ford thought of his workers as consumers. (if they made more, they could buy his cars
He raised the pay of workers who had "thrifty habits"
He reduced the workweek to a 40-hr, 5-day week (from 48 hours, 6 days)
He thought these well-paid workders would be loyal and do boring work willingly
Jobs required few skills; ford employed ex-cons and physically and mentally challenged people. Also lots of immigrants
Growing buying power. Incomes rose 11% from 1923 to 1929
New consumer products
elecric irons
Poverty still: "poverty in the midst of plenty" One-third of Americans were poor (including farmers)
Policies toward business
People appointed to regulatory commissions who do not believe in regulations
Presidents made 5 conservative appointments to the supreme court
Cabinet positions in the Rep. administrations went to wealthy business leaders who protected business

The Dawes Plan
The U.S loaned Germanh

on the farms:
foreclosures: Farmers borrowed from banks. Then they couldn't pay. The banks took the farms
migration of okies: moved from the dust bowl to california. piled all their belongings on jalopies (photographs)

In the cities:
unemployment: African americans and minorities first lost their jobs, then full-time employees were asked to share their jobs, then jobs cut
Hoovervilles: big "cities" of homes made of thrown-away card board/metal. outside of all cities. Some were up to 10 miles by 10 miles
Crash of 1929: Why crash occurred
Speculation: a way of gambling with short-term investments
People speculated in the stock market to get more money
Buying on Margin: involved paying only a fraction of a stocks dollar value
The stock market crashed because people were getting more money and then they were investing it into the market
Causes of the Great Depression
depressed farms and industries: textile, lumber, mining, and railroad industries
wealth distribution
gap between rich and poor became an issue
workers not recieving profits reduced consumer buying power
monetary policy
inept policy contributed to crash
left the country with too small of a circulation of money to let the economy bounce back
Decline in foriegn trade
weakness in american economy caused weakness in other economies
US served as a bank for other countries
Americans invested borrowed money into stocks, drying up other nations loans
decline in trade, without loans foriegners couldn't pay for our products

Hoovers Response
Optimistic Pronouncements: "We have now passed the worst and... shall rapidly recover."
Encouraged voluntary actions
called meeting of business leaders and asked them to pledge not to cut wages or production of goods
suggested city and state governments stimulate economy by funding building projects to provide new jobs.
Agricultural marketing act
farm board: lent money to farmers to help them set up cooperative marketing associations
farmers agreed to sell crops as a group and store crops if prices were too low

FDR's Response

Consumerism and Social Darwinism
department stores
advertisement costs increased from 50 mil.- 542 mil. in 30 years
wanted to convince people that shopping was pleausre to enjoy
Social Darwinism:
Survival of the fittest
the weak fall and the strong rise above
Why did industrialism grow now?
Plentiful resources
Growing population (31.5 to 76 million from 1860-1900)
High immigration (14 million)
Gov. Assistance (tariffs, subsidies)
investment capital
new inventions (Bessemer steel process, electric lights, telephone, sewing machine)
Jane Addams
Opened a Hull House as a community center for people to learn english, discuss politics, hold celebrations, opened as a nursery
Helped the poor
quiet dandified women
Walter Rauschenbusch:
Social gospel movement (church provided food, shelter, help for poor people
Florence Kelley:
Worked to outlaw child labor; used boycotts of goods to fight child labor; supported womens right to vote
The National Consumers League:
Worked with settlement houses (400); helped to promote the arts, education, community health. ( organization of 1 million woment)
Ida B. Wells
Campaigned to end lynching; refused to move to African-American section of train
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
March 25, 1911
Major impetus that led to occupational health and safety measures
American society to safety engineers was formed
mandatory fire drills
automatic sprinklers in high risk buildings
workplace doors kept unlocked
doors swing outward to prevent people from being trapped
panic exit bars on doors
Fire prevention efforts
High-rise fire equipment and workers compensation programs
A violent wave of anti-communist panic in the US in 1919-1920
November 1917, Bolshevik Revolution made Russia have a communist government, while communist uprisings took place in Hungary and Bavaria
Two small communist parties were formed in the US in 1919, total membership was 70,000 adults
1/10 of 1% of the adult population in the US
Although there were very few people, it was feared that there would be a communist revolution
Governor: Robert LaFollette
made Wisconsin an example of a state where citizens controlled the government
Wisconsin idea: La Follete challenged the process of picking a political candidate
1903: passed a law requiring a direct primary: and election open to all voters within the party
passed three new reforms to be able to pass more bills
initiative: allowed citizens to introduce a bill and required legislator membors to vote
referendum: voters cast ballots against laws
recall: citizens could remove official before term
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