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Copy of Quantum/Atomic Physics Presentation

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Transcript of Copy of Quantum/Atomic Physics Presentation

By:Stuart Burns
Quantum/Atomic Physics
Introduction to Quantum/Atomic Physics
Scientific Method
Overview of Quantum/Atomic Physics
Overview Cont...
Overview Cont...
What are Planck, Bohr, and Heisenberg theories in Quantum/Atomic physics?
1.) The Planck constant was first described as the proportionality constant between the energy of a photon and the frequency of its associated electromagnetic wave.

2.) Heisenberg was a theoretical physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics".

3.) Bohr developed the Bohr model of the atom with the atomic nucleus at the center and electrons in orbit around it, which he compared to the planets orbiting the Sun.
Uses today for quantum mechanics are included in our everyday modern life. The ability to have a personal computer thanks to a transistor is made possible from quantum mechanics. If anyone in the crowd has a blu-ray player, the lasers in the machine are inspired by quantum mechanics make that possible.
Scientific Method for Quantum/Atomic Physics
1.) How does the size of the bomb affect the premeditated impact or explosion?
2.) I believe the size of the bomb does not matter, because of the new technology that allows a larger explosion with fewer materials.
3.) Independent: Type of Bomb (Big or Small)
Dependent: Heat, Radius(Area), Thermal, Radiation.
In this experiment I need to control the data that is given to me and make conclusions that are exact.
Materials: Information on Nuclear explosions, Internet, Research Data.
Procedure: First research online for data on atomic explosions. Next, compile the data you find. Compare and contrast the differences in explosion effects from small and big bombs. Finally, make a conclusion to the size of the bomb and its explosion.
Timeline for Molecule Discoveries
Max Planck suggests that radiation is quantized
1900
1919
Albert Einstein Proposes quantum light (Photon)
Ernest Rutherford finds first evidence for protons.
1905
Walther Bothe and Hans Geiger demonstrate that energy and mass are conserved in atomic processes
1925
James Chadwick discovers the neutron. The mechanisms of nuclear binding and decay become primary problems.
1931
1938
1947
C. Moller and Abraham Pais introduce the term "nucleon" as a generic term for protons and neutrons
1941
1954
What are some uses today for Quantum/Atomic theory?
What did Donald Glasers bubble chamber accomplish?
The first bubble chamber, no bigger than its inventor's thumb, contained a clear, super-heated liquid in the path of charged atomic particles accelerated by an atom smasher. As the particles pushed through the liquid, they created a trail of tiny bubbles that could be photographed through the window of the chamber. Analyzing the bubbles provides physicists with insight about the particles and related forces.
http://mcb.berkeley.edu/news-and-events/department-news/glaser-bubble-chamber/
James Chadwick discovered the nucleus, is this perhaps one of the greatest discoveries in Quantum/Atomic physics?
James chadwicks discovery of the nucleus certainly provided a big jolt of excitement in the young and eager quantum mechanics field back in the early 1900's. Without the discovery of the basics in quantum mechanics, it would be very difficult to say where we would be today. This discovery should never be disregarded in physics.
How can Quantum/Atomic physics be used for everyday uses? (Future of Quantum Mechanics)
There are many new and exciting uses of Quantum Mechanics coming into play in the future. The enhancement of Solar cells which are called quantum dots are so tiny they act like a nucleus, providing manipulated energy. A bundle of these Quantum dots can be made into quantum wires which are thinner than a single human hair, allowing a lot of potential energy in a small cell.
E.C.G. Stückelberg observes that protons and neutrons do not decay into any combination of electrons, neutrinos, muons, or their antiparticles.
http://www.particleadventure.org/other/history/quantumt.html
Physicists develop procedures to calculate electromagnetic properties of electrons, positrons, and photons. Introduction of Feynman diagrams.
Enrico Fermi and C.N. Yang suggest that a pion is a composite structure of a nucleon and an anti-nucleon.
1949
C.N. Yang and Robert Mills develop a new class of theories called "gauge theories." Although not realized at the time, this type of theory now forms the basis of the Standard Model.
Experiment
Independent: Size of the bomb
Dependent: Size of the blast

In my experiment I am determining if the size of the bomb matters in conclusion to how big the blast will be. This is what I found:


Small Bombs and Affects: The United States and Soviet Union are said to have a nuclear weapon small enough to fit into a brief case. They weigh nearly 100 pounds and have the devastating impact that a thousand tons of dynamite would have. Radius: 1 mile (1.69km)

Big Bombs and Affects: A great example of the first nukes and their after affects are Nagasaki and Hiroshima. They weighed thousands of tons and had to be carried through a B-29 Bomber. They killed 90,000–166,000 people in Hiroshima and 60,000–80,000 in Nagasaki. Radius: 3 Miles (4.8km)
Data
Nuclear Explosions: In big or small Nuclear weapons the percentages of how the blast unfolds goes like this:
50% Blast energy
35% Thermal energy
15% Nuclear Radiation

As soon as the bomb detonates the blast wave is caused from an extreme pressure of heat. The actual shock wave can be felt from 3 miles away.

What Nuclear weapons are made out of: Plutonium/Uranium 235/EMIS Process/Gaseous Reaction/Heavy Water
Results
The difference between the nuclear weapons is varied in the production of their blasts. The more material(appropriate for nuclear weapons) fit inside a closed object, the bigger the blast will be obviously. The thing that should be focused on for a desired blast, is the type of material and how densely compacted that material can be. Examples of materials would be Uranium, plutonium, and heavy water. In smaller nuclear weapons, or straight up street bombs, nails and other sharp materials are compacted and explode at a fast velocity.
Bibliography
http://mcb.berkeley.edu/news-and-events/department-news/glaser-bubble-chamber/

Clark, John Owen Edward. Physics Matters!: Mechanics. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational, 2001. Print.
Cooper, Christopher. Physics Matters!: Nuclear Physics. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational, 2001. Print.
"Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics." (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
"How Atoms Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
"Quantum Physics." Quantum Physics. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
"Quantum Theory." Quantum Theory. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
"Splitting the Unsplittable: Physicists Split an Atom Using Quantum Mechanics Precision." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 05 June 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.
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