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Heterotrophs

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Gabriel Navarrette

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of Heterotrophs

Chaparral
Climate: Chaparrals like savannas are hot and dry, winters are cold. Rain is not abundant in chaparrals and it usually occurs in the winter.

Temperature: Temperature in chaparrals reach 100 F and drops to a l0w of 30 F.

Due to the dryness of these terrestrial biomes, many organisms have learned to adapt to the environment. In addition, there are many fires in chaparrals however many plants have adapted and benefit from the fires. Other plants have small hairs that help them preserve moisture.

Organisms:

Spotted skunks(Gracilis) can live in a variety of temperatures. These skunks are the smallest type of skunk there is.
Fairy Duster(Eryophilla) bloom all year long. They grow to an average of 8-48 inches tall. These plants grow in the chaparral areas of San Diego. Fairy dusters are a part of the pea family.
Torrey pines(Torreyana) grow very slowly however they grow faster if they are cultivated or transplanted. The torrey pine is one of the rarest pine in the U.S.
Saltmarsh Bird’s Beak(Maritimus) is a plant that lives for one year and then dies. This plant is considered an endangered species.
Golden Jackal(Aureus) are very much like small wolfs. In the winter, golden jackals grow a thicker coat of fur. Jackals have adapted to eat insects.
Tuatara are nocturnal reptiles. Tuataras have life spans of 60 years, they reach maturity at the age of 20.

Heterotrophs
Different Biomes


"Research, discuss, and compare/contrast all of the terrestrial biomes found on planet Earth. Be sure to include a complete description as well as the types of organisms that are present in each biome.
Tropical Rainforest
Climate: Tropical rainforests have year round warm climates. An average of 125-660 cm of rain falls yearly. Humidity in tropical rainforests is relatively high(77-88%). There is usually a brief period of time when tropical rainforests receive less rain.

Temperature: The temperature reaches a high of 93 F and drops as low as 63 F.

Tropical rainforest are the most diverse in living organisms. Most organisms have learned to adapt to this environment because competition for food, sunlight, and space is very high.

Organisms:


Epiphytes are plants that grow on branches high up in trees where there is more light available compared to lower ground where light is scarce. One example of Epiphytes are orchids.
Turacos are birds that are well adapted to canopy life. These birds have a fourth toe that helps them cling to branches.
Dart frogs are poisonous frogs of bright colors that warn predators to stay away. There are about 170 different species. The most dangerous dart frog is the Golden poison frog, also known as the arrow frog.
Giant African millipedes are the biggest millipedes that exist. This specie of millipede live in tropical rainforest of East Africa. Giant African millipedes can grow as long as 15.2 in.
Venus flytraps are carnivorous plants that eat insects and arachnids. These plants obtain their nutrients from the insects they eat and not from the poor nutrient soil.
Heterotrophs are non-photosynthetic plants that live on the forest floor.
Emergent trees are 100 to 240 feet tall with canopies that grow above the forest.

Desert
Climate: Deserts are hot and dry. Precipitation is low and occurs rarely, 30 cm of rainfall a year.

Temperature: Temperature varies seasonally and daily. Temperature may exceed 50 C and drop as low as -30 C.

Deserts include nocturnal carnivores, reptiles, insects, arachnids, and birds.

Organisms:

Armadillo lizards are lizards that have armor like an armadillo’s that protects them from predators. When they feel threatened these animals curl up so that they can protect their vulnerable bellies and expose their spikes.
Javelina are wild pigs that live in deserts of North America. Javelinas live near water holes because those areas are bushy and they need water to survive.
Thorny devils are the strangest species of lizards. Their bodies are covered by spines and they turn different colors to camouflage themselves.
Brittle bushes has leaves that are covered with short hairs that act like insulation against the heat and the cold. These leaves also trap moisture in the air and helps the brittle bush to reduce the loss of water.
Saguaro Cacti live in hot, dry deserts. These cacti do not need a large amount of water to survive. In May and June, saguaro cacti flower white flowers that open on cool nights.
Sun Spiders are fast running, nocturnal arachnids that resemble both spiders and scorpions.


Savanna
Climate: Savannas have warm climates throughout the year. There are two seasons in savannas: a dry season in the winter and a wet season in the summer. During the rainy seasons, the climate is hot and humid.

Temperature: The temperature reaches a high of 93 F and a low of 61 F.

Organisms:

Black Mambas are the most deadly snakes in the world. The black mamba lives in South Africa. Black mambas are active during the day. They feed on small mammals and birds.
Nigriceps Ants live on the savanna of Kenya, Africa. These ants reside in a tree with 3 other species of ants. At the slightest disturbance these ants will swarm out of their habitat and sting the intruder.
Eucalyptus Cinerea are trees that grow to an average of 20-30 feet tall. These trees grow on hot, dry climates because they do not tolerate the cold. Eucalyptus trees are found on the plains and savannas of Australia.This tree is the primary food for koalas.
Baobab are trees that grow in the savannas of Africa and India. The baobab tree is leafless for 9 months a year.
Elephant grass is tall grass that grows in clumps that reach 10 feet tall. Elephant grass grows along lakes and rivers where the soil is nutrient rich.
Egyptian Mongoose live in the savanna of Africa. Mongooses are known for their ability to kill snakes. The color of their fur gives them the ability to blend in with the surroundings of the savanna.


Terrestrial Biomes Around the Earth
There are many different types of terrestrial biomes around the world. Tropical rainforests, deserts, savannas, chaparrals, temperate grasslands, coniferous rainforest, temperate broad leaf forests, and tundras are a few examples of terrestrial biomes. Terrestrial biomes differ in climate, temperature, and in a variety of organisms that live and coexist together.

The Question
"Research, discuss, and compare/contrast all of the terrestrial biomes found on planet Earth. Be sure to include a complete description as well as the types of organisms that are present in each biome. Discuss how biodiversity affects biome and ecosystem stability as well as how symbiotic relationships affect stability that are both competitive and non-competitive. Discuss, in detail, and provide examples of the three types of biodiversity: genetic, species, & ecosystem. Additionally, discuss in detail threats to biodiversity such as habitat loss, introduced species, and over exploitation. Lastly, explain the extinction vortex, provide examples, and discuss at least 5 human interventions to save ecosystems and preserve biodiversity on the planet"
Coniferous Forest
Climate: Winters in these terrestrial biomes are cold and long. Precipitation ranges from 30 to 70 cm and droughts are common. Summers may be hot.

Temperature: Temperature in coniferous forests ranges from -70 C to over 30 C.

Unlike tropical rainforests, coniferous forests are not very diverse. There is a number of different mammals, birds, and insects that live in coniferous forests. However there are not many reptiles or amphibians the reside in this terrestrial biome. Organisms that live in this biome have to withstand the cold. Some animals will hibernate in the winter while others (birds) will migrate to warmer regions.

Organisms:

Wolverines are native to the northern regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. Wolverines are strong animals that are capable of killing animals larger than their own size. They are solitary animals.
Snow leopards live in mountains and rocky areas. Snow leopards have thick fur on their paws for protection from the cold and snow.
Lodgepole trees require heat to release seeds. The seeds develop in the pine cones however the pine cones will not open unless there is heat. This type of tree will thus benefit from fires.
Mushrooms are abundant in coniferous forests. There are 2,000 species of different mushrooms both poisonous and edible. The rosy rossula is an example of mushrooms that are found in coniferous forests.
Poison ivy grows up to 10 feet. This plants provides nutrients for many living organisms in coniferous forests. Some birds eat the berries this plant produces and other organisms search the plant for insects.
Bald eagles are found in the coniferous forests of North America. Bald eagles are able to resist the winter due to their feathers and their feet are cold resistant.


Temperate Deciduous Forest
Climate: Like the summers of savannas, the summers of temperate deciduous forests are hot and humid. Precipitation ranges from 70 to over 200 cm annually. Rain falls during all seasons including the summer and winter.Temperate deciduous forests have the four yearly seasons.

Temperature: Temperature drops to 0 degrees C in the winter and reaches 30 degrees C in the summer.

Organisms in this biome have adapted to this environment. Plants have adapted to grow in a certain position so that they can absorb more sunlight. Animals have learned to find shelter in shrubs, bushes, and trees. During the winter some animals hibernate. Animals have also learned to eat edible plants that are not poisonous to them. Most organisms in this environment camouflage to their surroundings.

Organisms:

Duckbill platypuses live in the deciduous forests of Australia. Their tails have fatty tissue that helps them store energy. Their flat tails and webbed feet helps them swim and they have thick fur that helps them stay warm and dry like the snow leopard's fur.
Least weasels have long slender bodies that help them hunt during the day and night. The least weasel is the smallest carnivore in the world. Least weasels live in the deciduous forests of Northeast Asia.
Carpet moss is mainly found covering the ground of deciduous forests but it is also found on stream beds and on the base of trees. Mosses require constant moisture. These organisms do not have roots and reproduce through spores and not through seeds.
White oak trees can grow up to 100 feet tall. If undisturbed an oak tree can live up to 500 years. The white oak tree is the most common species of trees in Eastern U.S.
Black bears are well adapted to the cold because they have multiple layers of fur. Their claws have also adapted to help them climb the many trees of their environment. The black bear helps its environment by killing the elderly and the young of overpopulated species.
Fat Dormice are abundant in the deciduous forests of Africa, Europe, Asia, and Japan. There are 21 different species of dormice. Dormice are nocturnal thus their whiskers help them find their way in the night.

Temperate Grassland
Climate: The climate of temperate grasslands is similar to the climate of chaparrals. The summers are hot and the winters are cold. Rain is highly seasonal. An average of 30-100 cm of rain falls annually.

Temperature: Temperature falls below -10 degrees C and reaches a high of 30 degrees C.

Organisms in temperate grasslands are organisms that can withstand a hot environment. Temperate grasslands also lack shelter from predators therefore the majority of animals in this environment are ungulates with long legs(antelope) that are able to run and escape predators. Ungulates also live in temperate grasslands due to the plethora of grass they eat.

Organisms:

Badgers are stocky, heavy built animals with short legs and sharp claws. During the winter badgers go underground and survive on the fat they have stored in their stocky bodies. Badgers are solitary animals that fiercely defend their territory.
Mongolian gerbils live in sandy burrows with grass. Mongolian gerbils eat seeds, roots, and vegetables. These animals help the dispersion of plants by digesting the seeds in different locations.
Purple coneflowers are part of the daisy and dandelion family. Scientists have found that this flower contains antibacterial properties. This flower also provides relief for insect bites and stings.
Fleabane resemble daisies. Fleabane protect cuts from infection and help skin healing. When it is burned, it releases an oily substance that repels insects like fleas. Fleabane can be found in the United States and Canada.
Earthworms also known as night crawlers, enrich the soil with their waste products (castings). Rich soil can have as much as a million worms per acre. There are over 3,000 different species of earthworms all over the world. Earthworms eat the organic substances in soil.
Antelopes occupy the grasslands of Africa and Asia. Antelopes are herbivores that spend much of their time grazing grass. Antelopes are preyed on by lions, leopards, and wild dogs.


Tundra

Climate: Unlike other terrestrial biomes, tundras have long, cold winters and short cool summers.

Temperature: The highest temperature a tundra reaches is 10 degrees C and the lowest -30 degrees C.

Tundras are unlike any other of these seven biomes. Tundras are the youngest terrestrial biomes in the earth, only formed 10,000 years ago. Tundras are the world’s coldest and driest biomes. Living organisms have made adaptations to this cold environment. However, tundras are fragile environments that may be disturbed by any stress.

Organisms:

Snowy owls live in the tundra of North America. This bird is most active during the day. Snowy owls feed on voles, lemmings, rabbits, and some seabirds. Snowy owls are predators that keep the environment from overpopulating.
Polar bears are well adapted to cold environments, their thick fur helps them stay warm. Polar bears have straw like hairs that helps them stay dry and they have a thick layer of fat that also helps them stay warm. Polar bears are facing extinction due to the pollutants that are destroying their habitats.
Arctic terns are birds that makes the longest migration compared to any other bird. This bird spends most of its life flying. Arctic terns spend the winter in the Antarctic tundra and the summer in the Arctic. Their life spans are about 20 years.
Arctic moss(Calliergon giganteum) grows in the Arctic tundra. This moss is mostly covered by permafrost( layer of frozen soil). Arctic moss reproduces through spores which constantly need water.
Labrador tea plants grow up to 4- 5 feet tall. The leaves of this plant were used by Narive Americans. The leaves were brewed to make tea which was rich in vitamin C. Native Americans also used the leaves to keep moths away. This plant has also been used to make syrup for colds.
Tufted Saxifrage grows on thick mats in tundras. Saxifrages have well developed roots that help them store carbohydrates that stimulate a quick response to the cold weather of tundras.


Pictures
Additionally Discuss in detail Threats
to Biodiversity such as Habitat loss,
Introduced species, and
over exploitation.

Habitat loss
habitat loss poses the greatest
threat to species. Most habitat
is loss due to human consumption and as a parking lot or space for human made objects.
Habitat loss is identified as a main Threat to 85% of all species described in the IUCN's red list. Such as Aeretes melanopterus (Northern Chinese Squirrel, Apristurus Albisoma (whitish CatShark), and the Ateles Chamek ( Black-faced Black spider monkey)
These are species that are on the Red List because they are either endangered or threatened by Habitat loss. Habitat fragmentation, reduces biodiversity by:
1.Splitting population into smaller groups, this reduces it because it makes isolated individuals within the groups harder to defend themselves and harder to find mates.
2. Increasing a competition and crowding within these groups.
3.Reducing species' foraging ranges and access to prey and water sources
4. Increases friction between animals and humans as animals range into developed areas.
Pictures
Northern Chinese Squirrel
Whitish Catshark
Black-Faced Black Spider monkey
Discuss how biodiversity affects a biome and ecosystem stability as well as how symbiotic relationships affect stability that are both competitive and noncompetitive.
Symbiotic relationships can affect competition and non competition through:
1. Mutualistic Relationships
2. Parasitic Relationships
3. Predatory-Herbivory Relationships
4. Commensalistic Relationships
5.Mimicry


Introduced species
*Introduced species are the 2 most dangerous threat to biodiversity. 49% of the 1880 imperiled species in the United States, Are endangered because of introduced species.

*Introduced species are more of a threat to biodiversity than pollution, harvest, and disease combined

*There are three types of introduced species

Lastly, and the most destructive type of introduced species, is the one that completely changes an entire ecosystem or environment.
The Ugly
*Ex: When the asian chestnut blight fungus virtually eliminated american chestnut from over 180 million acres of eastern United States forests in the first half of the 20th century,it was a disaster of many animals that were highly adapted to live in forests dominated by this tree species. ten moth species that could live only on chestnut trees became extinct.
The Worse
Intro species that endanger single species or even entire group of them.

*Ex: the predatory brown snake, introduced from the admiralty islands, has eliminated ten of the eleven native bird species from the forests of Guam.
The Bad
Genetic Biodiversity
Genetic biodiversity refers to a number of genetic traits in the genetic makeup of any species. Genetic biodiversity helps species adapt to changing environments, the Cheetah is a very great example, it has roamed the world for many thousands years, after a great drastic climate change, many cheetah species have been extinct, jubatus must breed to help them reduce their chances to be extinct, furthermore, they must be well adapt so that they can pass the genetic traits to their offspring, and therefore so that many of their offspring they will be successful in their new habitat.
Did you know every person in this planet is closed related by genetics, every person has evolved to survive in our different climates around the world just as the cheetah and other animals, the only difference is they were affected drastically.it involves the neutral theory of evolution which states that at all the molecular level evolutionary change and polymorphisms are mainly due to mutations that are nearly enough neutral with respect to natural selections that their behavior and fate are mainly determined by mutation and random drift. also it is very important to be successful in survival an adaption so that your offspring are successful( survival of the fittest is something that important also. for example, pandas are becoming extinct and are forced to breed and have offspring so that they won't go extinct, therefore they must breed two successful genetic pandas so that their offspring get their genetics and become successful and keep breeding with other panda bears. this occurs in all living organisms they have to evolve to survive and adapt

Examples
Ecosystem Biodiversity
Terrestrial biodiversity tends to be highest at low latitudes near the equator.For example tropical rain forest, which is caused by warm climates , high productivity, However Marine ecosystem is mostly always tend to be greater along costs in the western Pacific, but at sea surface it occurs in a mid-latitudinal band in all oceans, marine ecosystem are the most diverse in some cases of all ecosystems,coral reefs for example. Coral reefs are underwater structure , which are made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals, coral reefs ecosystem have a very complex food chain starting from the plankton, coral and algae to their apex predators.(tuna, sharks, etc.)
coral reefs are the most diverse underwater structures in our planet , which is made from calcium carbonate secreted by corals. Coral reefs, just like any other ecosystem rely on a variety of biotic and abiotic factors to keep them stable, if any change abiotic or biotic change it could make a coral disappear,symbiotic relations are a close ecosystem relationship between two different species in a coral reefs, which differ from positive to negative interactions in a ecosystem, if the interactions is positively its referred as a mutualism, but if only one is benefited and the other is not impacted it is called commensalism, however, in case the other is impacted its referred as parasitic or predatory.in some case it would be competitive, it would conclude that two different species or in some cases from the same species would fight for a limited resource. although, symbiotic relations may vary intensity, but also if a species can and not live with that relationship it is termed as facultative,and if they are dependent on each other, it’s termed obligated. a classic example of mutualistic relation is between a clown fish and a sea anemones, how do they benefit each other? well, sea anemones help clown fish by hiding in the sting tentacles and protect them while, clown fish do the same by scaring any other fishes away. An example for commensalism is glass shrimp and the chocolate chip sea star, the glass shrimp are impacted positively by getting on sea stars to stay away from their predators, while the sea star aren't impacted.parasitic symbiotic relation occurs between sea spiders and table coral, however, competitive relationships are more intense.
Coral Reefs
Biodiversity
It's the degree of variation of life within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or planet.
Species Biodiversity
Species Biodiversity is a basic unit of biological classification and taxonomic rank. species are often referred as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, therefore in many cases this this definition may be adequate , but defining species is very difficult, hence many questions come up when biologists define the word “species”, which is caused by how they are based or how individual organisms reproduced, but in reality it means that a definition that works well for some organisms will be useless for others, for example a liger can't reproduce, like a tiger or a lion, Even scientist today have trouble and are surprised how species are defined. example: “i was much stuck how entirely vague and arbitrary is the distinction between species and varieties.”-Charles Darwin. however, other great scientist also didn't accepted the phrase “species problem” and saw as a speciation, only about 1.7 million species have been discovered in our planet.

Species Biodiversity Example
Ligers are hybrids that cannot have offspring, this makes many scientist think whether if they are species or mutants. they are actually referred as a species, but don't species have to be able to breed and have reproductive success. This is still a question asked by scientist in 21 century. However, they ain't the only ones that are created by two alike but different species. The mule is another one, it is a combination between a horse and donkey, they also aren't able to interbreed but are still refferred as a species, when it disobeys its own definition
Extinction vortex A
A vortex: is a result of an increase in genetic drift and a corresponding decrease in genetic variance which leads to a decrease in "pop'n adaptive potential" and eventual extinction. This is mainly about biological invasion, resulting in large scale hybridization and out breeding depression
for example when humans introduce non-native or non-indigenous and they take over other native species resources, this will eventually led to extinction for the native species. Therefore, actually the non-native tend to have a greater reproductive success caused by the limitation on predation or no predation for the non native species. A great example of this would be pythons introduced to florida's everglades it very diverse, therefore, there is plenty of food for pythons to feed and reproduce successfully and not be predated by any other species.

Three Types of Biodiversity
To Discuss, in detail, and provide examples of the three types of biodiversity: genetic, species, & ecosystem.

This type of introduced species have a subtle intro to the ecosystem but nonetheless it is destructive to native species.
*Ex: North american grey squirrels are driving native red squirrels to extinction in Great Britain and Italy by foraging for nuts more effectively than the native species. Such competition for resources is not easy to observe, but the end result is the loss of the native species.
Over exploitation
This term refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing its return.

*This applies to natural resources like medicinal plants, grazing pastures, game animals, fish stocks, forests, and water aquifers.
The way this term is used
Ecologist's use the term to describe population that are harvested at a rate that is unsustainable, given their natural rates of mortality and capacities for reproduction
In conservation biology the term is used in the context of human economic activity that involves the taking of natural resources, or organisms, in larger numbers than that population can handle.
Finalizing Over Exploitation
We as humans are ignorant, I mean we take resources assuming that it will magically grow back for our own consumption.
The F Extinction vortex
* is initiated by a decrease in population size which leads to a decrease in individual heterozygosity and an increase in the rate of genetic drift, resulting in increased in degrees of interbreeding depression and an increase in population over load, which results in extinction.
*This basically means when there is a decrease in population size it leads to less mating, which means that those species begin to lose the ability to mate with each other creating that genetic drift. which means that that species have a decrease of interbreeding and an increase in population over load, or lost of alleles in a gene pool, which can finally end in extinction.
An example
An example of this extinction vortex is the Greater Prairie Chicken. The Greater Prairie Chicken was common from New England to Virginia and had a population over a million in Illinois alone, but by 1993 there were fewer than 50 individuals in Illnois. Scientists tested if this vortex was the cause of it by transplanting 271 birds from a larger population elsewhere. The population rebounded, which suports this hypothesis of the F extinction vortex, but before the sciencetist gave an extra supply of genetic variation it was to late for this species of chicken
Extinction Vortex Diagram
Is a relationship when two different species help each other out in ways that benefit both sides of the relationship. Even in mutualisms, neither species can complete its life cycle without the other, which may have caused them to coevolve through years. Mutualistic Relationships can be considered obligate or facultative because of that reason. In obligate, the one of the species cannot survive without the other whereas facultative the species will live but be significantly weakened.

Examples:
Oxpecker & Zebra or Rhinoceros - Here, the oxpecker feeds on the tics and other parasites of the larger animal by acting as a pest control for the larger animal while they have something to feed upon. Another benefit for the larger animal is that the oxpecker flies upward and gives a cry as a warning to save its companion.
&
Bees & Flowers - The bees go out of their hive to collect nectar where flowers provide it, while the bee is taking in the nectar, the hairy body of the bee attract pollen which sticks to it and when the bee lands elsewhere, it pollens other flowers to make more flowers.
Mutualism
Parasitic
Is the relationship where one species benefits from another, the host, while the host suffers by having lower the fitness by having its nutrients taken. Usually the parasite lives in or on the host, because of this their best intentions are not to kill the host. Host are able to get rid of the parasites by symbiotic relationships or just scratching them off. Prey is usually bigger than the parasite. There are ectoparasites and endoparasites.

Example of endoparasites:
Tapeworms & Humans- The tapeworm attaches to the humans intestines to retrieve nutrients passed by to deprive the host of nutrient lost each time and more as the parasite grows within the host.

Only one of the species survives by killing and consuming the other for energy. The predator is usually larger to take out the prey easily. It is said that a predator-prey relationship to be an “evolutionary arms race”. In several cases, cannibalism is included within the intra-specific competition along with the inter-specific species.

Example:
Lion & Antelope - Both of these species coevolve to try and catch/run from the other to breed for better genetics in natural selection for choosing those that are fit to survive.
Predatory & Herbivory Relationships
Commensalism
A case where one of the species benefits while the other is is neither affected negatively or beneficially.

Example:
Clown fishes & Sea Anemones- In this aquatic commensalism, the clown fish uses the stinging tentacles of the sea anemone to protect itself from harm by using it as shelter from predators.

Mimicry
The use of a feint of one species that mimics another in either color or pattern to impersonate a deadly animal.Camouflage also helps out by appearing like the background to escape danger from predators.

Example:
The Mimic Octopus can change its appearance in shape by resembling a Lionfish, sea snake or stingray.

Exploitative and Interference Competition are said to be considered true competition compared to apparent because of the fight for resources.
Interference can happen, for example, when a male gorilla is preventing another male gorilla from accessing a female mate through physical aggression or display of aggression from the dominant silverback gorilla. Competition can be either intraspecific(intra-within) or interspecific(inter-between, or among).
Exploitative Competition occurs when two or more species compete for resources yet they do not interact directly with one another but reduce the common needed resource.

Interference Competition occurs when a species directly alters the resource-attaining behavior of other individuals by directly contacting the other species.

Apparent Competition occurs when two different species do not compete for resources but affect each other indirectly as as prey for the same predator.

Competition
Competitive Exclusion is G. Gause’s principle that if competition between species seek the same niche, one will end overshadowing the other by being a better competitor therefore driving the weaker species into extinction.
Both species can however, coexist only if their resource needs are not exactly the same, in which population will slow in both sides but able to live amongst each other.
Symbiotic relationships help the animal world from competition by sharing the resource or space in a rather ‘harmoniously’ way.
Species evolve through adaptations to boost their abilities to survive and reproduce while the less fit die in the process because they are too weak for competition.
An alternate way to live with too much competition is for a species to adopt an alternative life history and dispersal strategies. Opportunities for new colonization and nutrient acquisition open when there is a disturbance in nature that gives the weaker species yet more dispersal a head start compared to the successfully nutrient acquiring one.

Competitive Exclusion is G. Gause’s principle that if competition between species seek the same niche, one will end overshadowing the other by being a better competitor therefore driving the weaker species into extinction.
Both species can however, coexist only if their resource needs are not exactly the same, in which population will slow in both sides but able to live amongst each other.
Symbiotic relationships help the animal world from competition by sharing the resource or space in a rather ‘harmoniously’ way.
Species evolve through adaptations to boost their abilities to survive and reproduce while the less fit die in the process because they are too weak for competition.
An alternate way to live with too much competition is for a species to adopt an alternative life history and dispersal strategies. Opportunities for new colonization and nutrient acquisition open when there is a disturbance in nature that gives the weaker species yet more dispersal a head start compared to the successfully nutrient acquiring one.

Biodiversity affects on Ecosystem stability
Biodiversity, the diversity of life in earth needs richness in numbers, distribution of abundance, and a composition of each type of species, alleles, functional groups, or ecosystems.
Anthropogenic disturbances and climate change are causing the decline of ecosystems and biodiversities disrupting the stability.
Species diversity can be listed by richness and composition help stabilize the ecosystem with variation in species and that explain the relationships among species.
Functional traits help species by allowing them to take turns in getting at the resource without competing with each other a lot.

Plants here play the role of feeding the ecosystem producers to consumers to make a healthy ecosystem.
Experiments on biodiversity affects on ecosystem stability found that species diversity conferred spatial and temporal stability on several ecosystem functions.
When there is more than one species with a similar ecological role in a system, they are sometimes considered "functionally redundant."
Variation among species in their response to such fluctuation is an essential requirement for ecosystem stability, the presence of species can compensate for the function of species that are lost.
Extinction D Vortex
is initiated when population size decrease and variability increase in certain populations is increased and the population becomes fragmented or "patchy" and this causes a local extinction rate to increase.
In other words, as population sizes decrease, the variability of spatial distribution increases so the once big population is fragmented by environmental affects such as habitat lost because of human intervention with geological barriers creating positive feedback to further boost the extinction rate of the species.
Geographical Isolation occurs here in the a ecosystem. Many of these have occurred throughout the world but most are known for their human intervention where roads 'cut off' part of an area to separate the ecosystem..
Extinction Vortex R
An example of an R vortex is the destruction of habitat in an ecosystem. Once a habitat is interrupted, many organisms in that ecosystem are affected. Moreover, the population of a specific specie may be severely damaged.
Before Europeans migrated to North America, prairies were stable habitats for prairie chickens. Because of the human disturbances in these ecosystems, the population of prairie chickens dramatically decreased. Many people began to hunt prairie chickens and they began to disturb the environment, thus the prairie chicken population decreased.
The population of prairie chickens decreased to an amount of 500 due to this, their population is not stable. Consequently, if the habitat is slightly disturbed the population will furthermore decrease.


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