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Psych of The Exceptional Learner

Attention Deficit Disorders

Sarah Kelleher

on 12 October 2012

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Transcript of Psych of The Exceptional Learner

Christina Sayegh, Mark Botta, and Sarah Kelleher Attention Deficit Disorders "The essential feature of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development" (Turnbull, Turnbull, & Wehmeyer, 2010). Definition
3. Combined Type
Describes students who have features of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity
most students with AD/HD have combined ADHD Three Types of AD/HD In addition to the characteristics of the three types of AD/HD :
intellectual functioning typically in the average range
impaired academic achievement
challenges associated with behavioral, social, and emotional functioning Other Characteristics 1. Heredity
This is the cause for about 80% of the children with AD/HD
2. Structural and Functional Differences in the Brain
differences in the frontal lobes, cerebellum, and basal ganglia
Frontal lobes - important in controlling cognitive, emotional, and motor responses
Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia - play a role in motor planning, motivation, and behavioral inhabition
reduced brain volume

3. Other Causes
prenatal factors (exposure to lead, alcohol, and nicotine
perinatal factors (complications during birth)
postnatal causes (environmental toxins) Causes AD/HD is NOT caused by:
a lack of will
parents who do not discipline their child
poor diet
watching too much television
too much sugar
a fast paced, stressful culture Common Myths about the Causes of AD/HD Prevalence More common in boys than in girls
often discovered in the early school years when children begin stuggling to pay attention
can continue in the teen years and into the adult years
varies according to gender, age, and ethnicity
approximately 3 to 8 percent of the general population are recognized as having AD/HD
account for over two thirds of the students who are identified as having a disability in the category of other health impairments talking computer keyboards
word prediction
screen magnifiers
talking computer software

Assistive Technology allows children to:
focus on their strengths
reach their full learning potential
by increasing independent work Assistive Technology Ideas 1. Behavior Issues
Inattentive type: change the student's seating arrangement and provide schedules of daily activities
Hyperactive Type: teach student organization and goal setting skills Inclusion Ideas for the Inatentive Type 2. Social Interactions
Role play friendship skills
pair students with similar interests 3. Educational Performance
errorless learning procedures
peer-tutoring 4. Classroom Attitudes
provide rewards (goal attainment scaling) CHADD: Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder provides education and support for individuals with ADHD Support/Information Groups ADDA- Attention Deficit Disorder Association helps adults with AD/HD live better lives
ADD Resources - provides information and support A., & A. (n.d.). ADHD Parents Medication Guide. Parents Med Guide. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from http://www.chadd.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Treatment&Template=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=22316

Ayers, M. (2009). Assistive technology in the classroom for ADHD students. Retrieved from http://www.examiner.com/article/assistive-technology-the-classroom-for-adhd-students

Quily, P. (n.d.). US ADHD support group links. Retrieved from http://www.addcoach4u.com/support/usadhdsupportgroups.html

Turnbull, A., Turnbull, R., & Wehmeyer, M.L. (2010). Exceptional lives: Special education in today’s schools (6th ed.). New Jersey: Merrill. REFERENCES 1. Predominately Inattentive Type
Must show six or more of the following characteristics
fails to give close attention to details
difficulty sustaining attention in tasks
often neglects to follow through on instructions
difficulty organizing tasks and activities
avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort
loses things necessary for activities
easily distracted
forgetful in daily activities 2. Predominately Hyperactive-impulsive Type
must show six or more of the following characteristics:
often fidgets with hands or feet
often leaves seat in classroom
often runs of climbs in inappropriate situations
difficulty playing or participating in leisurely activities
"on the go"
talks excessively
blurts out answers before question is completed
difficulty taking turns
interrupts others
problems typically start when a child is very young Three types of AD/HD (continued) Medications The main forms of treatment for AD/HD:
help control hyperactivity and impulsive behavior
usually increase one’s attention span.
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