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English Grammar

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EMPERIND

on 6 February 2018

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Transcript of English Grammar

Articles are words that define a noun as specific or unspecific.
1. The Indefinite Article – ‘a/an’ :
(a) The form ‘a’is used before a word beginning with a consonant, or a vowel with a consonant sound.
Eg: a man, a European, a university, a hat, a one-way, a street, a ewe
(b) The form ‘an’is used before words beginning with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u) or words beginning with a mute ‘h’, or before individual letters spoken with a vowel sound :
Eg: an apple, an island, an M.P., an yield, an egg, an hour, an x, an uncle, an MBA
2. Use of ‘a / an’:
(a) a/an is used before a singular noun which is countable, when it is mentioned for the first time and represents no particular person or thing :
Eg: I need a pen.
They live in a bungalow.
(b) a/an is used before a singular countable noun which is used as an example of a class of things :
Eg: A child needs love. (all children any child)
A car must be maintained. (all cars, any car)
(c) a/an is used in certain expressions of quantity with certain
numbers and in expressions of price :
a
lot of
a
couple Rs. 10
a
kilo
a
great many
a
dozen 50 ps
a
dozen
a
great deal of
a
hundred four times
a
day
a
thousand 60 kms
an
hour
1 ½ kilos = one and
a
half kilos or
a
kilo and
a
half,
but 1/2 kg = half
a
kilo (not
‘a’
before half).
However
a
half holiday,
a
half portion,
a
half share is possible.
Example :
(d) In exclamations before singular, countable nouns:
What
a
pretty girl ! (But – What pretty girls !)
That’s
a
lie!, such
a
long queue !
3. The Definite Article –
‘the’:
(a) The definite article is used, when the object or group of objects is unique or
considered to be unique :
the Earth
the
equator
the
moon the Sun
the
stars
the
yellow trees
(b) The definite article is used to talk about people andthings already mentioned:she has two
children –

a
girl and
a
boy.
The
boy is fourteen,
the
girl is eight
(c) The definite article is used before a noun made definite by the addition of a phrase
or a clause :
the
girl with
the
gun
the
place where I met her
the
man with
the
gun
the
paper that I write on
(d) The definite article is used before a noun which byreason of locality can represent
only one particular thing :
My wife was in the kitchen (the kitchen of thishome)
Please pass
the
salt. (
the
salt on
the
table)
The
Tapestry Chamber.
(e) the is used before certain proper names of seas,rivers, groups of islands,
chains of mountains, plural names of countries, deserts, regions,
famous buildings, classics, newspapers and abbreviations :
the
Atlanta
the
Godavari
the
Himalayas
the
Hague
the
South Pole
the
Arabian Gulf
the
North Pole
the
Sudan
the
Netherlands
the
Sahara
the
USSR
the
Yeman
the
USA
the
PLO
the
Taj Mahal
the
Bible
the
UNO
the
monsoons
the
Times of India
the
Cantervilles
the
Cape of Good Hope
Omission of Articles
Occasionally, articles are omitted altogether before certain nouns. In these cases, the article is implied but not actually present. This implied article is sometimes called a
“zero article.”
Often, the article is omitted before nouns that refer to abstract ideas. Look at the following examples:
Creativity is a valuable quality in children.
Let’s go out for a dinner tonight.
Let’s go out for dinner tonight.
The creativity is a valuable quality in children.
Incorrect :
correct :
Incorrect :
correct :
Many languages and nationalities are not preceded by an article. Consider the example below:
Incorrect :
correct :
I studied the French in high school for four years.
I studied French in high school for four years.
NOUNS
A noun is a word that names something:
either a person, place, or thing
. In a sentence, nouns can play the role of subject, direct object, indirect object, subject complement, object complement, appositive, or adjective.
1. Kinds of Nouns
There are four kinds of nouns in English :
Common Nouns

dog, man, table
Proper Nouns

India, France, Sita
Abstract Nouns


beauty, charity, friendship
Collective Nouns

crowd, group, team, flock
2. Plurals
(a) The plural of a noun is usually made by adding s to the singular :
day:days, house : houses
's'
is pronounced as
's'
after
'a' 'p', 'k'
or
'f'
sound. Otherwise it is pronounced
'z'
.
When it is place
'd'
after
"ce, ge, se,or ze"
an extra syllable
'iz'
is added to the spoken word
(b) Nouns ending in o or ch, sh, ss or x form their plurals by adding es
tomato – tomatoes box – boxs
brush – brushes kiss – kisses
But words of foreign origin ending with o add s only :
dynamo – dynamos kimono – kimonos
kilo – kilos piano – pianos
(c) Noun ending in 'y'following a consonant form their plurals by
dropping the 'y' and adding 'ies':
baby – babies fly – flies country – countries
(d) Some nouns ending in
'f'
or
'fe'
drop the
'f'
or
'fe'
and add
'ves'
.These include
calf half self thief knife
life wife leaf loaf shelf wolf half
The nouns hoof, scarf and wharf take either
's'
or
'ves',
but other words ending in
'f'
or
'fe'
add
's'
in the ordinary way :
Cliff – cliffs; safe – safes; handkerchief – handkerchiefs
(e) A few nouns form their plural by a vowel change :
foot – feet mouse – mice goose – geese louse – lice man – men tooth – teeth
(f) Some nouns don’t change when pluralized
aircraft, counsel (advocates)
(g) Collective nouns –
crew, family, team etc.
can take a singular or plural
verb; singular if we consider the word to mean a single group or unit
Our team is the best
Or plural if we take it to mean members/individuals within the group:
Two of our team members are wearing their new jerseys.
(h) Words plural in form but singular in meaning
These include news, The news is good, Certain Diseases, Mumps, Rickets, Some Games, Billiards, Draughts, Darts
3. Uncountable Nouns
(a) Uncountable nouns include name of substances that are considered in
general terms :
bread, soap, cloth and dust glass
They also include abstract nouns :
Advice, courage, knowledge, beauty, fear, information
(b) Uncountable nouns are always singular and are notused with a/an :
I don’t want (any) advice or help.
I want (some) information.
These nouns are often preceded by some, any, no, a little, etc. or by nouns such as bit, piece, slice etc.a bit of news, a piece of advice, a grain of sand,a drop of oil
(c) Many of the nouns in the above group can be used in a particular sense and are
then countable and can take a/an in the singular. Below are some, such words :
hair (all the hair on one’s head) is considered uncountable, but if we consider each hair separately,we say one hair, two hairs etc.
Experience meaning ‘something which happened tosomeone’ is countable
He had an exciting experience.
(d) Some abstract noun scan be used in a particular sense with a/an, but in the
singular form only:
My father is a great help to me.
It’s a shame he was insulted.
It was a relief to sit down
A hatred of violence A love of music
PRONOUNS AND ANTECEDENTS
Our writing would be dull if we repeated nouns. Consequently, we use a pronoun
(‘pro’ meaning ‘for’)
instead of repeating a noun.
1. Number, Person and Gender
(a) Possessive,relative and demonstrative pronouns must be of the same
number, person and gender as the nouns.
One should not waste his energy over trifles. (Wrong)One should not waste one’s energy over trifles.(Right) I am not one of those who imagine facts when, in fact,I haven’t any. (Wrong, there aren’t any is correct).
He is one of those men who are never content with any thing less than perfection.(Right)
(b) The pronoun is singular when two singular nouns joined by and are
preceded byeachorevery.Every day and every night brings its duty. (Right)
(c) The pronoun is singular when two or more singular nouns are joined by or,
either…. or,or neither …..nor.Thus :
The senior salesman or the sales manager should put his time in investigating the details
Either Rajan or Jagannathan forgot to take his book
Neither Bina nor Shreelekhaa did her job properly.
(d) When a plural noun and a singular noun are joined by or or nor, the
pronoun agrees with the noun nearest to it :
Either the manager or the assistants failed in their duty.
Either the assistants or the manager failed in his duty.
Neither he nor they have done their duty.
Neither they nor he did his duty.
2. Reflexive Pronoun
When such verbs as
avail, absent, acquit, enjoy
are used reflexively, never omit the reflexive pronoun :
I shall avail of your kind advice. (Wrong)
I shall avail myself of your kind advice. (Correct)
He absented from school. (Wrong)
He absented himself from school (Right)
But a reflexive pronoun cannot be used alone as the subject of a verb. It should be preceded by some other noun or pronoun.
Myself and his sister were standing there. (Wrong. His sister and I …. Is correct)
3. Relative Pronoun
(a) After such,use the relative pronoun as and not who or which e.g. :
His answer was such as I had expected him to give.
(b) A relative pronoun should agree with its antecedents in person and
number, e.g. :
This is one of the most interesting novels that has appeared this year
(Wrong. Change ‘has’ to ‘have’).
This is the only one of his short stories that are worth reading.
(Wrong. Change are to is, for here the antecedent of that is one)
(c) A relative pronoun or relative adverb should be placed as close to its
antecedent as possible, e.g. :
I have read Plato’s writings, who was a disciple of Socrates. (Wrong)
I have read the writings of Plato, who was a disciple of Socrates. (Correct)
(d) Each other should be used in speaking of two persons or things,
‘one another’
in speaking or more than two :
When we two parted, we wished good luck to each other
But – we should love one another.
(e) Either should be used in reference totwo.When the reference is to
more than two, we should use anyone:
Either of these two books will meet my purpose.
She is taller than any one of her five sisters. (not either)
They also enjoyed each other’s company.
4. Case Forms of Pronouns : ‘he/him’ , ‘they/them’.
(a) A pronoun following any form of the verb be(am, is,are, was, were, been,
be) and referring to the subject is in the nominative case :
The officers of the company are Kamal, Sita and I.
It was they who telephoned last light.
Do you think it could have been she who sang on the radio?
Controversy exists over This is I or It’s I or This is me or it’s me, as the latter versions are commonly used in spoken English.
(b) The object of a verb or a preposition is in the accusative case
me, you, her, him, it, us, them
Both members of a compound subject must be in the same case
Mother met Radha and me at the airport.
(Radha and me are objects of the verb met)
Between Ram and him there has always been a good understanding.
(Ram and him are objects of the preposition between).
(c) The indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or
for whom the action of the verb is done. It is the noun or pronoun
before which to or for is understood :
Hari sent me a book from England.
(me is the object of to understood, book is the direct object)
Send me a piece of that cake.
(me in the object off or understood; piece is the direct object).
(d) In case of an elliptical clause beginning with than or as,if you supply the missing word or words, you should have little trouble deciding the correct case form of the pronoun :
My sister is taller than I. (I am)
Mr. Mehta is as good a teacher as she. (she is)
Nobody cares more about your happiness than he. (than he does)
The subject of an infinite is in the accusative case.The infinite is a verb that usually has to in front of it:
She asked me to wait for her.
The boss asked metogo to the head office.
(e) The object of an Infinite Gerund or Participle is in the objective case :
The principal wants to see us. (us is the object of infinitive to see)
Finding you here is a surprise.(you is the object of the gerund’ finding)
Having recognized him instantly, I hurried acrossthe street. (him is the object of the participle having recognized)
Adjectives are words that describe the qualities or states of being of nouns:
enormous, doglike, silly, yellow, fun, fast
. They can also describe the quantity of nouns:
many, few, millions, eleven.
1. KINDS OF ADJECTIVES
The main kinds of adjectives are :
(a) Demonstrative - this, that, these, those
(b) Distributive - each, every, either, neither
(c) Quantitative - some, any, no, little/few, many, much
(d) Interrogative - which, what, whose
(e) Possessive - my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their
(f) Of quality - clever, dry, fat, golden
Participles used as adjectives
Both present participles (ing) past participles (ed) can be used as adjectives. Care must be taken not to confuse them.
Present participle adjectives amusing, boring, tiring, etc. are active and mean
“having this effect”.
Past participle adjectives
amused, bored, tired,
are passive and mean
“affected in this way”.
An infuriating woman(She made us furious)
An infuriated woman(Something had made her furious)
2. POSITION OF ADJECTIVES
Adjectives of quality can come before their nouns :
A rich man,
A happy girl,
coloured jackets,
gay hats.
In certain phrases, the adjective always comes after the noun.
For example :
Time Immemorial, God Almighty, Heir Apparent
Or
(a) After a verb such as –be, become, seem Jagdish became rich. His mother
seems happy.
b) After verbs such as – appear, feel, get, grow, keep,look, make, smell, sound, taste,
turn Mohan felt cold. We made her happy
He grew impatient. The idea sounds interesting.
Adjectives in this position are called Predicative Adjectives.Verbs used in this way are called Link Verbs.
A problem with verbs in(b)above is that they can be modified by adverbs.
This confuses the student, who tries to use adverbs instead of adjectives after link verbs.
Following examples with adjectives and adverbs help to show the different uses
He looked calm. (adj.) =(He had a calm expression)

He looked calmly (adv.)
at the angry crowd. (lookedhere is a deliberate action)
He tasted the drink suspiciously . (adv) =(tested here is a deliberate action)
3. DEGREES OF COMPARISON
a) There are three degrees of comparison :
Positive Comparative Superlative
dark darker darkest
useful moreuseful most useful
pretty prettier prettiest
(b) One syllable adjectives form their comparative and superlative degrees
by adding
'er'
and
'est'
to the positive form :
bright brighter brightest
Adjectives ending in
'e'
add
'r'
and
'st'
:
brave braver bravest
(c) Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and
superlative degrees by putting more and most before the positive :
closely more closely most closely
interested more interested most interested
frightening more freighting most frightening
(d) Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules. Those ending in
'ful'
or
're'
usually take more and most :
doubtful more doubtful most doubtful
obscure more obscure most obscure
Those ending in 'er', 'y' or 'ly' usually add 'er', 'est' :
Clever Cleverer Cleverest
Pretty Prettier Prettiest
Silly Sillier Silliest
A verb describes what a person or thing does or what happens.
1. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS
The English verb has three principal parts :
Present Tense(Present infinitive), Past Tense and PastParticiple.e.g.,
eat, ate, eaten.
Almost a principal past and a necessary verb form is the Present Participle,formed by adding
'ing'
to the present infinitive form.
Examples are -
eating, walking, working.
The past and the past participle of many English verb s are formed by adding
'd', 'ed',or 't'
to the present. These are called regular verbs.For example :
save saved saved
mean meant meant
talk talked talked
There are, however, other verbs called irregular verbs which do not follow pattern. One group has a vowel change in the past tense and, in some cases, in the participle as well.
For example :
sing sang sung
fight fought fought
sit sat sat
Some verbs, in addition to vowel change, add 'n' to form the past participle :
grow grew grown
fall fell fallen
fly flew flown
Another group changes its form completely in the past tense and past participle
buy bought bought
lie lay laid
stand stood stood
A few verbs change the last consonant, but not the vowel:
A few others have the same form for all three principle parts :
make made made
build built built
cast cast cast
cut cut cut
burst burst burst
It is almost impossible to establish a rule for these changes. If you are uncertain about the correct verb form, consult your dictionary
2. LINKING VERBS
Most verbs assert action, but a few express a static condition or state of being (no action). Most of these inactive verbs are called Linking Verbs.
The most common linking verb is to be in its various forms of number, person, tense and mood.
Other common linking verbs are appear, become, feel, grow, look, prove, remain,seem, smell, sound, stand, taste, turn.When these verbs are followed by nouns or pronouns as direct objects,they are not linking verbs, but imply or express action.
They are linking verbs if you can substitute some form of to be for them.
The sky looks cloudy this morning. (Linking verb)
Ram looks at Mohan as if he hates him.(Action verb)
The tea tasted too sweet. (Linking verb)
The girl cautiously tasted the drink. (Action verb),
3. AUXILIARY VERBS
An auxiliary verb helps out a main verb. An auxiliary verb has little meaning of its own; rather it changes the meaning of the main verb.
Ganesh has left the city.
The machine will be sent this afternoon
As we were leaving, we were stopped by a policeman.Among all the auxiliary verbs, particular care should be taken to use the following correctly.
Shall and will,Should and would
(a) Shall and Will :
Many writers still have strong convictions that the only correct way to express the simple future in formal writing is :
I shall do it. We shall do it. You will do it.
He will do it They will do it.
Though this distinction is not strictly observed, it is better to follow it.
(b) Should and Would
Should chiefly implies obligation in the sense of ought to; and would expresses a customary action with all three persons
I should urge you to take action fast. (ought to)
You should do everything to protect your reputation. (ought to)
Everyday he would answer his letters as soon as he finished reading the mail. (habitual action)
I would always advise a careful revision before singing. (habitual action)
4. TENSE
Tense shows the time of the action or state of being expressed by a verb.
The three divisions of time – past, present, future are shown in English by six tenses.
The three primary or simple tenses are the present tense,the past tense, and the future tense.
The three perfect(or secondary) tenses are the present perfect the past perfect and the future perfect.
The following brief table and comments on each tense should help you use the precise tenses needed to convey your ideas.
ACTIVE VOICE
Present I hear (I am hearing)
Past I heard (was hearing)
Future I shall hear (shall be hearing)
Present Perfect I have heard (have been hearing)
Past Perfect I had heard (had been hearing)
Future I shall have heard (shall have been hearing)
(a) Present Tense :
It indicates that the action or condition is going on or exists now :
• He exercises every morning.
• The letters are posted
(b) Past Tense :
It indicates that an action or condition took place or existed at some definite time in the past.
• Yesterday he gave an impressive speech.
• They were married on a Saturday.
(c) Future Tense :
It indicates that the action will take place or that a condition will exist in the future.
• We shall move to Delhi next week.
• The train will leave at midnight.
The future may be stated by present tense accompanied by an adverb (or adverbial phrase)Indicating time
• I am going to stop letter today.
•This Friday the plane takes off for Kenya.
(d) Present Perfect Tense :
It indicates that an action or condition was begun in the past and has just been completed or it’s still going on.
The time is past but it is connected with the present. The present perfect tense presupposes some relationship with the present :
• We have lived in Bombay for fifteen years.
• The water has been too cold for swimming
•I have long been a friend of Patel’s
(e) Past Perfect Tense
It indicates that an action or a condition was completed at a time now past. It indicates action
“two steps back”.
That is, the past perfect tense presuppose some relationship with an action or a condition expressed in the past tense :
The market place was crowded because new supplies had arrived.
• She was employed by ITC Company.
• She has worked there for two months.
(f) Future Perfect Tense :
It indicates that an action or a condition will be completed at a future time :
• By the time you arrive, I shall have finished my work.
• The prices will have risen by the time the new supplies arrive.
An adverb is a word that is used to change or qualify the meaning of
an adjective, a verb, a clause, another adverb
, or any other type of word or phrase with the exception of determiners and adjectives that directly modify nouns.
Kinds of Adverbs
There are eight kinds of adverbs :
Manner : bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well
Place : by, down, here, near, up, there
Time : now, soon, still, then, today, yet
Frequency : always, never, occasionally, often, twice
Sentence : certainly, definitely, luckily, surely
Degree : fairly, hardly, rather, quite, too, very
Interrogative : when ?, where ?,why ?
COMPARATIVE & SUPERLATIVE ADVERB FORMS
(a) With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative and
superlative by putting more and most before the positive form :
quickly more quickly most quickly
Single syllable adverbs, hard and early ; add er, est :
hard harder hardest
early earlier earliest
(b) Irregular Comparisons :
well better best
bad worse worst
little less least
much more most
far farther farthest (of distance only)
far further furthest(used more widely)
POSITION OF ADVERBS
a) Adverbs of manner come after the verb :
• She sang beautifully.
Or after the object where there is one
• He gave me the money reluctantly.
When the verb is transitive, an adverb can be placed either before the verb of after the object, but not between the verb and the object
• He briefly explained his meaning(Correct)
• He explained his meaning briefly(Correct)
•He explained briefly his meaning.(Wrong)
(b) If an adverb is placed after a clause or a phrase, it is considered to
modify the verb in that clause/phrase :
• They secretly decided to leave the town
(The decision was secret)
However, if we move secretly to the end of the sentence above, we change the meaning
• They decided to leave the town secretly
(The departure was to be secret)
• He answered the questions foolishly.
(His answers were foolish)
•He foolishly answered the questions.
(It was foolish of him to answer at all)
(c)Here, there can be followed by be /come/go + noun subject :
Here’s Madhav.
There Deepa
Here comes the train
There goes our bus
Here and there used as above, carry more stress than here/there placed after the verb. There’s also usually a difference in meaning :
• Tom is here.
(He is in this room/ building/ town, etc.)
• Here is Tom.
(He has just appeared OR we have just found him)
• Tom comes here.
(He is in the habit of coming to this place)
•Here comes Tom. (He has just arrived)
d) Since and ever since are used with perfect tenses : He has been in bed
since he broke his leg.
(e)Yet and still: Yet is normally placed after verb or after verb + object :
• He hasn’t finished his breakfast yet.
But if the object consists of a large number of words. Yet can be placed before the verb:
•He hasn’t yet applied for the job we told him about.
• Yet means up to the time of speaking.
•She is still in bed. I am still at home.
e)Yet and still: Yetis normally placed after verb or after verb + object :
•He hasn’t finished his breakfast yet.
But if the object consists of a large number of words. Yet can be placed before the verb:
•He hasn’t yet applied for the job we told him about.
•Yet means up to the time of speaking.
It is chiefly used with negative and interrogative.
Still is placed after the verb ‘be’ but before other verbs :
(The positive action of understanding hasn’t yet started)
Still emphasizes that the action continues. It is chiefly used with the affirmative and interrogative, but can be used with the negative to emphasis the continuance of a negative action.
• She still doesn’t understand.
(The negative action of not understanding continues)
• He doesn’t understand yet.
• The box isn’t big enough
(f)Adverbs of degrees–absolutely, almost, completely,fairly, far, just, much, nearly, only, quite, rather modify adjectives or other adverbs :
• You are absolutely right.
• I am almost ready.
But enough follows its adjective or adverb :
• It is much better to say nothing.
• He didn’t work quickly enough Far requires a comparative, or too + positive.
• It is far better to say nothing.
• He drives far too fast.
Much could replace far here.It can also be used with a superlative :
• He drives much too fast.
• This solution is much the best.(incorrect)
• This solution is much better.(correct)
• Call me anything but a fool.(Correct)
(g) Else should be followed by the adverb but,not than :
• It is nothing else than pride.(Wrong)
• It is nothing else but pride.(Correct)
• Call me anything else than a fool.(Wrong)
A conjunction is a part of speech that is used to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. Conjunctions are considered to be invariable grammar particle, and they may or may not stand between items they conjoin.
1. KINDS OF CONJUNCTIONS
Hari and Vinod were invited to the party.
(a)Coordinating Conjunctions : Coordinating conjunctions join words to word groups of equal rank. The principal coordinating conjunctions are :
and nor but either
or neither for yet
The keys are in the cupboard or in your pocket I don’t feel good but I am determined to go.
After before since until although how so that when as because in order that unless while if though where
(b)Subordinating Conjunctions :A subordinating conjunction begins an adverbs clause; it joins the adverb clause to the rest of the sentences. Some principal subordinating conjunctions are :
Vidhya did not look in my direction because she was angry.
If that is your opinion, speak up.
I won’t leave unless you go with me.
both ______ and whether _____ or
not only ____ but also so _____ as
either ______ or neither _____ nor
(c) Correlative Conjunctions :
Certain coordinating and subordinating conjunctions are sometimes joined to forms that are known as correlative conjunctions. The principal pairs of correlative conjunctions are :
Both Professor Saxena and Professor Raman are working on the problem
Whatever I vote or not is none of your business.Either the points or the spark plugs need changing
(d) Conjunctive Adverbs :
Another kind of conjunction is called a conjunctive adverb because it has an adverbial function but can be used to connect two sentences or two main clauses. Among numerous conjunctive adverbs, the following appear frequently :
furthermore nevertheless thus
also however otherwise
anyhow in addition still
besides in fact then
consequently likewise therefore
Learn to speak more slowly; otherwise no one can understand you.
You seem to be certain of your facts, however, I do not agree.
The minister spoke indistinctly; he had no real facts.
The students have main problems with prepositions.They have to know
(a) whether in a conjunction a preposition is required or not; and
(b) which preposition to use when required.
The students will need to acquire the knowledge of both these skills by sheer practice, for very few prepositions are governed by general rules. First, let us discuss those prepositions which follow certain specific conventions of usage :
1. PREPOSITIONS BEFORE PARTICULAR WORDS
at, on, by, before, in
(a) Time and Date :
at down at midnight at sixteen
at six at 4:30 at the age of seventeen

on Monday at night (exception)
On the morning/afternoon/evening/night of acertain date
We arrived on the morning of the sixth at 9.30 a.m.
By the end of July my results will have been declared.
(b) by, before :
by a time/date period : at that time/ before/ not later than that date
You had better be at the station by
6.00 p.m.

Passengers should be in time for their train in good time = with comfortable margin I arrived at the theater in good time.
(c) on time, in time, in good timeon time :
at time arranged, not before, not after.The 8.15 train started on time.
in time = not late
At the end, there may be an index.In the beginning/ At first = In the early stages.
(d) at the beginning/end, in the beginning/end, at first/ last :
At the beginning of a book, often there is a foreword (literally at the beginning)
It implies that later there was a change :
In the beginning we used hand tools, later we had machines.
At first he opposed marriage, but in the end he gave his consent
‘Since’is used for time and means from that time to the time referred to.
It is used with perfect tense.
(e) Time : from, since, for, during
i. from, since and for :
‘from’is usually used with to or till/ unit. For example :
Most people work from nine to five.
He has been here since Monday. (It means from Monday till now)
He wondered where Nina was. He had not seen her since their quarrel.
during Christmas→during may holidays.
ii.During and for :
‘For’is used for a period of time :
for six years, for two months, forever Bake it for two hours.
He traveled in the desert for six weeks
‘During’is used with known periods of time :
during the Middle Ages→during the summer of that year
I rented a house for my holidays.
For indicating purpose may be used before known periods :
They reached the top of the mountain before sunrise
(f) Travel and Movement :
from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of
i.We travel ‘from’ our starting place ‘to’ our destination :
They flew/drove/cycled/walked from Delhi to Chandigarh.
When are you coming back to Bombay ?
ii. arrive at/in, get to, reach(without preposition):
They arrived in India in March.
I arrived at the airport/ at the hotel/ at the bridge.
I got to the station just in time.
What time does the train arrive.
We get into/ on to a bus
iii.home(without preposition) :
They went home by bus.
She returned to her parent’s home.
iv. by, on, get in, into, on, onto, off, out of :
We can travel by car/ sea/ air/ bus/ train. (But in the/ my/ Raj’s car)
We get off a bus.
We goon board a boat.
We get on/on to a horse/ camel/ bicycle.
It is difficult to get into a college nowadays.
v. get in/ into/ out/ out of :
You have no keys. How are we going to get into the flat?
We can be in a country/ town street/ room/wood/ field/ desert or ant place which has boundaries or is enclosed.
g)
at, in ; in, into ; on, onto :

i.at, in :
We can beat home/ work/ the office/ school/university/ an address.
At the sea/ river/ lake etc.., means near/ beside the sea. But at sea means on a ship.
We can be ‘in’ or ‘at’ the sea, a river, lake,swimming pool, etc.
‘in’here means actually in the water.
The children are swimming in the water.
They climbed into the lorry. Thieves broke into my house.
ii.in, into :
In normally indicates position,into indicates movement.
People climbed on to their roofs.
iii. On, onto, upon can be used for both, position and movement :
He was sitting on his case.
His name is on the door
The cat jumped upon the table.
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