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Copy of BIM USE Ontology

Provides a shared vocabulary which is utilized to model (or express) the Uses of BIM, including the type of objects (or terms), and concepts, properties, and relationships that exist. (https://sites.google.com/site/bimuses/)
by

Ralph Kreider

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Copy of BIM USE Ontology

A BIM Use can be defined as a method of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives
BIM USE ONTOLOGY
Ralph Kreider
No common language of the Uses
of Building Information Modeling

THE PROBLEM
THE PROCESS
BIM Uses
to generate new information about the facility
Authoring
to make an element using facility information
Executing
to handle or direct the use of facility information
Managing
to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged
Communicating
to examine aspects of the facility to gain a better understanding
Analyzing
to determine the need for and select specific facility elements including spaces
Prescribing
to determine the location and arrangement of facility elements including spaces
Configuring
to determine the size and scale of facility elements. Fit for purpose
Scaling
to ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relationship of facility elements
Coordinating
to check or prove the accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable
Validating
to predict the future performance of the facility and facility elements
Forecasting
to ensure the spacial efficiency of facility elements
Geometric
to ensure the sequencing of install of facility elements
Temporal
to plan an event to take place a particular time
Scheduling
to predict future energy use of the facility or facility elements
Energy
to predict the circulation of facility elements (Systems)
Flow
to predict the future monetary elements of the facility
Financial
to predict the performance of the facility or facility elements over time
Temporal
to predict possible situations with the facility such as crowd flow, evacuation procedures, and other events
Scenario
to ensure the facility contains the necessary element including spaces to meet the desired function
Prescription
to ensure facility is able to be constructed, operated, and perform its established purpose effectively
Functionality
to ensure facility meets established requirements such as Code, Sustainability, and Safety
Compliance
to form an image of a facility or facility elements
Visualizing
to generate objects with intelligence to emulate the facility and facility elements
Modeling
to make a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements
Drawing
to create a written record of the facility data
Documenting
to describe or identify facility elements precisely or state the precise requirements for a facility element
Specifying
should this be the title of the class
to add to notes to give further explanation of facility information
Annotating
?
Detailing
to Use facility information to fit together the separate components of a facility
Assembling
to use facility information to manufacture elements of a facility
Fabricating
to follow and note the facility elements including spaces
Tracking
to bring facility information into working condition and prepare for future use
Commissioning
to facility information to control the operation of a facility element or executing equipment
Regulating
to represent or preserve the status of the facility, facility elements, and facility data
Capturing
to express or measure the amount of a facility element
Quantifying
to observe the performance of facility elements and systems
Monitoring
Temporal
Financial
Element
Ensure that the ontology is comprehensive, consistent, extensible, and easy to use.
EVALUATION
What is the Purpose for implementing a BIM Use?
What classifies as a BIM Use?
What are the specific BIM Uses?
What are the important attributes of each BIM Use?
How do the BIM Uses relate to one another?
What are the major classes of BIM Uses?
Is there a logical class hierarchy for the BIM Uses?
Is the ontology applicable to the domain of BIM Uses?
Competency Questions
Mapped 550 BIM Uses to ensure that all Uses fit within Ontological Structure
Mapping
Tested Validation Procedure with CIC Research Group
Piloting Validation Procedure
Researched established ontological structures
Ensured consistency with established methodology and structures
Documented differences
Comparison
Expert Interviews
Focus Group Meetings
Projects
Organizations
Implementation
Industry acceptance of ontology
Accreditation
3 Total Sessions
2 Hour Sessions
Personnel
3-5 Participants
Logistics
Reviewed Interview Session Objectives
Reviewed Ontology Objective and Scope
Reviewed BIM Use Ontology
Explored and Mapped additional BIM Uses
Evaluated through Survey
1 to 1.5 Hours
1 on 1
18+ Interviews
Logistics
Penn State OPP
MBP
USACE
Potential
Organizations
Characteristics of the BIM Use which state and describe the exact nature, meaning of, and purpose of the BIM Use
Elaborating
The goal, aim or purpose for implementing a BIM Use
Objective
Description
A word or phrase that means nearly the same as standardized BIM Use Term. It may have had the same meaning but has since been superseded.
Aliases
What is the ontology on and about?
Defining
Domain and Scope
Collect information on the Uses of BIM
Acquiring Knowledge
Documenting Terms
Integrating Terms
Develop a comprehensive list of software
Determine the core functions of each software
Software Analysis
Industry Analysis
Reviewed available literature for BIM Uses
Content Analysis
Compiling Term List
Remove duplicate terms
What does each term mean
Defining Terms
Group Similar Terms
Define
Classes
Determine
Hierarchy
Documentation
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
BIM 3D parametric modeling
3D architectural visualization
3D architectural rendering
3d architectural modeling
3D model clash detection
Mechanical inference modeling
BIM & 3D coordination modeling
Interactive Visualization
Virtual Modeling
Constructability Modeling
Program Validation
Design Validation
Sustainability
FFE
Prefabrication
Safety
Design Coordination
QTO
4D Scheduling
Field Documentation
Site Logistics
Laser Scanning
Model Based Layout
Virtual Mock ups
Clash detection
As-builts
Facility Information Model
Augmented/Immersive Reality
Site Selection/Location planning
Site Suitability/Alternatives analysis
Site circulation/parking/vehicle routing
Permitting/zoning review
Visualization - Building Skins
Visualization - Textures
View Shed analysis
Drainage analysis
Erosion control analysis
Height analysis
Airspace encroachments
Shadow analysis (solar potential)
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Temporal Analysis Historical
Temporal Analysis Existing
Temporal Analysis Future
Economic Analysis
Demographics
Soil Conditions
Transportation
Source locations of building products (LEED analysis)
Emergency Management/Security
Total Cost of Ownership/Lifecycle Analysis
GIS-based Facilities management (maintain 3-D architectural/structural models)
MEP/data network routing/analysis
Space Management/optimization
Move management
Asset management
Public Safety - Security
Public Safety - Fire Protection
Public Safety - Evacuation routing
Public Safety - Hazardous materials storage
Way-Finding - Proximity/routing
Way-Finding - ADA compliant routes
Interior Space analyses - Areas (organizational, operations, leasing, etc.)
Interior Space analyses - Elevation
Interior Space analyses - Volumes
Energy Management - Real-time sensor display
Energy Management - Environmental contaminant analysis
Existing As-built architectural/structural models
Existing As-built MEP/data networks
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning
4D Modeling
Programming
Site Analysis
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
LEED Evaluation
Sustainability Evaluation
Generating - The Generating class of BIM Uses is those Uses in which the facility information is created.
Self-Generating - to create facility information without human interact exception establishing parameters.
Authoring - to create information about the facility design
Programming - to determine need for facility spaces
Scheduling - to determine the need for and prescribe specific facility elements
Laying out - to determine location and arrangement of facility elements
Processing - to change facility information from one state to another
Coordinating - to bring different facility elements into a relationship that will ensure efficiency or harmony
Forecasting - to predict the future performance of the facility
Schedule - to plan an event to take place at a particular time
Temporal - to predict the performance of the facility or facility elements over time
Flow - to predict the circulation of the facility systems
Scenario - to predict possible situations within the facility such as crowd flow, evacuation procedures and other disasters
Financial - to predict the future monetary elements of the facility
Energy - to predict future energy use of the facility or facility elements
Analyzing - to methodically examine elements of the facility to gain a better understanding of it 
Validation - to check or prove accuracy of facility information and that is logical and reasonable
Program (Space) - to ensure facility contains the necessary space to meet its desired function
Element - to ensure the facility contains the necessary facility elements to support the facility such as MEP equipment
Sustainability - to ensure the facility is designed, constructed, and operated sustainability
Constructability / Operability - to ensure facility is able to constructed and operated effectively
Usability - to an ensure the facility can perform its established purpose effectively
Code - to ensure facility meets established codes
Communicating - to share or exchange facility information
Visualizing - to form an image of a facility or facility elements
Modeling - to generate objects with intelligence to allow the model objects to emulate the actual facility element
Drawing - to make a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements
Annotating - to add to notes to give further explanation of facility information
Documenting - to create a record of facility information
Condition - to communicate the current status of the facility and facility elements
Specifying- to describe or identify facility elements precisely or state the precise requirements for a facility element
Executing- to put into effect facility information
Controlling- to use facility information to regulate executing equipment
Assembling - to use facility information to fit together the separate components of a facility
Fabricating - to use facility information to manufacture the elements of a facility
Managing - to handle or direct the use of facility information
Tracking - to follow and note the facility elements including spaces
Monitoring- to observe the performance of facility systems
Regulating - to control the operation of facility elements
Gathering  - to collect, to bring together facility information
Quantifying -to express or measure the amount of a facility element
Condition documenting-   to record the state of the facility or facility elements
Commissioning - to bring facility informatino into working condition and prepare for future use
Program Validation
Design Validation
Sustainability
FFE
Prefabrication
Safety
Design Coordination
QTO
4D Scheduling
Field Documentation
Site Logistics
Laser Scanning
Model Based Layout
Virtual Mock ups
Clash detection
As-builts
Facility Information Model
Augmented/Immersive Reality
Site Selection/Location planning
Site Suitability/Alternatives analysis
Site circulation/parking/vehicle routing
Permitting/zoning review
Visualization - Building Skins
Visualization - Textures
View Shed analysis

Site Logistics
Field verification
Facilities Deliverables
Space Management and Validation
Record Modeling
 3D Coordination
Design Authoring
Energy Analysis
Design Reviews
Programming
Current Working Estimate divided by the Programmed Amount
Commissioning
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Documentation
  3D Trade Coordination and Digital Fabrication
4D Scheduling
Site Logistics Model
Detailed Modeling
programming
design coordination
subtrade coordination
drawing production
quantity take off (for field production planning using Location Based Scheduling)
scheduling (model-based CPM and LBS
 prefabrica
Energy analysis
Solar radiation analysis
Reverberation time acoustic analysis
"General interface for multiple computational fl uid dynamic
analyses"
Heat loss and gain
Heating and cooling loads
Dynamic thermal simulation
HVAC plant simulation
Sun shading
Simulates natural ventilation and mixed-mode systems
Interior computational fl uid dynamics application
Value engineering
Capital cost estimates
Estimates lifetime operating costs
Ductwork layout and sizing
Pipework systems
Building evacuation
Elevator simulation
Energy simulation
Energy simulation
Equipment simulation
Building product information
Space layout
Space Names for Assessment
Space program validation:
Preliminary circulation and security assessment:
Preliminary energy analysis:
Preliminary cost estimate
Conceptual Design
as-built conditions
laser scanning
point clouds
surveying
Representativeness
CQ
Mapping
Comparison
Expert Review
Focus Groups
Implementation
TOTAL
Completeness
Consistency
Ease of Use
Terms
Definitions
Structure
Attributes
4
4
3
3
5
5
3
4
METHOD vs VALIDATION
John does not like
What is the difference between modeling and visualizing
Coordination????
analysis"
"Design confi guration/
scenario planning"
"Building system
analysis/simulation"
"Design communication/
review"
"Quantity takeoff and
cost estimation"
"Design coordination
(clash detection)"
Schedule simulation/4D
Project controls
Prefabrication
Pro forma analysis
Operation simulation
"Commissioning and
asset management"
Cost Reliability and Management
Sustainability
Schedule Management
automate design,
simulate operations
offsite fabrication.
"visual
simulation"
Design Assessment
spatial analysis.
programmatic requirements
rapid spatial anlysis
rendered walkthrough
4D snapshot
reviewing
Real-time confi guration,
Simulate facility operations
crowd behavior
emergency evacuation scenarios
energy analysis
prefabrication
3D coordination
"constructability
analysis"
Building Commissioning
populate a facility management database
BIM asset management
4D financial model
design coordination
BIM Estimating Tools
Space object support
Merging capabilities.
Updating.
Sensor and control monitoring.
hospital procedure simulation
emergency evacuation or response simulations
real-time visualization or rendering tools
Financial asset management data
As-built schedule and cost information
Manufactured product information
Spaces and functions
Emergency information
Activity status
Sensor data
"facilities management
work orders"
appraisal
"facilities management
work orders"
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Performance
Operation Simulation
Code Compliance
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commissioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset management
Operation Simulation
As–Built
Configuration (retrofit)
External lighting and signage
External building cleaning and maintenance
Landscaping, fountains, and planting
Accessibility assessment
Cost estimation
Design and analysis/simulation of all building systems,
Structure
Mechanical and air handling systems
Emergency alarm/control systems
Lighting
Acoustics
Curtain wall systems
Energy conservation and air quality
Vertical and horizontal circulation
Security
Site planning, including parking, drainage, roadways
Analysis of primary functions
Financial and cash fl ow analyses
Construction documentation
BIM for design and analysis
conceptual design,
design for fabrication.”
spatial area
"functional and
economic viability"
"development of
the building program"
3D Sketching
Lighting simulator
 3D Coordination
Design Authoring
Energy Analysis
Design Reviews
Programming
Current Working Estimate divided by the Programmed Amount
Commissioning
Sustainable Design
Sustainable Documentation
  3D Trade Coordination and Digital Fabrication
4D Scheduling
Site Logistics Model
Detailed Modeling
programming
design coordination
subtrade coordination
drawing production
quantity take off (for field production planning using Location Based Scheduling)
scheduling (model-based CPM and LBS
 prefabrication 
logistics
Trimble control and layout (OSHPD project actually building and validating install to the model, paper follows the model - is formality for OSHPD's sake)
change management
field verified as-builting
commissioning (pushing/pulling information between Tekla and database)
all "Information" rolling into FM (CMMS and CAFM)
Energy Analysis
Sustainablity Analysis
Water Planning
grey water reuse
air quality
eqonomic/traffic planning
lighting planning and automation
Systems Layout
Systems Analysis
MEP Analysis
Discipline Ananlysis
BIM Model Creation Tools (Class)
takeoff
Specifications
Energy Analysis
Clash dectection
4D simulation
Work packet coordination
Quantity take-offs
Supports automated fabrication
Interfaces to multiple structural analysis tools
"Interfaces to multiple structural
analysis tools"
Erectability checks
Supports automated fabrication
Automatic connection design
Automated Design
Generative Design
Synchronized schedules
Duct and pipe sizing/pressure calculations
HVAC and electrical system design
Conduit and cable tray modeling
Synchronized schedules
Interfaces for fabrication
Automatic duct sizing based on space demands
Electrical circuit manager
Interference checking
Radiator sizing and number
Systems Distriubution Routing and Sizing
Plumbing pipe sizing
Exchange data with energy analysis
Feeder and branch circuiting
Automated circuiting and labeling
Online design checks for circuit load, length, and number of devices
Automated fixture arrangement
Bidirectional links to third-party lighting analysis programs:
detailed framing and derivation of a cut lumber schedule,
framing and structural layout
automated reinforcing layout and connections
model generation
drawing production
specification wirting
cost estimation
clash and error detection
energy analysis
rendering
scheduling
visualization
quanitity takeoffs
connection detailing
Coordination is above clash detection
System Routing
Complex Curved Surface Modeling:
issue tracking
structural
energy
lighting,
costs
Analysis
clash detection and issues tracking for design coordination;
purchasing and materials tracking
task and equipment scheduling for construction.
Data Exchange
building model generation
fabrication-level building systems,
Drawing Generation
Drawing Production
Structural
Mechanical
Energy and environmental:
Visualization:
Facility management:
site analysis,
manufacturing components
site planning.
quantity takeoff for cost estimation
4D simulation
scheduling and quantity takeoffs
specifi cations
conceptual design tools
Model Authoring
Generative Components
2D detailing and annotation
4D simulation.
landscaping tool,
lighting simulation
structural engineering.
full detail editing
automated fabrication.
CNC fabrication
Structural design and analysis of reinforced concrete
Structural design and analysis
Structural analysis
Jobsite layout,
survey equipment
Product and technical information for manufacturers and distributors
Project management
conceptual design from a cost of constructio
operating cost basis
"Space planning and
program compliance"

BIM Facility Management
Design Analyzing with BIM
Energy Modeling with BIM
Post Occupancy Management
Coordination Clash Detection
Construction documentation
BIM Base Lean Construction
BIM for Engineering
BIM for Architectural
BIM for Structural
Structural 3D Modeling
3D Model for Wood Structure
Steel Structural Detailing
BIM for Precast Concrete
BIM For Constrion
Quantity Take-off /Estimating
Cost Engineer with BIM
Construction Scheduling
Substantial Building Design
3D Wire Frame Modeling
BIM For Fabrication
Coordination Clash Detection
Creation of 3D Model to 2D
Generate Qualified Leads
Digital Project Viewer
3D Geometry Building
2D Drafting and Detailing
BIM in Construction Industry
BIM Service for Building Owners
BIM Service for Contractor
Requirements of Typical Job
Scheduling with BIM
Shop Drawing
Steel Detailing
Application of BIM for public projects
Pre-Design and Programming
RFP Competition
Site Conditions - Existing Conditions and New Construction
Architectural Model - Spatial and Material Design Models
System Models - Structural and MEPF design
Cost estimation
4D Scheduling and Sequencing
5D Estimation
Energy Consumption Simulation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Design Visualization
Present architectural Design
Space utilization
3D clash detection and interference management
4D clash detection and interference management
Cost estimation or management
Safety analysis of management
Present scheduling as 4D animation
Energy analysis or management
Structural analysis
Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process
Enhance submittal / shop drawing review
Enhance shop fabrication process
Drive shop fabrication process
communication
visualization
rendering
coordination
4D sequencing
site logistics
field verification
facilities deliverables
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Proformance
Operation Simualtion
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commisioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset Management
Opeation Simuation
Build
Retrofit
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Check against program
Drawing and Document Production
Drawing Generation
Site Analysis
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
BIM 3D parametric modeling
3D architectural visualization
3D architectural rendering
3d architectural modeling
3D model clash detection
Mechanical inference modeling
BIM & 3D coordination modeling
Interactive Visualization
Virtual Modeling
Constructability Modeling
Structural 3D Model Steel Detailing
Structural Drafting
Steel connection Detailing
Steel Fabrication Detailing
BIM As-Built Documents
BIM Virtual Modeling/Mock up
BIM Management
BIM Facility Management
Design Analyzing with BIM
Energy Modeling with BIM
Post Occupancy Management
BIM Content Development
Structural 3D Model Steel Detailing
Structural Drafting
Steel connection Detailing
Steel Fabrication Detailing
BIM As-Built Documents
BIM Virtual Modeling/Mock up
BIM Management
Existing Conditions Modeling
Lighting Analysis
3D Coordination
quanitity Takeoffs
Cost Estimation
Pre-Design
Cost Estimating
Quantity Take-off
Early Energy Analysis
Code Analysis
Toliet Fixture Counts
Occupancy Analysis
Clash Detection
Construction Phase
Early Design
LEED Documentation
Energy Analysis
Communication
Visulaization
Rendering
Coordination
4D Sequencing
Site Logistics
Field verification
Facilities Deliverables
Space Management and Validation
Record Modeling

"Energy (environmental)

Analysis/Simulation
acoustic analysis
air fl ow simulations
Lighting simulation
"Analysis of Conformance to Building Code Requirements
and Regulations"
"Building Functional
Analysis"
Structural Analysis
Energy Analysis
"Mechanical Equipment
Simulation"
Space Program Validation
Cost Estimation
Target costing
Simulating Organizational Performance within Facilities
simulating people flows
building systems layout
Mechanical & HVAC layout
Electrical layout
Piping layout
Elevators/Escalators layout
Site Planning layout
Structural layout
trip analyses
Drawing Markup
Version Comparision
Problem Identification
Systems Layout include Temporary facilities
Construction Systems Layout
BUILDING OBJECT MODELS
Temporal Analysis Existing
Temporal Analysis Future
Economic Analysis
Demographics
Soil Conditions
Transportation
Source locations of building products (LEED analysis)
Emergency Management/Security
Total Cost of Ownership/Lifecycle Analysis
GIS-based Facilities management (maintain 3-D architectural/structural models)
MEP/data network routing/analysis
Space Management/optimization
Move management
Asset management
Public Safety - Security
Public Safety - Fire Protection
Public Safety - Evacuation routing
Public Safety - Hazardous materials storage
Way-Finding - Proximity/routing
Way-Finding - ADA compliant routes
Interior Space analyses - Areas (organizational, operations, leasing, etc.)
Interior Space analyses - Elevation
Interior Space analyses - Volumes
Energy Management - Real-time sensor display
Energy Management - Environmental contaminant analysis
Existing As-built architectural/structural models
Existing As-built MEP/data networks
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning
4D Modeling
Programming
Site Analysis
Code Validation
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
Space Planning
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information, e.g., electronic specifications that are tied to the BIM
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
Visualization
Fabrication/shop drawings
Code reviews
Forensic analysis
Facilities management
Cost estimating
Construction sequencing
Conflict, interference and collision detection
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
BIM Content Development
Construction documentation
BIM Base Lean Construction
BIM for Engineering
BIM for Architectural
BIM for Structural
Structural 3D Modeling
3D Model for Wood Structure
Steel Structural Detailing
BIM for Precast Concrete
BIM For Constrion
Quantity Take-off /Estimating
Cost Engineer with BIM
Construction Scheduling
Substantial Building Design
3D Wire Frame Modeling
BIM For Fabrication
Drainage analysis
Erosion control analysis
Height analysis
Airspace encroachments
Shadow analysis (solar potential)
Security planning
Evacuation routing
Temporal Analysis Historical
Creation of 3D Model to 2D
Generate Qualified Leads
Digital Project Viewer
3D Geometry Building
2D Drafting and Detailing
BIM in Construction Industry
BIM Service for Building Owners
BIM Service for Contractor
Requirements of Typical Job
Scheduling with BIM
Shop Drawing
Steel Detailing
Application of BIM for public projects
Pre-Design and Programming
RFP Competition
Site Conditions - Existing Conditions and New Construction
Architectural Model - Spatial and Material Design Models
System Models - Structural and MEPF design
Cost estimation
4D Scheduling and Sequencing
5D Estimation
Energy Consumption Simulation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Design Visualization
Present architectural Design
Space utilization
3D clash detection and interference management
4D clash detection and interference management
Cost estimation or management
Safety analysis of management
Present scheduling as 4D animation
Energy analysis or management
Structural analysis
Engage neighbors or users in understanding construction process
Enhance submittal / shop drawing review
Enhance shop fabrication process
Drive shop fabrication process
communication
visualization
rendering
coordination
4D sequencing
site logistics
field verification
facilities deliverables
Pro Forma Analysis
Scenario Exploration
Program Compliance
Building Proformance
Operation Simualtion
Cost
Coordination
Schedule
Prefabrication
Configuration
Commisioning
Facility Management
Financial Asset Management
Opeation Simuation
Build
Retrofit
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Check against program
Drawing and Document Production
Drawing Generation
Site Analysis
Existing Conditions Modeling
Lighting Analysis
3D Coordination
quanitity Takeoffs
Cost Estimation
Pre-Design
Cost Estimating
Quantity Take-off
Early Energy Analysis
Code Analysis
Toliet Fixture Counts
Occupancy Analysis
Clash Detection
Construction Phase
Early Design
LEED Documentation
Energy Analysis
Communication
Visulaization
Rendering
Coordination
4D Sequencing
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
LEED Evaluation
Sustainability Evaluation
Code Validation
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
Space Planning
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information, e.g., electronic specifications that are tied to the BIM
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
Visualization
Fabrication/shop drawings
Code reviews
Forensic analysis
Facilities management
Cost estimating
Construction sequencing
Conflict, interference and collision detection
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Characteristics that vary depending upon the method in which the BIM Use is implemented
Implementing
Process
The advantage gained by implementing a BIM Use
Benefits
the degree to which an organization excels performing a BIM Use
Maturity
The series of actions or steps take in order to achieve the objective of the BIM Use
Infrastructure
Characteristics which add more detail concerning a BIM Use
Defining
Inception
Conceptualization
Criteria
Design
Coordination
Implementation
Handover
Operations
Closure
Phase
Planning
Design
Investigation
Project Management
Construction
Facility Use Disciplines
Support Disciplines
Disciplines
Substructure
Shell
Interiors
Services
Equipment and Furnishings
Special Construction and Demolition
Sitework
Element
Level 100
Level 200
Level 300
Level 400
Level 500
Level of Development
Tested Interview Procedure
Tested Focus Group Meeting
Completed
On Going
sizing
Consistency
To preform a physical task using facility information
BIM Uses
Definition:
Generating
Analyzing
Communicating
Realizing
Gathering
Programming, Specifying
Objective:
to create or author
information about the facility
Objective:
to examine aspects of the facility
to gain a better understanding
Objective:
to collect or cull
facility information
Objective:
to present information about a facility in a method in which it can be shared or exchanged
Objective:
to make or control an physical
element using facility information
BIM Uses: Energy Analysis
Air Distribution
Prescribing
to determine the need for and select specific facility elements including spaces
the methods of applying Building
Information Modeling during a facility’s
lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.

Objective:
Laying out, Arranging, Locating
Configuring
to determine the location and arrangement of facility elements including spaces
Objective:
Scaling, Engineering,
Sizing
to determine the magnitude and scale of facility elements
Objective:
Coordinating
to ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relationship of facility elements
Objective:
Checking, Confirming
Validating
to check or prove the accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable
Objective:
Simulating, Predicting
Forecasting
to predict the future performance of the facility and facility elements
Objective:
Reviewing, Rendering
Visualizing
to form an image of a facility or facility elements
Objective:
Transforming
to modify information and translate it to be received by another process
Objective:
Annotating, Detailing
Drawing
Objective:
Specifying
Documenting
to create a written record of the facility information
Objective:
Regulating
to use facility information to inform the operation of a facility element
Objective:
Prefabricating
Assembling
to use facility information to
put together the separate components of a facility
Objective:
Manufacturing
Fabricating
to use facility information to manufacture elements of a facility
Objective:
Collecting
Capturing
to represent or preserve the status of the facility, facility elements, and facility data
Objective:
Qualifying
to charaterize, or identify facility elements
Objective:
Observing
Monitoring
to observe the performance of facility elements and systems
Objective:
Quantity Take-Off
Quantifying
to express or measure the amount of a facility element
Objective:
to make a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements
Clash Detecting
Financial
Energy
Flow
Scenario
Temporal
Prescription
Functionality
Compliance
Philosophy
ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences.

Information Science
In computer science and information science, an ontology is a standardized representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, and the relationships between those concepts. It can be used to reason about the entities within that domain, and may be used to describe the domain


Wikipedia
Ontology Definition
Smith, D. K., and Tardif, M. (2009). Building information modeling: a strategic implementation guide for architects, engineers, constructors, and real estate asset managers. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Swartout, B., Patil, R., Knight, K., and Russ, T. (1997). “Towards Distributed Use of Large-Scale Ontologies. Spring Symposium Series on Ontological Engineering.”
“term - Google Search.” (2011). <http://www.google.com/search?q=define+term&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=e0n&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&q=term&tbs=dfn:1&tbo=u&sa=X&ei=AHdqTorUJLPH0AHmrKmRBQ&ved=0CCIQkQ4&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=3e82efc6cc141df0&biw=1280&bih=636> (Sep. 9, 2011).
U.S. General Services Administration. (2011). “3D-4D Building Information Modeling.” U.S. Genral Services Administration, <http://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/105075> (Aug. 5, 2011).
USACE/Industry BIM Advisory Committee. (2010). “USACE BIM PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN (USACE PxP).” United State Army Corps of Engineers.
Uschold, M., and King, M. (1995). “Towards a methodology for building ontologies.” Workshop on basic ontological issues in knowledge sharing.
Yan, H., and Damian, P. (2008). “Benefits and Barriers of Building Information Modelling.” 12th International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering 2008.
Zikic, N. (2009). Building Information Modeling Uses for Design in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (aec) Industry [electronic Resource]. 2009.
References
Hender, J., Dean, D., Rodgers, T., and Nunamaker Jr, J. (2001). “Improving group creativity: Brainstorming versus non-brainstorming techniques in a GSS environment.” hicss, 1067.
“hierarchy - Google Search.” (2011). <http://www.google.com/search?q=Define+HIERARCHY&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=Wi8&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&q=hierarchy&tbs=dfn:1&tbo=u&sa=X&ei=n3dqTtHIKfS70AH6r_zoBA&ved=0CBYQkQ4&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=3e82efc6cc141df0&biw=1280&bih=636> (Sep. 9, 2011).
Innovation, C. R. C. . (2007). “Adopting BIM for Facilities Management: Solutions for Managing the Sydney Opera House.” Cooperative Research Center for Construction Innovation, Brisbane, Australia.
Jones, D., Bench-Capon, T., and Visser, P. (1998). “Methodologies for ontology development.” Proc. IT&KNOWS Conference of the 15th IFIP World Computer Congress.
Kunz, J., and Gilligan, B. (2007). “Value from VDC/BIM Use: Survey Results-November 2007.” Naples, FL.
Liebich, T. (2011). “Model View Definition Summary.” buildingSMART, <http://buildingsmart-tech.org/specifications/ifc-view-definition/summary> (Sep. 14, 2011).
the Los Angeles Community College District. (2010). “Build LACCD - 2.3. Applications of BIM.” Build LACCD Building Information Modeling (BIM) Standards, <http://standards.build-laccd.org/projects/dcs/pub/BIM%20Standards/released/BIM-006.html> (Sep. 15, 2011).
Mizoguchi, R., and Ikeda, M. (1998). “Towards ontology engineering.” JOURNAL-JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR ARTIFICIAL IN℡LIGENCE, 13, 9–10.
National Institute of Building Sciences. (2007). United States National Building Information Modeling Standard: Version 1 - Part 1: Overview, Principles, and Methodologies. Washington D.C.
Noy, N. F., and McGuinness, D. L. (2001). Ontology development 101: A guide to creating your first ontology. Citeseer.
“Ontology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.” (n.d.). <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontology> (Aug. 22, 2011).
References
AGC. (2006). Contractors guide to bim. The Associated General Contractors of America.
Arvidsson, F., and Flycht-Eriksson, A. (2008). “Ontologies i.” At http://www. ida. liu. se/janma/SemWeb/Slides/ontologies1. pdf.
Azhar, S., Hein, M., and Sketo, B. (2010). “Building information modeling (BIM): Benefits, risks and challenges.” Mc Whorter School of Building Science, Auburn University, Alabama.
Azhar, Salman, Hein, Michael, and Sketo, Blake. (2008). “Building information modeling (BIM): Benefits, risks and challenges.” Auburn University.
Charette, R. P., and Marshall, H. E. (1999). UNIFORMAT II Elemental Classification for Building Specifications, Cost Estimating, and Cost Analysis, NISTIR 6389, Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. NISTIR, October, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
CIFE Center for Integrated Facility Engineering. (2007). “CIFE Technical Reports.” Stanford University.
“class - Google Search.” (2011). Google Dictionary, <http://www.google.com/search?q=define+class&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-a#hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=Ijl&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&q=class&tbs=dfn:1&tbo=u&sa=X&ei=xFRqTpDWLcjj0gH_vtHXBA&ved=0CB8QkQ4&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.&fp=3e82efc6cc141df0&biw=1280&bih=636> (Sep. 9, 2011).
Computer Integrated Construction Research Program. (2011w). “Disaster Planning.” BIM Execution Planning, <http://bim.psu.edu/Uses/Disaster_Planning.aspx> (Aug. 5, 2011).
Coye, E. (n.d.). “A Quick Review of the MasterFormat,SectionFormat,& Master Specifications.” AMP NETCONNECT.
CSI. (2006). OnmiClass: Introduction and User’s Guide. C.S.I.
Dept. of Veterans Affairs. (2010). The VA BIM Guide. Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, USA.
Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Liston, K. (2008). BIM handbook : a guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers, and contractors. Wiley, Hoboken N.J.
References
Description
Other Names
Project Phase(s)
Actors (from Omni-Class)
Process Maps (core BIM Process)
Level of Detail (MVDs)
Facility Systems
Benefits to Project
Super-Use (ie the use category above)
Sub-Use (any uses that could be a part of it)
Related Uses (IDM) (Uses that either feed or pull information)
Technology Needs
Example of Attributes
common structure for the various applications of BIM.
reduce the confusion when communicating
allow for future expansion for the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Wide adoption
ensure that the ontology is truly extensible
capable of integrating new Strategies into its structure.
identify gaps within the BIM Implementation Strategies
better education of BIM users
resource on the standard definition of each BIM Implementation Strategy and the ontology.
Contributions
alter the traditional facilities design, construction, or operation processes

and are currently being implemented within organizations and/or projects
Scope
(Gallaher et al 2004)
Introduction – The Solution
(Teicholz, P. 2005)
Introduction – The Problem
What are the specific Implementation Strategies of BIM?
What are the definitions of the Implementation Strategies of BIM?
What are the important attributes of each BIM Implementation Strategy?
What are the classes of BIM Implementation Strategies?
What is the class hierarchy of the BIM Implementation Strategies?
What is the relationship(s) of one BIM Implementation Strategy to Another BIM Implementation Strategy?
Purpose of the Ontology - Competency Questions
Ernstrom, J. W., and The Associated General Contractors of America. (2006). The contractors’ guide to BIM. Associated General Contractors of America.
Fernandez, M., Gomez-Perez, A., and Juristo, N. (1997). “Methontology: from ontological art towards ontological engineering.” Proceedings of the AAAI97 Spring Symposium Series on Ontological Engineering, 33–40.
General Services Administration. (2007). GSA BIM Guide Overview. U.S. General Services Administration, Washington D.C.
Global Associates. (2011). “BIM Services,” BIM Services, BIM modeling services, MEP Services, Structural Services, Architectural Services, BIM MEP, 3D Modeling, Clash Detection, HVAC, Quantity take-off, <http://www.bimoutsourcing.com/services.htm> (Sep. 15, 2011).
Gómez-Pérez, A. (1999). “Ontological engineering: A state of the art.” Expert Update: Knowledge Based Systems and Applied Artificial Intelligence, 2(3), 33–43.
Grant, R., and Ceton, G. (2008). “OmniClass and IFD Library.”
Gruber, T. R., and others. (1993). “A translation approach to portable ontology specifications.” Knowledge acquisition, 5(2), 199–220.
Gruber, T. R., and others. (1995). “Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing.” International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 43(5), 907–928.
Gruninger, M., Fox, M. S., and others. (1995). “Methodology for the Design and Evaluation of Ontologies.” Proceedings of the Workshop on Basic Ontological Issues in Knowledge Sharing, IJCAI.
References
The Implementation Strategies of BIM
a shared vocabulary used to model the Implementation Strategies of BIM, including the type of objects and concepts that exist, and their properties and relations, of the methods of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
Finalize Maintenance Plan
Evaluate and Document
Develop Categorizing Procedure
Refinement
Document New Core Functions of BIM
Interviews
Literature Review
Additional Content Analysis
Knowledge Acquisition
New Strategy
Procedure for Categorizing Strategies
The ontology will include
Taxonomy or classification system of the core functions of BIM
Description of the core functions of BIM
Including the necessary elements to describe each
A Method to Classify and describe the Core Functions of BIM
Research Contributions
Revit is BIM
Building Information Modeling has many meanings depending on who you are!
Introduction – The Problem
the lifecycle of a facility
organizational structure
the strategies of implementing BIM
provide
fundamental terminology
Contributions
Industry Expert Review
Document Domain Terms
Review for comprehensiveness of Implementation Strategies and accuracy of definitions

Review by members of the CIC Research Program
Sent to industry experts for review.

Will end with a list of the core functions of BIM
BIM Project Execution Planning Guide
Current Taxonomies and Structures
BIM PxP Template
Taxonomy of BIM Uses in Design
Other Ontologies
Document Ontology
Evaluate and Document
Overview
Ontology Development Procedure
Ontology Hierarchy
Ontology Classes
Attributes
Implementation Strategy Description
Relationship
Document a basic definition for each term
One sentence or less
Quick understanding of the term
May be created during brainstorming process
Formal definition will occur later
Defining Basic Terms
Document Domain Terms
(Arvidsson and Flycht-Eriksson 2008)
“an ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain, that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations.”
What is an ontology
(National Institute of Building Sciences 2007).
Attributes
Relationships
“…a product or intelligent digital representation of data about a capital facility.…”

“…a collaborative process which covers business drivers, automated process capabilities, and open information standards.…”

“…a facility lifecycle management tool of well understood information exchanges, workflows, and procedures….”
What is Building Information Modeling
http://www.amazon.com/Building-Information-Modeling-Implementation-Constructors/dp/0470250038/ref=cm_lmf_tit_6
http://www.amazon.com/BIM-Handbook-Information-Designers-Contractors/dp/0470185287/ref=cm_lmf_tit_1
http://www.amazon.com/BIG-BIM-little-bim-Second/dp/0979569923/ref=cm_lmf_tit_3
Contributions
Strategies
BIM Strategies
BIM Implementation Strategies
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3
Class 4
Class 5
Class 6
Class 7
Class 8
Class 9
Class 10
Faculty and Expert Review
Evaluate and Document
An Ontology of the Implementation Strategies of Building Information Modeling
Ralph G. Kreider
© 2011
Friday, September 23rd, 2011
?
7D
6D
5D
4D Modeling
Introduction – The Problem
IDMs
Information Delivery Manuals
http://www.iai.no/idm/idm_resources/idm_methods_guides/IDM2_Methodology_20071022.pdf
http://www.blis-project.org/IAI-MVD/
MVDs
Model View Definitions
http://www.wbdg.org/pdfs/NBIMSv1_p1.pdf
Contributions
http://mrsi.usace.army.mil/rfp/Shared%20Documents/USACE_BIM_PXP_TEMPLATE_V1.0.pdf
http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/GSA_BIM_Guide_v0_60_Series01_Overview_05_14_07.pdf
http://www.cfm.va.gov/til/bim/BIMGuide/downloads/VA-BIM-Guide.pdf
Contributions
Standard Class Hierarchies
Standard Relationships
Standard Classes
Standard Attributes
Standard Definitions
Standard Terms
An Ontology of the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Contribution
Interference Management
Collision Detection
Interference Detection
3D Coordination
Design Coordination
MEP Coordination
Clash Detection
Introduction
Building Information Modeling is Navisworks
Introduction – The Problem
Software lists from http://www.cad-addict.com/2010/03/list-of-bim-software-providers.html
A comprehensive list of software from survey

Determine the core functions of each software

Analysis Top 15 to 20 pieces
Interviews
Literature Analysis
Facility Managment
Bentley Facilities
FM:Systems FM:Interact
Vintocon ArchiFM (For ArchiCAD
Construction (Simulation, Estimating and Const. Analysis)
Autodesk Navisworks
Solibri Model Checker
Vico Office Suite
Vela Field BIM
Bentley ConstrucSim
Tekla BIMSight
Glue (by Horizontal Systems)
Synchro Professional
Innovaya
MEP
Autodesk Revit MEP
Bentley Hevacomp Mechanical Designer
4MSA FineHVAC + FineLIFT + FineELEC + FineSANI
Gehry Technologies - Digital Project MEP Systems Routing
CADMEP (CADduct / CADmech)
Structures
Autodesk Revit Structure
Bentley Structural Modeler
Bentley RAM, STAAD and ProSteel
Tekla Structures
CypeCAD
Graytec Advance Design
StructureSoft Metal Wood Framer
Nemetschek Scia
4MSA Strad and Steel
Autodesk Robot Structural Analysis
Sustainability
Autodesk Ecotect Analysis
Autodesk Green Building Studio
Graphisoft EcoDesigner
IES Solutions Virtual Environment VE-Pro
Bentley Tas Simulator
Bentley Hevacomp
DesignBuilder
Architecture
Autodesk Revit Architecture
Graphisoft ArchiCAD
Nemetschek Allplan Architecture
Gehry Technologies - Digital Project Designer
Nemetschek Vectorworks Architect
Bentley Architecture
4MSA IDEA Architectural Design (IntelliCAD)
Detailed Software Analysis
Knowledge Acquisition
Define Class Hierarchy
Integrated Domain Terms
BIM Tool
BIM Use Case
BIM Strategy
BIM Application
SYNONYMS:
A BIM Use is defined as a method of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
What is a BIM Use
The Outcomes
(Contributions)
The Process
(Research Methodology)
The Problem
(Research Background)
The Solution
(Research Goals)
Expert Review
Evaluate and Document
Request to Industry Leaders
Knowledge Acquisition
Documentation
Group terms
Define classes
Define the class hierarchy
Define the class properties
Research
Other Ontologies
Evaluation
Integration of Terms
Document Domain Terms
Knowledge Acquisition
Ontological Creation Methodology
Define
Purpose
Define
Scope
Define Users
Create Competency Questions
Establish completion Criteria
Define domain and scope
Group Similar Terms / Strategies
Integrated Domain Terms
Interference Management
Collision Detection
Interference Detection
Design Coordination
MEP Coordination
Clash Detection
(computer integrated construction research program)
a process in which Clash Detection software is used during the coordination process to determine field conflicts by comparing 3D models of building systems
3D Coordination
nD
Introduction – The Problem
(Hender et al. 2001)
Deferred Judgment
Quantity Breeds Quality
Brainstorm List of Core Functions
Document Domain Terms
Read the problem,
Generate ideas by free association
Continue to generate ideas by free association
Expert Review – Document Ontology – Maintain Ontology
Categorizing Procedure – Map Standard Strategies – Refine Descriptions – Identify Additional Strategies
Group Strategies – Define Classes – Determine Hierarchy – Define Attributes
Brainstorming – Comprehensive Term List –Basic Definitions – Industry Validation
Survey – Software Analysis – Request to Industry Leaders – Content Analysis
Validate Accuracy of the Ontology and Document
Refine the Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Generate Initial Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Create Lists of BIM Implementation Strategies and related terms
Evaluate and Document
Refinement
Collect information on the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Document Domain Terms
Knowledge Acquisition
Integrated Domain Terms
Research Methodology
Standard Class Hierarchies
Standard Relationships
Standard Classes
Standard Attributes
Standard Definitions
Standard Terms
An Ontology of the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Research Goal
Update Ontology Documentation
Verify based on ontology rules
Classify Based on Attributes
Document Attributes
Create Detailed Definition
Define Name
Step 6
Step 4
Step 1
Step 3
Step 5
Step 2
Identify and Define Additional Implementation Strategies
Refinement
Update Ontology Documentation
Verify based on ontology rules
Classify Based on Attributes
Document Attributes
Create Detailed Definition
Define Name
Step 6
Step 4
Step 1
Step 3
Step 5
Step 2
Develop Categorizing Procedure
Refinement
Determine Class Hierarchy
Integrated Domain Terms
Expert Review – Document Ontology – Maintain Ontology
Categorizing Procedure – Map Standard Strategies – Refine Descriptions – Identify Additional Strategies
Group Strategies – Define Classes – Determine Hierarchy – Define Attributes
Brainstorming – Comprehensive Term List –Basic Definitions – Industry Validation
Survey – Software Analysis – Request to Industry Leaders – Content Analysis
Validate Accuracy of the Ontology and Document
Refine the Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Generate Initial Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Create Lists of BIM Implementation Strategies and related terms
Evaluate and Document
Refinement
Collect information on the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Document Domain Terms
Knowledge Acquisition
Integrated Domain Terms
Research Methodology
Strategies
Resources
Benefits
Level of Detail
Phase(s)
Roles
Aliases
Strategy 6
Strategy 5
Strategy 4
Strategy 3
Strategy 2
Strategy 1
Attributes
Standard Attributes
provides a shared vocabulary used to model the Implementation Strategies of BIM, including the type of objects and concepts that exist, and their properties and relations, of the methods of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
provides a shared vocabulary used to model the Implementation Strategies of BIM, including the type of objects and concepts that exist, and their properties and relations, of the methods of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
Standard Class Hierarchies
Standard Relationships
Standard Classes
Standard Attributes
Standard Definitions
Standard Terms
What is an Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Define Properties and Attributes
Integrated Domain Terms
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Expert Review – Document Ontology – Maintain Ontology
Categorizing Procedure – Map Standard Strategies – Refine Descriptions – Identify Additional Strategies
Group Strategies – Define Classes – Determine Hierarchy – Define Attributes
Brainstorming – Comprehensive Term List –Basic Definitions – Industry Validation
Survey – Software Analysis – Request to Industry Leaders – Content Analysis
Validate Accuracy of the Ontology and Document
Refine the Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Generate Initial Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Create Lists of BIM Implementation Strategies and related terms
Evaluate and Document
Refinement
Collect information on the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Document Domain Terms
Knowledge Acquisition
Integrated Domain Terms
Research Methodology
Expert Review – Document Ontology – Maintain Ontology
Categorizing Procedure – Map Standard Strategies – Refine Descriptions – Identify Additional Strategies
Group Strategies – Define Classes – Determine Hierarchy – Define Attributes
Brainstorming – Comprehensive Term List –Basic Definitions – Industry Validation
Survey – Software Analysis – Request to Industry Leaders – Content Analysis
Validate Accuracy of the Ontology and Document
Refine the Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Generate Initial Ontology of BIM Implementation Strategies
Create Lists of BIM Implementation Strategies and related terms
Evaluate and Document
Refinement
Collect information on the Implementation Strategies of BIM
Document Domain Terms
Knowledge Acquisition
Integrated Domain Terms
Research Methodology
Resources
Benefits
Level of Detail
Phase(s)
Roles
Aliases
Attributes
Define Properties and Attributes
Integrated Domain Terms
Group Similar Terms / Strategies
Integrated Domain Terms
(U.S. General Services Administration 2011)
(Dept. of Veterans Affairs 2010)
(the Los Angeles Community College District 2010)
Pre-Design and Programming
RFP Competition
Site Conditions - Existing Conditions and New Construction
Architectural Model - Spatial and Material Design Models
System Models - Structural and MEPF design
Cost estimation
4D Scheduling and Sequencing
5D Estimation
Energy Consumption Simulation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis
Design Visualization
(AGC 2006)
(AGC 2006)
(Eastman et al. 2008)
BIM for the Construction Industry
Clash Detection
Quantity Takeoff and Cost Estimating
Construction Analysis and Cost Estimating
Cost and Schedule Control
Offsite Fabrication
Verification, Guidance, and Tracking of Construction Activities
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Facility Management
Creating and Reviewing 3D Models
3D Modeling
Virtual Building
Architecture Design
2D and 3D Production Management
Combining and Reviewing 3D Modeling
Combine Designs into one model
Report indifferences in 3D project models and tract project status
Identify communicate and manage changes
Digital Technology Integration
Visualization
Scope Clarification
Partial Trade Coordination
Collision Detection/Avoidance
Design Validation
Construction Sequencing Planning/Phasing Plans/
Logistics
Marketing Presentations
Options Analysis
Value Engineering Analysis
Walk-throughs and Fly-through
Virtual Mock-Ups
Sight Line Studies
2D conversions
3D designs
4D Model
5D Model
Concept Design and Preliminary Analysis
Space Planning
Building System Design and Analysis/Simulation
Analysis/Simulation Software
Cost Estimation
Collaboration
Experimental Design Using a Design ‘Workbench’
Construction - Level Building Models
Building System Layouts
Drawing and Document Production
Specifications
Design - Construction Integration
Design Review
BIM for Architects and Engineers
BIM Use in Design Processes
(Computer Integrated Construction Research Program 2009, 2011)
Space and Medical Equipment Validation
Architecture – Spatial and Material Design Models
Energy Analysis
Design Visualization for Communication, Functional Analysis, & Constructability
Building System Models – Structural, MEPF, and Interiors
Master plan Space Scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
Communication of Construction scheduling and Sequencing – 4D
COBIE/Commissioning
Clash Detection/Coordination
Virtual Testing and Balancing
Additional BIM Uses
Evaluating physical security & survivability
Early MEP design
3D – Virtual functionality viewing and testing of the design
5D – Material take-offs & cost estimating
Creating a interactive virtual workspace for the Design Team to achieve integrated design goals
Integrating information
Achieving automated code checking
Repeatable modular construction components to speed construction erection time
Modular construction & off-site fabrication
3D Coordination
Site Utilization Planning
Construction System Design
Digital Fabrication
3D Control and Planning
Record Modeling
Building Maintenance Scheduling
Building System Analysis
Asset Management
Space Management / Tracking
Disaster Planning
Spatial Program Validation
3D Laser Scanning
4D Phasing
Energy Performance and Operations
Circulation and Security Validation
Existing Conditions Modeling
Cost Estimation
Phase Planning (4D Modeling)
Programming
Site Analysis
Design Review
Design Authoring
Structural Analysis
Lighting Analysis
Energy Analysis
Mechanical Analysis
Engineering Analysis
The Uses of BIM
Define BIM Strategy Classes
Integrated Domain Terms
Analyzing, coordinating - Systems - Implementation - Electrical, Mechanical, Plumbing - Level 400
why - what - when - who - (how much/well?)
a common language of the Uses
of Building Information Modeling

THE GOAL
Terms
Definitions
Attributes
Relationships
Classes
provides a shared vocabulary which is utilized to model (or express) the Uses of BIM, including the type of objects (or terms), and concepts, properties, and relationships that exist.
STANDARD
other ontologies
The BIM Use Ontology
provides a shared vocabulary used to model a Domain, including the type of objects and concepts that exist, and their properties and relations,
Uses of BIM are the methods of applying Building Information Modeling during a facility’s lifecycle to achieve one or more specific objectives.
Reviewed Focus Group Meeting Objectives
Reviewed Ontology Objective and Scope
Reviewed BIM Use Ontology
Detailed Review of the Terms and Definitions
Evaluated through Survey
OnmiClass Table 33 - Disciplines
OnmiClass Table 31 - Phases
Collision Avoidance
Clash prevention
Characteristics
What can this be used for?
A feature, attribute, or quality of a BIM Use, which serves to identify it
Characteristics
Characteristics
Characteristics
The data about the facility (including both geometric and attribute data such as model and serial number) necessary in order to achieve the objective of the BIM Use
Information
OmniClass - Table 21 - Elements
How to Utilize
Energy Analysis
Better Communication
Standardization
Procurement Language
Information Delivery Manuals
Model View Definitions
Standardized Process Maps
Standardized Information Exchanges
BIM Guides and Guidelines
Scope of Work
Program Of Requirements
Simulating potential energy use
or
Monitoring operational energy Use
Focused on the purpose
or the reason why

does not consider
Facility Element
Life-cycle Phase
Author Discipline
Level of Development
Synonyms
A taxonomic name that has the same application as another, esp. one that has been superseded and is no longer valid
An account of the BIM Use including all the relevant aspects, qualities, and properties
Appeal to industry leaders for list of BIM Services
make it usable
with a guide and implementation resources
Uses
A Guide to the
BIM
A phase is a period of time in the duration of a construction project identified by the overall character of the construction processes which occur within it.
Disciplines are the practice areas and specialties of the actors (participants) that carry out the processes and procedures that occur during the life cycle of a construction entity.
An Element is a major component, assembly, or “construction entity part which, in itself or in combination with other parts, fulfills a predominating function of the construction entity” (ISO 12006-2). Predominating functions include, but are not limited to, supporting, enclosing, servicing, and equipping a facility. Functional descriptions can also include a process or an activity.
Term
A word or phrase used to describe a thing or to express a concept
References
a source for addition information concerning the implementation of a BIM Use
Domain: BIM Uses which interact with the data within a model
Scope: BIM Uses which have been implemented and/or documented
Define
Characteristics
Validate Ontology Structure
Validate Terms and Descriptions
Ballot for U.S. National BIM Standard
the elements necessary to implement a BIM Use
http://blog.2modern.com/2009/11/design-with-cnc.html
Coordination Analysis for the Systems during the Implementation Phase by the Electrical, Mechanical, and Plumbing disciplines to Level 400
include discussion of taxonomy vs ontology
Controlling
to use facility information to physically manipulate the operation of executing equipment
Objective:
WHEN - Phase
WHO - Discipline
HOW - Processes
NEED WHAT - Information
HOW MUCH - Level of Development
WITH WHAT - Infrastructure
WHY
Very similar to BIM Planning
This is BIM Planning
Per Use
You will be doing all of this
Determine BIM Uses
WHAT
Determine Elements
WHO
Determine Disciplines
HOW
Design Process
NEED WHAT
Determine Necessary Information
We where combining why, what, when and sometimes who
HOW MUCH
What is the level of development
WITH WHAT
What are the tools to support this?
BIM Does not change the purpose, only the means by which to achieve the purpose
BIM does not change the purpose, only the means by which that purpose is achieved
WHEN
Determine the Phase
the purpose
Spatial Coordination
integrating ontology within:
not part of dissertation
of
Building Information Modeling
BIM for Owners and Facility Managers
BIM Estimating Tools
Model Validation, Program, and Code Compliance
Project Communication and Model Review Tools
Model Viewing and Review
Model Servers
Facility and Asset Management Tools
Operation Simulation Tools
BIM for Subcontractors and Fabricators
Varying Detail
Simply List
Overlap
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