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Interment of Japanese Americans during World War II
Transcript of Interment of Japanese Americans during World War II
involvement, and Pearl Harbor.
Executive Order 9066.
Government reasons for the interment of Japanese
Life in Japanese Internment Camps.
The draft for the Japanese during the war.
Hirabayashi v. United States.
Closing the Relocation Centers.
American government apologizes. World War II The government of the United States at first refused to join the war in Europe.
The United States felt that they had enough economic issues that they had no reason to get involved in the war occupying many of the most powerful countries such as Germany, Italy, the Soviet Union, France, and England.
Japan joined the war partnering with the Axis Powers such as Germany and Italy. Before Pearl Harbor Japanese at first were welcomed as a source of cheap labor. Soon after the Japanese were subjects to discrimination for not being white. Before Pearl Harbor During the early 1900's discriminatory laws were passed against Japanese decent such as: Japanese could not obtain citizenship
Japanese could not own land
Japanese were forbidden to marry outside their race Before Pearl Harbor Institutional racism prevented many Japanese from living in places of their choice or moving at their own will.
Many unions prohibited them
from membership if they could
obtain jobs. Pearl Harbor On December 7, 1941, American soil was bombed by Japanese armed forces. The American military base of Pearl Harbor, located at the US territory Hawaii, was attacked. The United States military was completely taken by surprise. 2300 people were killed and eight battleships and numerous cruisers were damaged or destroyed during this attack. The following day, December 8, 1941, President Roosevelt declared war on Japan. The American Government Scared After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the US government grew extremely worried about the Japanese decent in the United States.
Racism caused the American people to be scared of the Japanese. Executive Order 9066 On February 18, 1942, President Roosevelt ordered for the internment of Japanese decent on the Pacific coast of the United States.
This order had Japanese pack up their belongings in a few days and were to be relocated to internment camps for the protection of the well-being of the United States.
The government had worries that the Japanese would conspire against the United States.
The government thought placing the Japanese in internment camps would be the best solution to keep the Japanese from learning more of the United States. Thought Experiment Do you think the United States government was justified with the creation of these internment camps? What could have been other solutions to the issue of being frightened of the Japanese during WWII? Could it be possible for the United States to issue an order like this in more current times? Reasoning Behind Japanese Internment Camps The United States government thought it was a necessary act during wartime efforts to exterminate any chance of the Japanese Empire to have any advantage on American soil. So.. The only way to make sure of this, the United States government thought it was necessary to place Japanese descent from the Pacific Coast in internment camps. "When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, our West Coast became a potential combat zone. Living in that zone were more than 100,000 persons of Japanese ancestry: two thirds of them American citizens; one third aliens. We knew that some among them were potentially dangerous. But no one knew what would happen among this concentrated population if Japanese forces should try to invade our shores. Military authorities therefore determined that all of them, citizens and aliens alike, would have to move."
Milton Eisenhower (Director of War Relocation Authority 1942) Reasoning Behind Japanese Internment Camps Life in Japanese Internment Camps Families lived in communal environments in which hundreds of families could live in one building. The Japanese were given specific jobs such as farmers instead of the employment they had before they were placed in internment camps. Families ate in "mess halls" with other families in which the community was forced to eat with other members of the camps. The food served was rationed and repetitive. Life in Japanese Internment Camps Each camp was surrounded by barbed wire and surrounded by military forces. There were lines for nearly everything in the camps such as for food, bathing, and the bathroom. When the government found a Japanese citizen or alien in the camp who was considered to be a "threat" to the security of the camp, they would be removed from the camp often to disappear. The Draft for Japanese Americans When the government allowed Japanese to fight in WWII in 1943, the Japanese were eager to prove themselves loyal to the United States. In fact, when the army called for 1,500 Japanese volunteers for the war over 10,000 volunteers showed up to recruitment offices. The Draft for Japanese Americans "My priority was to try to show the American people that we were just as loyal as anybody else. We need to prove our loyalty because the reason why we're in camp is because the American public says we are enemy aliens. We're loyalty to Japan and so forth. And that perception's got to be changed."
(WWII Japanese American Soldier) Closing the Relocation Centers On December 17, 1944, the United States calls for the closing of the Relocation Centers. Japanese were expected to return to their hometowns to continue their ways of living. Japanese were not welcomed with open arms back in their home towns. Closing the Relocation Centers Japanese were left with little wages and belongings. Many Japanese did not return to their hometowns. Several Japanese students chose to continue their studies outside of the Pacific Coast. The American Government Apologizes During the course of WWII, approximately ten Americans were accused of Spying for Japan.
None of them were of Japanese descent. The American Government Apologizes In 1988, over forty years after WWII, President Ronald Reagan issued a bill which gave each surviving internee a compensation check of $20,000 and an official letter of apology. Conclusion The United States during World War II let their fears and racist attitudes take control, taking away thousands of American citizens' legal rights by the Executive Order 9066. The introduction of internment camps in the United States will always show a dark side to American history. The internment of thousands of Japanese Americans show that in a time of military warfare the fears of the country can take away the rights of its very own citizens. Hirabayashi v. United States Gordon Hirabayashi, a student at the University of Washington during the time of Executive Order 9066, initially obeyed the order but one night after having to cut a study session short to avoid missing curfew, he questioned why he was being singled out in a way that his white classmates were not. He knew it violated his 5th Amendment rights. Hirabayashi v. United States Hirabayashi was convicted for violating Executive Order 9066 of his curfew and being forced to a relocation center. The court ruled in favor of the state, saying that it was a necessary act during wartime efforts for the best of the country. Hirabayashi was incarcerated for two because of this. The End