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Year 8: Climate Science Assignment

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Nashwa Sheriff

on 3 September 2011

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Transcript of Year 8: Climate Science Assignment

Year 8: Climate Science Assignment The world is warming up, and as
we burn up the earth's natural
resources and cut down its
remaining forests, greenhouse
gases are pouring into the
atmosphere. But the two main
environment concerns causing
climate change are: The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect is the blanketing
effect created by greenhouse gases, which
stops the Earth from having an average
temperature below zero. These gases
include carbon dioxide, methane and
nitrous oxide. The atmosphere keeps the
Earth warm but when the Earth's surface
absorbs the sun's energy it heats up. It then
radiates this heat into the atmosphere where
water vapour and carbon dioxide in the air
absorb it. The Greenhouse effect creates a blanket around
the Earth and keeps us warm. Without it the
Earth would look like Mars and would not be able
to sustain life forms and assures that we do not
freeze to do death. The Earth gets most of its energy from
the sun in the form of radiation. Some
of the energy rebounds back into space,
while a little of it is absorbed by the Earth's
atmosphere, reflecting heat to the Earth's
surface. The Greenhouse Effect has a natural and
sustainable way of keeping the Earth warm
but the greenhouse effect has fallen out of
balance and the Earth's atmosphere is trapping
too much heat which is what is melting the
polar ice caps and making the sea levels rise. The problem began when human activites
start to distort and accelerate the natural
process by creating more greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere than are necessary to
warm the planet to an ideal temperature.
These include: Fossil Fuels:
The burning of natural gas,
coal and oil to create gasoline
for automobile engines raise
the amount of carbon dioxide
in the air. Deforestation:
Trees produce carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, that help create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are being cut down there are fewer trees to perform this critical function. Factories:
Many factories produce long-lasting
industrial gases which do not occur
naturally and contribute significantly
to the distorted natural balance of
gases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Worldwide Greenhouse gas emission have increased due to the on going use of fossil fuels in transportation, industry, heating and power generation throughout the world. It has had a steady rise over the years, this has resulted in increases of greenhouse gas emissions as you can see in the graph, the bars on the chart are shown as carbon dioxide levels. By Nashwa Sheriff The Impact of the Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse effect influences both biological and physical systems to change
such as:
- sea level rise
-changes in ice mass
-changes in ocean circulation and rainfall patterns
-ocean warming and acidification
-species migration
-aridity

Many of these impacts, escpecially when combined, are likely to cause increasing
pressure on our resources and industries, and possibly on our social systemms and
health. Environmentally, some plant and animal species might not be able to withstand such a drastic change and
could become extinct in that area, impacting humans
and animals that rely on their presence for food. While some areas would experience a drop in temperature, others would
experience a drastic rise. With an increase in temperature, survival would become even more difficult. What can YOU do ?? Drive Less:
Less driving means fewer emissions and less carbon dioxide in the air.Besides you are saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. It keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere each time you don't drive somewhere. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle:
Do your part to reduce waste by choosing resuable products instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging will help reduce waste. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning:
Adding insulation to your walls and
installing weather stripping around
doors and windows can lower your
heating costs more than 25% .
Setting you AC/ Heater just 2 degrees
lower in winter and higher in summer
could save you 2,000 pounds of
carbon dioxide. What can WE all do?? Use Filters:
Gases like Carbon Dioxide make a
prision for the rays of the sun which
make the earth heat up. By using filters to refine the gas which is produced by factories can reduce the amount of carbon dixide and other harmful gases in the air. Burn less Fossil Fuels:
The burning of fossil fuels is a
major contributor to the
greenhouse effect instead we
should try to minise this and try
to use natural gases. Natural gas
is an extremely important source
of energy for reducing pollution
and maintaining a clean and healthy
environment. The question is, if not you then who? If not now, then when?
- Beckett Stop Deforestion and Accelerate Reforesation:
During photosynthesis, trees and other plants
absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen.
They are an integral part of the natural
atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth,
but there are too few of them to fully
counter the increase amount of carbon dioxide.
A single tree will absorb approx. one ton of carbon
dioxide during its lifetime. Farming:
Cows produce alot of methane ,
they eat food, regurgitate it as cud and
eat it again. Their stomachs are filled with
bacteria that help in digestion but also produce
methane gas. The Destruction of the Ozone Layer The Ozone Layer is layer in the Earth's atmosphere
which contains relatively large amounts of the sun's
ultraviolet lights which are potentially damaging life
on Earth. But is being destroyed and forming a large
hole in it commonly known as the Ozone Hole. The Ozone Layer is vitally important to life on Earth
as it absorbs the harmful radiation emitted by the sun.
The Ozone Layer filters the sun's ultraviolet [UV] radiation.
A diminished ozone layer allows more radiation to reach
the Earth's surface. Only a few factors combine to create the problem of the ozone layer depletion. The production and emission of CFCs is by far the leading cause. Chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) contain fluorine, carbon and chlorine atoms. CFCs are widely used in coolants for
refrigeration and air conditioners, solvents in cleaners, home insulation, plastic foam, throwaway food containers and propellants in aerosols. As the graph above shows the cumulative
US and the world's impact towards the ozone layers it is
easy to see that as the years increase the
more production and emissions is impact-
ing the ozone layer. Even though the US is one country
it has a large effect towards the destruction of the ozone
layer. The Impact of the destruction of the Ozone Layer. The destruction of the ozone layer will rapidly increase
the amount of:
-incidents in skin cancer
-catarats and sun burning
-suppression on immune systems in organisms
-adverse impact on crops and animals
-reduction in the growth of plankton found in the Earth's oceans
-cooling of the Earth's stratosphere
-global warming. What can we do?? Check Labels: Make sure you check
labels on aerosol cans, boat horns,
spray confetti, photo negative
cleaners and drain plungers as they
are still allowed to contain CFCs
but such labelling isn't always present. Go Green: When buying a refrigerator
choose an energy efficient model, it
may contain as little as half the CFCs
so when the fridge wears out and you
dump it, less CFCs are released into the
air. Use Less Aerosol Cans: The less spray cans
you use the better it is for the environment.
Even some countries have gone as far as
banning CFCs altogether as they are the
major contributer to the destruction of the
ozone layer. US Impact towards the Ozone Layer Activity 4 Oxygen Atom Oxygen Molecules Ozone Molecules Question 2 As shown in the graph, the ozone reading starts with an initial amount ranging from 170- 300 dobson units. But then slowly it decreases nearing Spring (September, October) due to less usage of pollution and CFCs. The trend gradually increases from October to December and maintains a steady pace until April where the previous years (1989, 1984, 1978) increase but in the recent years (1992, 1998, 2003) the reading decreases. Question 3 In 1978, 1984 the ozone reading increases from its initial 300
then decreases. But in more recent years 1998, 2003 the graph
shows the opposite, it starts off at 170 and then gradually
decreases and increases. Thanks for watching (: Question 4 Question 1
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