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Japan

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Amelia Campos

on 27 May 2015

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Transcript of Japan

apan
Period I
600 C.E. - 1450 C.E.
Period IV
1467: civil war in Ashikaga Shogunate
bushi revolt led to expulsion of emperor
centralized authority collapsed
Japan divided into about 300 regional kingdoms
ruled by daimyos—vassals of shoguns

weakening of chivalrous qualities
peasant revolts against daimyos
status of women dropped
economic growth
emergence of commercial class
increased trade with China
creation of guilds
Political Change
Social, Economic, and Cultural Change
Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo Period), 1603-1867
Contact with the West
1750 C.E. - 1900 C.E.
1900 C.E. - present
new capital at Heian (now Kyoto)
Taika reforms discontinued - influence of China declined
partially due to fall of Tang in China
kept Chinese rank system, but allowed little mobility between ranks
court culture grew more sophisticated
art, luxury, politeness codes
simplification of borrowed Chinese script
women found success in the arts
literature
poetry
The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki – first ever novel
Buddhism became more distinctly Japanese
The Imperial Age
Asuka, Nara, and Heian periods: Japanese borrowing from China
beginning marked by introduction of Buddhism by the Chinese
646: Taika reforms—attempt to copy Chinese-style administration—implemented, but were unsuccessful
absolute emperor
bureaucracy
peasant conscript army
use of Chinese language
studying of Confucianism and Buddhism
syncretism of Buddhism with Shintoism
700: Shintoism official religion
trade with China
capital at Nara modeled after Tang capital
Buddhist monasteries
threatened power of emperor, so capital was moved to Heian in 794
emergence of stronger aristocratic class
Feudalism
Beginnings of Feudalism
9th century: rise of provincial aristocratic families as bureaucracy declined
ex.: Fujiwara family
feudal code (
bushido
) similar to western Europe’s began development
peasants treated as serfs, property of local lords
turned to pure land Buddhism
bushi
—regional warrior leaders
samurai
—mounted troops of the bushi

The court hired bushi and their samurai as guards.
Warrior Elites
seppuku (hara-kiri)—ritual suicide by disembowelment performed by samurai; demonstrated courage and honor after a defeat
1180: Gempei Wars—Taira family defeated Minamoto family; marked beginning of feudal period
bakufu—new military government
shoguns—military leaders of the bakufu
Kamakura Shogunate, 1185 to 1333
dominated by Hojo family
Ashikaga Shogunate, 1336-1573
The Feudal Age, 1180-1573
8000 B.C.E. - 600 B.C.E.
600 C.E. - 600 C.E.
1450 C.E. - 1750 C.E.
Period II
Period III
Period V
Period VI
rise of secularism
Neo-Confucianism
supplanted Buddhism
Shintoism rivaled secular ideas
expansion of schools
schools for the average person called terakoya
literacy increased
national studies school inspired nationalism
opening to the West
Dutch Studies aided trade with Dutch at Nagasaki
1720: ban on Western books ended
acceptance of Western scientific advances
Intellectual and Cultural Life in the Tokugawa Shogunate, 18th-19th Centuries
threatened by Russian expansion and the West’s increased power
1853: Matthew Perry demanded American access to port at Edo Bay
threat of superior military
ports soon opened to the U.S., Britain, Russia, and Holland
The Western Challenge to Isolation
1867: Fall of Tokugawa Shogunate
causes:
taxes based on agriculture – caused peasant revolts
economy weakened due to stipends paid to samurai
divided attitudes toward Western influence among daimyos and samurai
1866: civil war
At 14 years old, Emperor Mutsuhito declared an "imperial restoration."
called Meiji, or “Enlightened One”
period of modernization and Westernization
political changes
emperor regained power
emperor plays a role in politics to the present day
1871: feudal system ended
cabinet system (Imperial Diet) based on French models imposed
bureaucracy reorganized – civil service exams
creation of modern navy
social changes
feudal class privileges ended
samurai class abolished – stipends ended
many samurai became poor
built up military – used national conscription
economic changes
opened Japan to Western trade
improved taxation system
banks
Meiji Restoration:
“Wealthy Country and Strong Arms”
in process of full industrial revolution by 1900
1870: Ministry of Industry established
zaibatsu—industrial and financial unions
private enterprise grew
technology
railroads and steamships
new agricultural methods
metallurgical plants
manufacturing
increase of silk production
dependence on Western equipment and raw materials
sweatshops
low pay
dangerous conditions
often composed of female workers
Industrialization
Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
conflict over Korea
wanted natural resources such as coal and iron
Japanese victory
led to emergence of Japan as a major world power
results:
Korea independent, but under Japanese influence
trading privileges with China granted to Japan
gained Taiwan and part of Manchuria
earned brief control of Liaodong peninsula
forced by Western powers to withdraw shortly after
Colonial Expansion
1573: last Ashikaga shoguns deposed by daimyo Nobunaga
founded by shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu
last feudal government in Japan
capital at Edo (now Tokyo)
political stability due to:
stronger central authority over regional daimyos
daimyos, samurai, and peasants often struggled financially
rejection of foreign ideas
expansion of economy
commercial capital at Osaka
emphasis on agricultural production
crops: rice, sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, oil)
growth of manufacturing and cities
silk, cotton, paper, porcelain
expansion of commerce and merchant class
social effects of neo-Confucianism
four official social classes: samurai, artisans, farmers, merchants
samurai often served as bureaucrats or artisans
peasants forced to farm
kept landowners financially secure
no class mobility allowed
new interest in literature and artistic expression
poetry, dramas, woodblock prints
kabuki and bunraku puppet theater
modern Japanese language first seen
books more widely printed
The Wave
by Katsushika Hokusai
The Hour of the Snake
by Kitagawa Utamaro
production fields: fishing, weaving, rice farming, and iron and bronze making
rice farming led to widespread sedentary societies
Shintoism
animistic
Shamanistic and divination ideas introduced
frequent contact with the mainland
no writing system
Yayoi Period, 400 B.C.E.-250 C.E.
a
kofun
was a burial mound for a member of the ruling class
migration of Chinese and Korean people
5th century: began borrowing from China
set up Chinese-style imperial court
Chinese writing system introduced
strong military states controlled by clans
400 C.E.: Yamato clan rose to power
600 C.E.: created Imperial House of Japan
national unity, emperor worship
Kofun Period, 250 C.E.-600 C.E.
Jomon Period,
10000 B.C.E.-400 B.C.E.
Jomon means “patterns of plaited cord,” referring to their pottery techniques
fishermen
lived in cave dwellings
agriculture and sedentary lifestyle by 2500 B.C.E.
contact with Korea
some Korean migrants part of the population
introduced new forms of pottery and metallurgy
100 B.C.E.: iron introduced
Shintoism attributes the creation of Japan to the sun goddess, Amaterasu, from whom it claims the emperors were descended.

Legend claims that the first emperor, Jimmu, rose to power around 660 B.C.E. (He likely actually lived in the 6th or 7th century C.E.)
1904: Russo-Japanese War
won – superior navy
1910: annexed Korea
politics
appointed ministers combined with a parliament
voting for all adult males
parliament declined after war and Depression
role of military leaders grew – oligarchic
national health insurance plan
1905-1918: industrial boom
life expectancy increased
higher standard of living
popular consumer culture
education improved
Japan Before World War I
allied with Britain
attacked German colonies in China and the Pacific for the Entente
Shandong peninsula
viewed as equal to Western nations
colonial empire not recognized at Treaty of Versailles
Participation in World War I
few exports, but many imports – resembled dependent economy
value of exports dropped
fewer markets for luxury items
silk replaced with Western fibers
Japan did not suffer economically as much as most Western nations did.
political crisis
poor harvests
increased suspicions of the West
rise of fascist ideas – influenced by Nazi Germany, among other fascist states, through the signing of the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936
controlled by military dictatorship
totalitarian state
constitution and Diet remained in place
Japan During the Great Depression
Second Sino-Japanese War
World War II
1940: Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, creating an alliance with Germany and Italy.
led by General Douglas MacArthur
pressed for democratization
gave women the vote
encouraged labor unions
ended Shintoism as state religion
new constitution
made parliament supreme government body
guaranteed civil liberties
potentially threatening military forces abolished
emperor became figurehead
no claims to Shinto divinity
Japanese values incorporated
opportunity for selective Westernization
War in the Pacific
War with the United States
American Occupation
(1945-1952)
after mid-1950s: rapid economic growth
leading economic power globally
automobiles, electronics
government encouragement
improved education
improved foreign policy
limitation of imports
focus on group commitment
Economy and Society
Culture
combination of traditional and Western styles
small feminist movement
new focus on popular culture
tension involving change or commitment to Japanese identity
Creation Legend
The Daisenryō Kofun in Osaka still stands today.
Asuka Period, 538 to 710

Nara Period, 710-794
Heian Period, 794 to 1185
reconstructed dwellings at the Yoshinogari site in Kyūshū
common symbols: bronze mirror, bronze sword, and royal seal stone
warrior elite attracted to Zen Buddhism
ink sketches, screen paintings
architecture
Golden and Silver Pavilions
Art and Culture
1542: first Western contact initiated by the Portuguese through sea trade
Europeans traded to get Japanese silver, copper, pottery, and lacquerware
brought firearms, printing presses, clocks
firearms revolutionized Japanese warfare
merchants soon seen as a threat to social order
Christian missionaries
Jesuits managed to convert many daimyos and samurais
seen as a threat to shogun rule
1614: Christianity banned
persecution of Christian missionaries as well as Japanese converts
1633: European trade contacts officially excluded
international travel outlawed
only some Dutch and Chinese merchants allowed to trade at one port in Nagasaki Bay
cultural seclusion
Western books banned
neo-Confucianism gave way to the school of National Learning
focused on revival of indigenous culture

Period of Isolation (Sakoku)
first used in the Tokugawa period
1870: adopted as the flag of the Imperial Japanese Army
symbol of optimism and good fortune
often viewed by other nations as an ultra-nationalist symbol
used in World War II
still used today in advertisements, sporting events, and artwork
Rising Sun Flag
1931: invasion of Manchuria
wanted to expand to accommodate increased population
sought natural resources
1937: invasion of northern and central China
aerial bombing
civilians targeted
1937: invasion of Manchuria, Korea, and Taiwan
military advantage, especially in navy
gained control of several key Chinese cities
often forced Japanese culture on conquered people
already involved in war on the Chinese mainland
alienated Allies by taking their colonies
captured Hong Kong, Siam, Malaya, Burma, Dutch East Indies, Philippines, and French Indochina
needed colonies for raw materials
implemented oppressive rule
July 1941: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared an embargo on oil against Japan
result of Japanese troops in China and French Indochina
American submarines sank supplies heading for Japan
1941: bombed American naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
destroyed American ships and airplanes
killed almost 2,500 Americans
Battle of the Coral Sea
American victory
both sides utilized naval and air forces – first time in history
Battle of Midway
American victory meant that Japan could no longer be on the offensive
1945: U.S. firebombed Tokyo several times
1945: U. S. dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Soviet Union took Manchuria
surrendered August 1945
Post-War Japan
elected leaders
reinforced political unity through economic progress
recovery from World War II
became world economic superpower
pro-U.S. foreign policy
U.S. provided economic and military aid during post-World War II rebuilding
public protests in 1960 led to changes
revised constitution implemented during Allied occupation, which was viewed by many as oppressive
worked in pollution control
improved social welfare
1993: lost majority in the House of Representatives, but still ruled as part of a coalition government
economic recession and unemployment
Liberal Democratic Party (1955)
Contemporary
constitutional monarchy
2009-2012: Democratic Party of Japan
2012-present: Liberal Democratic Party
current emperor: Akihito
limited power
current Prime Minister: Shinzo Abe
Politics
Economy
declining population
estimated population: 127, 000, 000
family and gender roles
nuclear family
elders make up a large portion of the population
little social welfare for the elderly
low divorce rate
mothers responsible for education and care of children
more common for fathers to pursue careers
Society
Culture
Intellectual Life
poetry
originally considered to have been created divinely
example: haiku
science and technology
pioneers of electronic and automotive technology
education
curriculum determined by national Ministry of Education
240-day school year
only elementary and junior high school is compulsory
Art
woodblock prints
painting
often influenced by popular culture, including manga and anime
ikebana (flower arrangement)
often taught in schools
Religion
Shintoism
matsuri (festivals)
Shinto shrines
Buddhism
syncretism of Shintoism and Buddhism
Recent Global
Interactions
2011: Fourth Science and Technology Basic Plan – plan to make strategic international science and technology connections with other East Asian nations through the promotion of trade and research in order to strengthen economy and address societal and environmental issues in Asia
Science and Technology
attempt to make diplomatic peace with North Korea
provided economic aid to North Korea
extended ban on North Korean missile tests
discussed the occurrence during the 1970s of the abduction of Japanese citizens by North Koreans
2002: Japan-North Korea Pyongyang Declaration
earthquake in northeastern Japan that resulted in a tsunami and the Fukushima nuclear disaster
assistance and messages of support from 116 countries, including Kuwait, the Netherlands, Croatia, Singapore, Taiwan, and the United States, as well as from several international organizations such as the World Bank, UNICEF, and UNESCO
economic aid
search and rescue
medical aid
supplies
2011: Worldwide Response to Natural Disaster
Japanese Surrender
San Francisco Treaty
Japan gave up several pre-war possessions, including Korea and Taiwan
allowed U.S. military bases to remain
End of Occupation
Emperor Akihito
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe
monetary unit: yen
2013 GDP: 4.92 trillion U.S. dollars
important exports: cars, industrial machinery, technology, computer accessories
one quarter of Japanese goods are exported to the U.S.
since 2010: trade deficit due to decrease of demand
sixth largest military budget in the world
2014: economic recession due to raise of consumption tax
interest rate is near 0%
credit difficult to obtain
origami (art of creating shapes and figures by folding paper)
calligraphy
required in elementary schools; elective in high schools
theater
bunraku (puppet) theater
geisha – female entertainers trained in classical music, dance, or poetry
Japan
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population growth
crowded cities and poor living standards
new education system
taught science and technical subjects
stressed loyalty to nation and emperor
copying of Western styles
clothing, hygiene
adoption of Western calendar and metric system
social conflict over traditional versus Western styles
Effects of Industrialization
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