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Immunity

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paula caceres

on 10 June 2010

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Transcript of Immunity

Immunity Structure and function Phagocytes Lymphocytes Antibodies Types of Immunity Active Passive Natural Artificial Vaccine Leukaemia Successful Not Successful white blood cells 60% of white cells in the blood
Released during infections
Short-lived cells Neutrophils Produced in the bone marrow
They engulf microbes and then they use enzymes to break them down
There are 2 types: neutrophils and macrophages Form the group of plasma proteins called
immunoglobulins
Neutralization of viral activity
Release histamine
Protect us of foreign substances The person becomes immune to the disease cause of the body's primary immune response
E.g. Body's response to common cold Macrophages Found in the lungs, liver, spleen,
kidney, and lymph nodes
Bone marrow --->travel blood as monocytes
Long-lived cells
Initiate immune response Remain in bone marrow
When mature they spread
throughout the body
Form memory cells
Activate antibodies
Attach to pathogen B T Leave the bone marrow
Mature in the thymus
Helper cells and killer cells Is the imuunity resulting from
injection of ready-made
antibodies
E.g. Newborn child The production of antiobodies against a specific agent by the immune system
E.g. Vaccination Acquired (active or passive) immunity
produced by deliberate exposure to an
antigen, such as vaccination
E.g. Vaccination
A substance given to estimulate the
body's production of antibodies and
provide immunity against a disease Smaller than phagocytes
Large nucleus
There are 2 types: B and T lymphocytes Artificial active immunity Antigens are injected into the body
E.g. Vaccination VPH Natural active immunity Lymphocytes are
activated by antigens Artificial passive immunity Antigens come from another person so
lymphocytes have not been activated
E.g. Vaccination IgA Natural Passive immunity IgA that stayed in the baby's gut
prevent the growth of bacteria
E.g. Breastmilk Trypanosoma (sleeping seekness)
Has thousands of antigens that change every 4-5 days
Its is very hard to immune system to respond effectively VPH 6, 11, 16 and 18
95-100% effective
3 injections
Produces antibodies Cancer that affects blood
Unnormal growth of blood cells
They don't die when they should
They dont recieve the "signal" to
stop reproducing Cause The causes of leukaemia are unknown
It is likely to be a mutation in the DNA
It is neither contagious nor hereditary effects Tiredness
Fever
Bone pain
Intolerance to excercise treatments Medicaments combined with
chemotherapy
3 phases Induction chemotherapy Destroy leukemia cells Consolidation therapy Eliminates any leukemia cells Maintenance Treatment Chemotherapeutic drugs to avoid
the disease reocurrance Secrete cytokines
"Alarm" of the immune system
Atta Attacts "infiltrate" cells
Divides to form memory cells
"Punches" holes in the cells to attack them
Kills the pathogen
Full transcript