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Transcript of Baroque Era
Bernini, G. (1648-1651). "The Fountain of the Four Rivers" [Marble, ]. Piazza Navonna, Rome. In F.S. Kleiner (Ed.), Gardner's art through the ages: The western perspective (14th ed., Vol. II, p. 556). Boston, MA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
The Fountain of the Four Rivers is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Rome. Gianlorenzo Bernini was an important artists in the Baroque era. "Architect, painter, sculptor, playwright, and stage designer, Bernini was one of the most important and imaginative artists of the Baroque era in Italy and its most characteristic and sustaining spirit." (Kleiner, 2014). The artwork was made of marble. The four rivers represented in this art work are the Danube River in Europe, the Nile River in Africa, the Ganges in Asia, and the Plata in Americas.
Baroque sculpture is characterized by movement, by the expression of extreme feelings in his face, the gestures of theatricality and raw realism.
Pedro de Mena
The Ecstasy of Saint Teresa
Life size figure of saint and her vision
Bernini, Apollo and Daphne
Gian Lorenzo Bernini
-Naples, 7 December 1598 – Rome, 28 November 1680
-Leading sculptor of his age
-Main works of art:
David, The Rape of Proserpina, Apollo and Daphne, Blessed Ludovica Albertoni, Ecstasy of Saint Teresa, Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi...
Form: Marble; Stucco and gilt bronze
Function: Religious Sculpture in a Church
Content: Interpretation of St. Teresa's visions of God (angel descending with an arrow and plunging it into her) Natural light redirected onto sculpture from hidden window; Marble reveals textures (high gloss skin, rough feathers of angel; animated and fluid drapery; rough cut clouds) Cut from one piece of marble; figures seem to float in space; rays of god's light illuminate the scene from behind; Teresa's pose suggests Sexual exhaustion; (from spiritual ecstasy); Stagelike setting
Context: 1647-1652 Gian Lorenzo Bernini; Santa Maria Della Vittoria
Bust of King Louis XIV
Gian Lorenzo Bernini 1665
BAROQUE in Spain
Cristo de la Clemencia,
Juan Martinez Montanes 1605
190cm, Cathédrale Sevilla
St. John the Baptist
Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius
His magnificent Cathedra petri ("Chair of Saint Peter"), which consists of a throne (behind the altar at St Peter's) surrounded by sculptural decoration
As the final phase of Baroque, Rococo art features a sense of dynamism and extravagance. While Baroque art is overtly dramatic (and often violent), however, Rococo works are gentle and playful. Rococo sculpture, which flourished primarily in France, was especially well-suited to figurines.
A triumphant, extravagant, almost theatrical (and at times) melodramatic style of religious art, commissioned by the Catholic Counter Reformation and the courts of the absolute monarchies of Europe. This type of Baroque art is exemplified by the bold visionary sculpture and architecture of Bernini (1598-1680), by the trompe l'oeil illusionistic ceiling frescoes of Pietro da Cortona (1596-1669) and by the grandiose set-piece paintings of the Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640).
(1) Religious Grandeur
Unlike the large-scale, public, religious works of Baroque artists in Catholic countries, Baroque art in Protestant Holland (often referred to as the Dutch Golden Age) was exemplified by a new type of easel-art - a glossy form of genre-painting - aimed at the prosperous bourgeois householder. This new Dutch Realist School of genre painting also led to enhanced realism in portrait art and landscape painting, flower pictures, animal compositions and, in particular, to new forms of still life painting, including vanitas religious works. Different towns and areas had their own 'schools' or styles, such as Utrecht, Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Haarlem and Dordrecht.
(3) Easel Art
Michelangelo is commissioned two years later in Florence to create a marble statue of David.
The portrait bust 17th - 18th century AD
The greatest French master of the portrait bust was Jean-Antoine Houdon. He was invited to America to sculpt a statue of George Washington after Washington had won the war against Britain.
French Baroque Architecture
Famous french sculptors include:
- Francois Girardon
- Antoine Coysevox
- Pierre Puget
- Guillaume Coustou
- He worked for King Louis XIV
- Sculptor of Apollo and the nymphs of Thetis
- One of his most important works is
Louis XIV on Horse
Apollo and the nymphs of Thetis
- made of marble
- theatrically with various figures creating a scene together
- realism is portrayed
- uses diagonal lines, there's no symmetry
- located in the Gardens of Versailles, France
by P. de Mena
(wood painted in many colours)
Proserpina being seized and taken to the underworld by Pluto
About to throw the stone that will bring down Goliath
Mastery of nature
(Early Italian Renaissance)
(High Italian Renaissance)
(Italian Baroque) -170 cm, marble
by Borghese Finelli, 1632
by Duquesnoy, 1633
Tomb of Pope Leo XI
by Algardi, 1644
Mythology & Sculptures
Subjects were emotional, energetic, and vivid
Sculptures were incredibly detailed, and were intended to be viewed from all angles
Laocoon & His Sons
Most of baroque sculpture in Spain was commissioned by the Church. It consisted of altarpieces and images for churches and for Holy Week processions. Most of the images were made of polychrome or wood
they were very expensive and showed deep feeling.
The most important sculptors were Gregorio Fernandez and Alonso Cano.
FRENCH SCULPTURE: Puget and Girardon.
Fountain of the 4 rivers in Piazza Navona
-Made of marble
-Designed for the Pope Inocent X
-Settled in Piazza Navona, Roma, Italy.
-4 rivers represent the river Nilo, Ganges, Danubio and The River of the silver
BLESSED LUDOVICA ALBERTONI
PUGET- Milo of Croton
-The face of Milo is particularly personal, being a portrait of the sculptor himself. It express the drama of the moment, that is caused by the splendidly fierce lion.
GIARDON- Louis XIV on Horse
-Destroyed during the 1792 revolution, only few fragments survive.
- Mary Magdalene expressing pain, holding the crucifix in the left hand and the right one in the chest that sows that she is contained the exaltation
ALONSO CANO- Pedro Mena
-Created by Alonso Cano
-It seems that he's going to be killed.
-By: Juan Martínez Montañés
By: Alonso Cano
Finished in: 1656
It is now in: Cathedral of Granada.
ALONSO CANO- Inmaculada Facistol
GREGORIO FERNÁNDEZ- Lying Christ
Finished in: 1753
It is now in: Santa Maria della Pietà dei Sangro, Naples
High Baroque classicist sculptor, favourite of Pope Innocent X, main rival of Bernini
Tomb of Pope Leo XI (1634-44) Marble, St Peter's Rome
The Ecstasy of Saint Philip Neri (1638) Marble, Santa Maria in Vallicella, Rome
Pope Leo Driving Attila from the Gates of Rome (1646-53) Marble relief, St Peter's Rome
Tomb of Pope Leo XI
Pierre Puget (1620-94)
The greatest French sculptor of the 17th century
Milo of Crotona (1671-82) Marble, Louvre, Paris
Milo of Crotona
figures are in mid-motion, mouth open, or yielding to the touch of another.
large works (particularly those by Bernini)- middle of the floor or at a slight distance from a wall.
sculptors employ negative space
viewers can contemplate a multiplicity of angles.
marble is treated with a tactile sense.
sculptors admired Hellenistic works.
Seems to move through time and space
Facial expression a far cry from those of Michelangelo, and Donatello
Bernini vs. Michaelangelo vs. Donnatello
Bernini's david: More dramatic, dynamic, facials very dramatic and violent looking, strong contrapposto
Michaelangelo's David: Closed figure, slight contrapposto, Neutral facial expression
Donatello's David: very slight contrapposto, neutral facial expression, depicts the body of a child very well
Placed in niche, Proscenium crowned with a broken baroque pediment and ornated with polychrome marble.
The precise moment that Apollo sees his beloved Daphne begin her transformation into a tree
Bernini's David is another stirring example of this. Michelangelo's motionless, idealized David shows the subject holding a rock in one hand and a sling in the other, contemplating the battle; similarly immobile versions by other Renaissance artists, including Donatello's, show the subject in his triumph after the battle with Goliath.
David by Donatello
David in his triumph after the battle with Goliath
Renaissance Example of Motionless Sculptures
To emphasize the dramatic powerful moments, and to ensure that they were appreciated by the viewer, Baroque Sculptures designed the sculptures with a specific viewpoint in mind.
Their original placements in the context of their display were against walls so that the viewers' first view was the dramatic moment of the narrative
The choice of incident to depict the story is commonly cited as well— Bernini's own son and biographer, Domenico, called it .
In depicting a highly naturalistic St Lawrence, tortured and yet undergoing some kind of spiritual epiphany, the sculpture presents a taste of many of the themes that Bernini would adopt during the course of his artistic oeuvre, and that would come to represent many of the most pertinent features of the artistic traditions in Italian Baroque art—that of solitary figures undergoing intense emotional states, whilst being depicted with illusionistic verisimilitude. Unlike earlier depictions of Lawrence, there are no other figures—no sign of his judge, torturers or spectators witnessing in depth. Rather the focus is solely on the martyr and his emotional state.
Bernini placed his actual hand in a flame and fashioned Lawrence’s expression from his own facial reaction seen in a mirror; thus implying that the focus of the portrait of Lawrence would be the physical pain.
Lawrence's face not as one of pain, but of being "tired" or more commonly of being spiritual rapt. the sculpture makes a clear religious statement of spiritual salvation—inner strength overcomes external bodily pain. Certainly, observation of the sculpture seems to bear this out. The martyr almost turns away from the pain, his upper body and head reaching upwards towards the skies, with his clear, almost peaceful eyes, focussed in the direction of God.
the martyr as being "reclined on his left elbow languidly as any Roman banqueter", and thwarting his torturers with "a carved attitude of rapture".
Marble, height 230 cm
Apotheosis of Prince Eugene of Savoy. Prince Eugene was the greatest General of his times; his victories over the Turks halted the Turkish advance upon Europe. 1718/21, marble.
Francois Duquesnoy, 1635
St. Andrew was the brother of St. Peter and the first disciple called by Christ. St. Andrew went to Greece to preach the gospel, and tradition has it that he was crucified on a cross in the form of an 'X'.
The relic of St. Andrew's head was donated to Pius II (1460). Paul VI (1966) presented the relic as a gift to the Church of St. Andrew in Patras as a sign of friendship with the Greek Orthodox Church.
1671, completing it only in 1682
Milo was a Greek athlete several times champion of the Olympic and Pythian games. As an old man, he wished to test his vigor by splitting a tree trunk that he found already cleft. His hand remained caught in the stump and he was devoured by wolves. Puget replaced these animals with the nobler figure of a lion and created a composition imbued with baroque passion and drama. Milo's body is writhing in pain and his flesh appears to be shuddering under the chisel's touch.
A meditation on the human condition
Colbert having granted Pierre Puget the right to carve three blocks of Carrara marble that had been left unused in the port of Toulon, the sculptor - born in Marseilles and trained in baroque Italy - began his Milo of Croton in 1671, completing it only in 1682.
The theme, foreign to sculpture until then, is not only a meditation on the victory of time over strength, but also on man's pride. Milo is vanquished above all by his vanity and his denial of the weakness attendant to his age. His pain is as much moral as physical. Human glory is ephemeral, as signified by the symbol of the cup won at the Games and now lying on the ground, a worthless object.
It is rather puzzling that Puget selected such a subject for a work destined to the king. He was to manifest the same audacity again with his bas-relief of Alexander and Diogenes, also in the Louvre.
Milo's writhing, aching body is an immense zigzag: a succession of three diagonals decreasing in size, culminating with his head thrown back in a cry of agony.
The body is arched against the tree trunk that forms the axis around which the composition pivots. In the center, two large openings were cut into the marble in order to detach the athlete's silhouette from the background. This hollowing-out of the base is a rare occurrence in sculpture and represents a technical feat.
Fountains were among the principal types of baroque public monuments, and those by Bernini are among the most outstanding examples. Fountain of the Four Rivers (1648-1651) in Rome's Piazza Navona startles the viewer with its mammoth statues and obelisk balanced almost precariously on ledges from which gush dramatic cascades of water.
Fountain of Apollo (1671, Stone, Chateau de Versailles)By Jean Baptiste Tuby (1635-1700)
Tuby, a French sculptor born in Rome, designed this impressive sculpture which continues the grandiose association of Louis XIV with the sun-god Apollo. It depicts the sun god driving his chariot across the sky.
Baroque sculpture often had multiple ideal viewing angles, and reflected a general continuation of the Renaissance move away from the relief to sculpture created in the round, and designed to be placed in the middle of a large space
This statue was cast in bronze by Johann Jakobi and inaugurated in 1703; the base (height 270 cm) was finished in 1708. This statue is one of the most spectacular performances of Baroque sculpture - the symbolic glorification of political absolutism.
: The figures had personal features and personal movements.
. The figures showed their emotions.
. The figures were often entangled in complex compositions.
Effects of light
. Folds in clothes and the gestures of the figures were used to create areas of light and shade.
- Promoted drama, emotion, and splendor
- They had religious and mythological themes.
- Baroque sculpture added extra-sculptural elements, for example, concealed lighting, or fused sculpture and architecture to create a transformation experience for the viewer.