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Transcript of TWPSG7A MH
In 1534, French king Francois The 3rd sent Jacques Cartier to find a shipping route to Asia as well as gold and precious gems. Cartier arrived three weeks later off the coast of Newfoundland, which was already discovered. Then, he went farther inland and set up a large wooden cross at Pointe-Penouille to show his claim for France. Chief Donnaconna, Iroquois chief of the village Stadacona recognized the importance of this cross. He went to Cartier with his two sons and brother to protest. The French convinced him to let two of his sons go back to France. The next year, they returned and Donnaconna's sons had learned how to speak French. They told the others in Stadacona about their good treatment in France, which helped create a good relationship between the French and the Iroquois.
Return With News
In the following year (1536) Cartier proceeded to explore the St.Lawrence River, all the while looking for a route to the Orient. Donnaconna told him of Hochelaga, where there were many precious metals to be found. However, Donnaconna didn't want Cartier to go there in fear of him making friends with the Iroqouis at Hochelaga. Eventually, he still went and passed what is now Quebec City and went all the way to Hochelaga (now Montreal) He was stopped by rapids which he named Lachine, believing China was close by. Cartier spent the winter near Stadacona, but most of his 110 men fell sick with Scurvy, caused by lack of Vitamin C. Only 25 men and Cartier survived. In order to convince the King to send him back, Cartier captured Donnaconna and some other to go back to France. Soon, all but one of Cartier's captives had died and relations with the First Nations had gone sour. On his last expedition, he found what he thought were diamonds, but turned out to be quartz after he got back to Europe. So his voyages ended... but a century later, someone elses had just began.
New France Comes To Being
Samuel De Champlain set out a century later to find the same things as Cartier, a passage to Asia and riches. He was a skilled mapmaker, and helped Europeans access inner Canada. He made an alliance with the Huron early on and joined an attack with them in 1609. Champlain used an Arquebus, (a early shotgun) and killed two enemy chiefs with one shot. Scared, the other first nations people ran off, giving victory to the Huron and Champlain. Over the next 20 years, he worked to build New France and at the end was known as father of New France. One of the organizations in New France were the Jesuits, who tried to convert many First Nations to Christianity. Much of this converting had violence and the first nations were not treated well. The Jesuits took their mission to the Huron and in 1634 built Sainte-Marie Among The Huron. This was meant to be a stronghold because the Huron disagreed very strongly and with violence.
The Fur Trade And Seigneuries
The Coureurs De Bois were fur traders who illegally traded furs with the First Nations. They had close relations with the First Nations and went directly to their camps instead of waiting at a trading post.Often, the Coureurs De Bois would start families with the first nations people, resulting in the Metis. The Seigneuries were plots of land which were owned by one man. The plots were situated as close to water as possible. These Seigneuries were often objected to later on by non-French people but in New France, were accepted. The basis of New France came off the fur trade. That's where all the money came from. And of course money is what would build the colony up. In fact, all the colonies in that region grew because of the fur trade. It was essential to the beginning of New France, and it would not be the same without it.
Back in Europe the royals of Britain were fighting costly wars and battles, yet they didn't have the funds to spare. So what do they do? Put taxes on their colonies of course. This way, they received more income from their colonies, helping pay off the debt. But the colonists didn't like this. They had to pay money just because Britain wasted theirs? Well....yes. There were many taxes that were applied including the Tea Act, the Sugar Act, the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act, the Townsend Act, and the Intolerable Acts. These were all put in place to increase the income from British North America. However, the citizens of this new land were enraged! Because they lived under British Rule the British protected them and gave them land so it was reasonable they charge a price for their services. One notable event related to this was the Boston Tea Party. Bostonians were angry that they had to pay extra for tea, so some of them devised a plan. They dressed up as natives and boarded a ship carrying tea. Then, they threw many crates of tea overboard, causing what is now called the Boston Tea Party.
The American Revolution
The American revolution was a series of events that happened between 1765 and 1783. The Americans were dissatisfied with all the taxes and laws the British were passing, and had many a dispute, which eventually lead to the Revolutionary war. This was fought from 1775-1783 where the French later sided with the Americans. During the war, The Americans and French captured several British armies, which lead to a peace treaty in 1783, officially ending the war. The result was that that the Thirteen Colonies became the United States of America, an independent contry.During this war, several important historical figures emerged. Perhaps the most well known was general George Washington, first President of the U.S.A. Another figure was Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration Of Independence, as well as a later U.S President.
The War of 1812
The War of 1812 happened for a few reasons. Firstly, after the Declaration of independence was signed, there were many arguments over land. Secondly, as the Americans expanded, the First Nations became enraged. They went to war shortly after. Soon, Shawnee chief Tecumseh allied with the British troops and rapidly formed militia. . The first major battle was the battle for Queenston Heights, in Upper Canada. The Americans took Queenston, a river village. They were led by Major General Stephen Van Rensselear. In an attempt to regain the village, General Isaac Brock was killed by a sniper. Later, reinforcements arrived and took Queenston Heights back. It was a important victory for the "Canadiens" and a bitter loss for the Americans, but the loss of General Brock was a saddening event. About a month later, U.S General Henry Deerborn attempted to capture Montreal with 5000-6000 men. How ever lieutenant-colonel Charles Michel de Salaburry arrived with reinforcements, forcing the Americans back. A year later, Several First Nations Chiefs pressured British General William Henry Harrison to attack and take back their home, Ohio. He attacked, but lacking in supplies had to end the operation, losing the respect of several First Nation Chiefs including Tecumseh. The Battle of Fort George was another major event. The American batteries on the Niagara River started to fire at Fort George. The Fort was destroyed after a day of bombardment and two days later 4500 american troops landed on the Lake Ontario shore. The British wee outnumbered, and overwhelmed by the cannons on the American ships, so they retreated to Burlington Heights which crushed the American plan to cut them off. The Americans used Fort George to support the attack on Upper Canada.
War of 1812 (cont.)
The battle of York on April 27, 1813, occured when American General Zebulon Pike turned towards the warship being built in York. The British General Roger Hale Sheaffe knew he couldn't prevent the landing, so he ordered that all the gun powder be blown up. This resulted in several hundred American casualties as well as Pike's death. A month after the attack on York, Laura Secord learned about an upcoming American attack on a British outpost. She ran almost 30 KM through woods and swamp to British troops who then went to reinforce the outpost, resulting in a British victory. Laura Secord is now a well known Canadian war hero. On Oct 5, 1813, General Henry Proctor made a retreat from the Americans to Burlington heights. The British and First Nations took a stand but retreated again, with many casualties. Perhaps the most significant event was the death of Tecumseh, demoralizing many. In the winter of the same year, the British captured Fort Niagara in a blizzard, and found many supplies. The battle of Lundy's Lane on July 25,1814 was the bloodiest battle in the entire war. Both sides lost almost 900 soldiers in a fierce battle. The Americans attacked at dusk and later took the British artillery battery. Soon, the whole battle started to revolve around the cannons. After the failed final attack by the British, the Americans retreated and the British retook the battlefield in the morning. In December of 1814, the treaty of Ghent is signed, ending the fierce two year war that raged through North America as well as Europe.
Society Of New France
New France's society was mainly based on the royals and nobles. Most peasants had no power. The two people with the most power however, were back in France not suffering from cold or lack of food. Back here there was a Governor, an Intendant, the Sovereign Council, the governors of Montreal, Quebec and Trois-Rivieres. and last but not least there were the Intendant's representatives in those three settlements. While the governors held more power, the Intendant managed the financial affairs, settlement and economical things, as well as the Administration of justice. so you could say he was the boss in the area. The first intendant of new France was Jean Talon, chosen by the king as all later intendants were. He helped bring New France back to order and improved many things. So in the end New France was one of the first colonies in North America with a thriving fur trade and several major settlements.
British North America
British North America was a very large area in Canada and the United States. It consisted of Rupert's Land (Hudson Bay Company) and Quebec (later upper, lower Canada), the St.Lawrence area and the coastal area near the Atlantic. Much of this was taken from the French, who the british beat in North America. But they still had to deal with the First Nations, who were many, from far and wide. The Americans also gave them much trouble and dispute later on. They were at war with the Natives, who were not to be trifled with and knew the area well. So what would they do? Fight against their enemies of course. What would these fights do? Tear nations apart, displace an entire people, and cause a revolution.
www.revolutionary-war.net/famous-americans.html . Paul Pavao, Ellen Pavao, Esther Pavao Famous Americans of The revolutionary War. (2010-2014).
http://www.historicplaces.ca/en/pages/(42-48)_1812_(1-6).aspx ,War of 1812 Timeline
Smith Tom, Stein Tamar. Pearson Canadian History 7. Toronto: Pearson Education Canada, 2008
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rebellions_of_1837. Rebellions of 1837, (Dec.16 2014)
Bain, M Colin. Pearson Canadian History 7. Toronto: (2008)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Years%27_War . Seven Years’ War, (Feb. 3 2015)
http://www.algoma1812.ca/History/MajorEvents.aspx . Major Events of the War of 1812. No Date
The Seven Years War
The seven years war was the highest point of conflict between the French and The British and happened from 1756-1763. British General James Wolfe had an entire fleet ready for the capture of Quebec, but it would not be that easy...The British sailed up the St.Lawrence in June of 1759 to Ile D'Orleans, just a few miles from Quebec. The next month, Wolfe sent 4000 men to attack the Beauport Shore. However, the French General Marquis Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, had predicted this so he sent his best men to defend it. The French won a critical victory by killing 340 British soldiers. Later, Wolfe sent a few ships back to make it seem like he would attack there again, but it was a feint. Montcalm sent his best troops to defend the shore, something he would regret. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham was a crucial point in the war. It was fought on the plains of Abraham, where Wolfe sent his troops to land upriver. This would cut off the supply line from Montreal, forcing Montcalm to fight. Wolfe won using his tactic, the Thin Red Line. The British were in a line three deep, where the first would fire, crouch, reload, then next line etc...Both Generals died from gun wounds. In the final year of the war, the British and French signed a peace treaty in Paris, ending the war.
Rebellions of 1837-38
These rebellions were caused by discontent in the political state of the Canadas. They had violence and battles, unlike most of our protests today. Some of the main figures were Wilfred Nelson, Joseph-Louis Papineau, and Edmund Bailey. They tried t rally the people against the government, which was illegetimate . The rebellion in Upper Canada probably caused/inspired the shorter one in Lower Canada. During this time, the farmers suffered significantly. While the crops failed, many merchants can to collect debts and file lawsuits. The main reason for the rebellions were that the elections were corrupt. The people in the non-elective legislative councils were all local who controlled trade, religion, or institutions of state. In Lower Canada, they were called the Chateau Clique and in Upper Canada, the Family Compact. These were the people with most of the power. After three years, many rebels were arrested and some hanged for treason to the crown. Later, after the rebellions calmed down, people with more moderate approaches tried to help such as Robert Baldwin.
Death of General Wolfe, Painting by Benjamin West
Sainte-Marie among the Hurons
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