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Mr. James' - Cell Cycle and Division

Miller Levine Macaw Book
by

Will James

on 26 August 2016

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Transcript of Mr. James' - Cell Cycle and Division

UNIT 2: Cell Cycle and
Division

END OF SECTION
During mitosis, “sister” chromatids separate from one another during
telophase.
interphase.
anaphase.
metaphase.
10-2
Cytokinesis usually occurs
at the same time as telophase.
after telophase.
during interphase.
during anaphase
10-2
The phase of mitosis during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell is
prophase.
metaphase.
anaphase.
telophase.
10-2
Cytokinesis: Splitting the cell
DRAW THIS DIAGRAM IN YOUR NOTES
The G2 Phase (Second Growth Phase):
DNA synthesis takes place (DNA is copied)
During the cell cycle:
a cell grows
copies its DNA
prepares for division
divides to form two daughter cells, each of which begins the cycle again
The Cell Cycle
is the
period of growth
that
occurs
between cell divisions
.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What is the life cycle of a cell?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What role do chromosomes play in cell division?
DNA replication takes place during the
S phase of the cell cycle.
G1 phase of the cell cycle.
G2 phase of the cell cycle.
M phase of the cell cycle.
10-2
The series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide is called
the cell cycle.
mitosis.
interphase.
cytokinesis.
10-2
A new nuclear membrane reforms around each cluster of chromosomes.
The
sister chromatids separate
into individual chromosomes.
Mitosis
Biologists divide the events of mitosis into four phases: (PMAT)
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Mitosis (M Phase)
goes through rapid growth
increases in size
performs normal functions
Stages of the Cell Cycle
When the cell divides, the chromatids separate.
Each new cell gets one chromatid
.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: WHAT IS Cell Division?

THE FIRST STAGE, IS DIVISION OF THE NUCLEUS AND EVERYTHING IN IT (DNA)

Cell plate
Cell wall
In
plants, a structure known as the cell plate forms midway between the two new nuclei.
Telophase in Plants
Spindle Fiber
Centriole
The chromosomes line up in the
MIDDLE
of the cell.
Chromosomes
(paired chromatids)
Centromere
Spindle
forming
Phases of Mitosis
Each
chromatids are attached at
an area called the
centromere
.
Draw and label a BIG chromosome.
DNA (already copied) condenses into chromosomes, becomes visible.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: How do old cells make new cells?
CELL DIVISION
process
by which a
cell divides into
two new
identical "daughter" cells
your body produces about 2 trillion
new cells each day
there are two ways that organisms reproduce and
make offspring.
Asexual
Reproduction
since the parent and offspring have the same DNA, they are CLONES
an organism making an
identical copy of itself
In asexual reproduction, 1 parent
passes all of it’s genes on to
its offspring.
mostly occurs with unicellular organisms like bacteria
some multicellular organisms use a type of asexual reproduction called budding
Example: Hydra
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/zoology/reptiles-amphibians/salamander-regrow-body-parts.htm
why does bacteria spread so quickly for organism to organism?
Sexual
Reproduction
In sexual reproduction,
both
parents contribute to the
genetic makeup of
the offspring
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: HOW DO MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS PRODUCE OFFPRING?
when 2 organisms both
contribute to create offspring
1 offspring
with a full compliment of DNA
1 parent providing
1/2 the DNA
1 parent providing
1/2 the DNA
two major parts
of cell division:
is the second stage, and is the division of the cytoplasm
, the liquidy jelly that holds the organelles,
AND the splitting of the cell membrane
Chromosomes
Before a cell divides, DNA is copied
is
when the DNA coils up into a structure that allows it to split into 2 during cell division
DNA is the

instructions for how
an organism is made.
(Every aspect of that organism)
Each half of the Chromosome contains identical DNA
. Each half is called a
"sister" chromatid
Since
each cell gets 1 of the
chromatids, the new cell gets 1 copy of the DNA
If
each new cell gets one copy of the original DNA then each new cell is genetically the same
(a clone)
Cell cycle
series of stages that
cells go through as
they grow and divide.
Interphase
cell spends approx. 90% of its time in interphase.
(The first 3 stages of the cycle)
G1
Interphase
During G1 (First GROWTH) , the cell
G1
S phase
During the S (copying stage) phase,
At the end of S phase the cell has twice the normal amount of DNA (same as saying twice as many chromosomes)
Interphase
Centrioles duplicate to help with division
Once G2 is complete, the cell is ready to start the M phase—Mitosis
S phase
G2
G1
Interphase
Prophase:
1st phase of
cell division
Metaphase:
2nd phase of cell division
The nuclear membrane breaks down.
Spindle fibers start to form and centrioles move to opposite sides of cell (poles)
Spindle fibers connect to the
centromere of each chromosome and to centriole at each pole.
Anaphase:
3rd phase of
cell division
Each copy moves
APART
to opposite poles of the cell
Centromeres split
Telophase:
4th phase of
cell division
Chromosomes gather at opposite ends (poles)
of the cell and begin to uncoil
DNA begins to look like spaghetti again
Spindle fibers break down and disappear
The
cytoplasm and membrane pinches in half.
Cytokinesis:
last part of
cell division
Each daughter cell has:

own nucleus

identical set of chromosomes (DNA)
When it finishes forming, you have
2 identical plant cells.
DNA is a long chain of nucleotides that are strung together in a specific way.
DNA
normally very long and strung
out like spaghetti
chromatid
Cell checks to make sure DNA was copied correctly
Centriole
Cell begins to pinch in the middle (animal cell only)
Is the
last part of telophase
1 parent passes
on
1 full set of DNA
to offspring
Two "daughter
cells" that have
the same DNA
as the parent
cell
New organism has different
DNA than its parents
Mitosis
Cytokinesis
UNIT ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
HOW DO CELLS MAKE MORE
CELLS?

EQ: How do old cells make new cells?
EQ: How do old cells make new cells?
ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION IS HOW CELLS IN A MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM MAKE NEW CELLS
REFLECTION:
MAKE A 2 COLUMN CHART COMPARING AND CONTRASTING ASEXUAL VS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
YOU CAN USE YOUR NOTES & THE BOOK
SIMILARITIES
DIFFERENCES
ASEXUAL VS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
WARM -UP: FOR EACH ORGANISM/PART OF AN ORGANISM, TELL ME WHETHER IT REPRODUCES SEXUALLY, ASEXUALLY OR BOTH.
EXAMPLE: CHICKEN- SEXUALLY
BACTERIA- ASEXUALLY

SEAHORSE-
HUMAN
GIANT REDWOOD TREE
STARFISH
CACTUS
KANGAROO
STRAWBERRY
SKIN CELLS IN A HUMAN
http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/variation/reproduction/
EQ: What role do chromosomes play in cell division?
EQ: What role do chromosomes play in cell division?
CHROMOSOME
CENTROMERE
EACH CHROMATID HAS THE SAME DNA
Reflection: Draw and label what happen to the chromosome as a cell divides.
After watching the"Replacing Body Parts" Video answer the followinbg questions in complete sentences.

1. What was the most interesting thing in the video and why?

2. What type of cells do they use to "regrow" these body parts?

3. Why can these cells become any type of cell?
STEM CELLS
CELLS THAT ARE UNSPECIALIZED.

THEY HAVE NO SPECIFIC JOB
THIS MEANS AS AN ORGANISM DEVELOPS, STEM CELLS BECOME DIFFERENTIATED
STEM CELLS WILL BECOME ALL THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CELLS FOUND IN MULTICELLULAR ORGANISM
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: WHY ARE STEM CELLS IMPORTANT?
EQ: WHY ARE STEM CELLS IMPORTANT?
EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
CELLS FOUND IN THE EARLIEST STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
ARE NOT SPECIALIZED, SO CAN BECOME ANY TYPE OF CELL IN THE BODY
STEM CELL RESEARCH
SINCE THEY CAN BECOME ANY TYPE OF CELL,
STEM CELLS CAN BE USED TO REPLACE OR REPAIR DAMAGED OR DESTROYED CELLS/TISSUE
1
REFLECTION: ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS AT THE BOTTOM OF THIS SECTION OF NOTES. USE COMPLETE SENTENCES
1. DURING INTERPHASE (G1, S AND G2 STAGES),
WHAT ARE THE TWO IMPORTANT THINGS HAPPENNING IN THE CELL.

2. WHY DOES CELL CHECK TO MAKE SURE THE DNA WAS COPIED CORRECTLY? (HINT: WHAT MIGHT HAPPEN TO THE CELL IF THE DNA SEQUENCE IS WRONG)
THE CELL CYCLE
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: HOW DOES A CELL DIVIDE PERFECTLY?
EQ: HOW DOES A CELL DIVIDE PERFECTLY?
Phases of Mitosis
Phases of Mitosis
Phases of Mitosis
the
cell plate will harden and become a new cell wall
Full transcript