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Transcript of Chapter 19
Section 1- Dawn of the Industrial Age
Section 2- Britain Leads the Way
First things first...
Section 4- New Ways of Thinking
Section 3- Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution started in Britain
-For the first time, more people moved into cities, and were able to buy products that other people produced
-Traveled by train or steamship
-anesthetics came about between 1830 and 1855
-first sewing machine
-French physician measured the speed of light
The industrial revolution created URBANIZATION
Heirs of the Enlightenment now looked to natural laws to govern economics and business
Agriculture: New farming practices made drastic changes in the amount and speed of output
-mixing soil and crop rotation
-seed drill- Jethro Tull
-landowners would take over more land to create larger fields that would increase output
-farmers were put our of work, and would migrate to cities- labor force for new machines of industry
More agriculture=more food
more food=more people!
Plus, more healthcare and hygiene and sanitation created a boom from 120 to 180 Million people in Europe from 1700 to 1800
New sources of energy:
-coal- steam engines
-Thomas Newcomen and James Watt
-Also, production of Iron became better and cheaper
The Industrial Revolution began in Britain for several reasons:
1. Population growth
2. Natural resources: rivers, coal and iron
3. Growing population meant a higher demand for goods
Also, Demand and Capital allowed Britain to be successful in industrialization
-Business class, from overseas trade, had accumulated CAPITAL (money used to invest in enterprises)
-ENTERPRISE- business organization in something like shipping, mining, railways or factories
-ENTREPRENEURS- someone who manages and assumes the financial risks of starting new businesses
Cotton cloth imported from India became popular, so Britain wanted to have an industry of their own!
This created a new problem- How do you produce enough cotton to keep up with the demand of these new machines? (Flying Shuttle, Spinning Jenny, Water Frame)
Problem was solved by Eli Whitney and his invention of the Cotton Gin.
Meanwhile, transportation innovations changed everything!
Steam Locomotive- connected Liverpool to Manchester
Main Ideas, 19.1:
1: Industrialization had major impacts on everyday life
2: Agriculture saw major changes in methods and land distribution
3: Coal is the new energy resource
Main Ideas, 19.2:
1: Britain industrialized 1st
2:Textile Industry developed 1st
3: Factories developed 2nd
4: Transportation Revolution developed 3rd
-Examples: Turnpikes, Canals, Locomotives
Changes in farming, soaring population growth, and demand for more workers caused heavy movement towards cities.
Sewage- dumped into streets and left to rot, or dumped into rivers. Phew!!!!
Poor people were crowded into apartment-style houses called tenements.
New work brought rough conditions for workers...
Factory system- 12 to 16 hour workdays, and they worked 6 to 7 days a week.
Mines were worse, and very dangerous.
Many factories and mines hired young boys and girls, as young as 7 or 8, sometimes even as young as 5!
As a response to these conditions, Labor Unions began to form for the first time.
But it wasn't all bad!!!!
What were some good Social results of the Industrial Revolution?
Main Ideas, 19.3:
1: The Middle Class and Working Class were created
2: Life in the factories was harsh
-Pay, Hours, Child Labor
3: Results of Industrialization on Society had many positives and negatives
New social classes emerge:
1. Industrial Middle Class
2. Industrial Working Class
-Means "hands-off" approach (no government inervention)
-Adam Smith- "Wealth of Nations"(1776)
-believed that a free market would benefit everyone by competition and lowering of prices, encouraging capitalists to reinvest
-best example of laissez-faire- The Industrial Revolution!
Recardo- "Iron Law of Wages"
-said as wages increased, families had more children, rather than raise the standard of living
- Government interaction and goals of society should be based on attempting to reach "the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number" of its citizens
People as a WHOLE, rather than private citizens, should own and operate the means of production.
#4- Karl Marx
-"Class Struggle" and the idea of scientific socialism
-based on the scientific study of history
-teamed up with German socialist Friederich Engels
-1848- Communist Manifesto-
-predicted a struggle between the "bourgeoisie" and the "proletariat", in which the proletariat would win, take over all of the means of production, and create a classless society
If I had to summarize this section in a few main ideas, they would be...
1: Government Systems / Theories…
-Utilitarianism – “the greatest happiness for the greatest number”- at whatever means necessary
-Socialism – everyone would own and operate the means of production (Not as radical as communism, but still heavy government control)
-Utopianism - some government intervention, and “greatest happiness for the greatest number” (A perfect world)
-Communism – a small group controls economic and political decisions (government controls everything, little to no economic freedom)
2. Economic Systems / Theories…
-Market Economy – Supply & Demand pushes economic decisions (also called free market, free enterprise, capitalism)
-Centrally Planned Economy – government makes economic decisions (also called a command economy, socialist, or communist economy)
-Mixed Economy – is a mix of a market economy & centrally planned economy
Warm-Up (Grab a new one, turn in last week's in a pile a the front of the room):
-Name 3 causes of the Industrial revolution in Europe
Warm-Up: Name one way that new transportation technology changed society, and one way that it changed the environment of areas where the industrial revolution took place. (Don't rememeber? Look at your chart from 19.2!)
Warm-Up: Describe how the Industrial Revolution changed life for (A), the working class and (B) how it changed life for the upper class.
Make your own for this one!