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The European Renaissance Was a cultural movement produced in Western Europe (Italy was the birthplace).
Fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
Its main exponents are in the field of the arts, but also there was a renewal in the sciences, both natural and human.
It was the result of the dissemination of humanism ideas which resulted in a new conception of man and the world.
A new way of seeing the world and the human being, with new approaches in the fields of arts, politics and science. The Italian Renaissance began in Tuscany.
Was centered in Florence and Siena.
Had an important impact in Rome. Cosimo Medici One of the most influential families who became powerful in the Renaissance.
In the s. XV were, for three generations, the rulers of Florence fact. (During that time, the city was prosperous and flourishing)
The Medici family were merchants who traded in luxury goods from the East.
Controlled much profitable market of fabrics.
They owned a chain of banks across Europe with an influential clientele, which included potatoes. The first renaissance

The patronage of the Medici It was one of the first great patrons of the Renaissance
Became interested in the arts and sciences.
Among those who lent their support are: The sculptors Ghiberti and Donatello. The architect Brunelleschi and scholar phlegm.
Controlled Florence for 30 years.
He died in 1464.
He was succeeded by his son Piero. Do not enjoyed good healt
Died after only five years.
His son Lorenzo, 20, thus became the ruler of Florence citizen.) International Gothic Historical context Characteristics Giotto Florence The Piazzo del Campo in Siena Cosimo Piero Lorenzo Piero Giovanni Son of Lorenzo
Was appointed cardinal at age 14
Later Pope with the name of Leo X. Giovanni Burgundy Bohemia Giotto di Bondone (Colle di Vespignano, 1267 - Florence, January 8, 1337)
It was a remarkable painter, sculptor and architect of the Italian Trecento.
It is considered the first artist who helped create the Italian Renaissance.
Was dedicated primarily to painting religious subjects.
Was able to give them an earthy appearance, full of blood and life force.
Adopted the visual language of sculpture to give volume and weight.
His style is characterized by a freshness and an unexpected life.
None of his surviving works can be documented as theirs beyond a reasonable doubt. (This is one of the greatest painters that present problems of attribution). Giotto Some of his works are: The Three Kings Flight into Egypt The slaughter of the innocents Regret about the Dead of Christ San Francisco expelling demons in Arezzo Sassetta Italian Gothic painter.
Was one of the exponents of the International Gothic painting, even though his last works has some Renaissance elements.
The style is easily recognizable by the elongated lines of the characters and objects.
Another characteristic is the gold backgrounds of his paintings.
The highlight of his works is the brightness and the contrasts of the colors. Also many of his best works has an architectural conception.
Disciples:
Francesco di Giorgio and di Lorenzo (aka Vecchietta)
Sano di Pietro. Sassetta The Virgin and Child with Saints The vision of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Madonna dell'umiltà St Ranieri Rasini in Florence Some of his works are: Gentile da Fabriano (Gentile di Niccolò di Giovanni Massi, Fabriano, h. 1370 - Rome, 1427)
Was an Italian painter,
One of the leading exponents of the International Gothic style in Italy.
Poetic and fabulous painting.
Taste for lineand unparalleled use of decorative elements.
He was at the top of the Italian school of the time, receiving commissions from great prestige.
Realistic. Precise in details and textures, especially fabrics.
Medieval painter. Seen in the rich chromaticism or use of golden like the Byzantine tradition.
However, has some features that prefigures the renaissance: tries to volumize his figures and make them expressive.
Currently the emphasis is on the modern treatment of light and also the use of free drawing on his studies and sketches. Gentile da Frabriano Some of his works are: Adoration of the Magi Nativity Polyptych of Valle Romita Presentation of Christ in the Temple Dolce Stil Novo Dolce Stil Novo
Italian for "sweet new style",
The most important literary movement of the 13th century in Italy.
Influenced by both Sicilian and Tuscan poetry, its main theme is Love (Amore)
The name Dolce Stil Novo was used for the first time by Dante Alighieri in the Divine Comedy.
Precursors are found in the Provençal works of the troubadours.
Compared to its precursors, the poetry we find in the Dolce Stil Novo is superior in quality and more intellectual: a more refined poetry with regular use of metaphors and symbolism, as well as subtle double meanings.
Introspection of man.
Poetry vivid descriptions of female beauty. Woman= Paradise.
The 'Love' of the Dolce Stil Novo is a sort of 'Divine Love'.
The importance of the Dolce Stil Novo lies in the fact that apart from being the manifestation of the first true literary tradition in Italy, it ennobled the Tuscan vernacular, which was soon destined to become the Italian national language. Tuscany Dante • It was an Italian poet.
• His masterpiece, The Divine Comedy, is one of the key works of the transition from medieval to Renaissance thought.
• It is considered the masterpiece of Italian literature and one of the tops of world literature.
• The most representative figure of Stil Nuovo
• Studied "Trivium" arts (grammar, dialectic and rhetoric) and "Quadrivium" arts (arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and music).
• Initially writed guittoniano character poetry.
• Then continued with the style of the Sicilian poets.
• Finally, he had a clear commitment to the themes and compositions of the dolce stil novo. Dante ARTISTICS MANIFESTATIONS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGE Gothic art represents the most successful expression of cultural evolution, and economic policy of Europe during the Middle Ages.
They build cathedrals, palaces municipalities, considered the symbol of bourgeois resurgence of the time.
Giorgio Vasari, a pupil of Michelangelo, was the one who first used the term Gothic. It was a process of technological revolution occurred within schools and publicized Romanesque Cistercian monks.
Gothic art was influenced by factors such as:
His connection with the development of cities.
The growth of royal power.
The creation of a secularized culture tending to break free from the tutelage of the church.
New scientific knowledge, industry and trade. ARTE GÓTICO In the Gothic walls lose their function sustentante becoming huge openings covered with glazing decorated with religious themes.
Of these buildings, the most representative is the cathedral.
Elements of Gothic architecture: the pointed arch ogival vault crucerías warhead, stands as pillars, buttresses and buttresses. Architecture France: Notable high-rise buildings such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, and the cathedrals of Chartres, Reims and Amiens.
Italy: His buildings tend to the horizontal. Highlights include the cathedral of Siena and Florence.
German: Was greatly influenced by the French Gothic Cathedral of Cologne stand and Strasbourg.
England: Highlights include the cathedrals of Salisbury, Gloucester and Westminster church. Gothic sculpture is more naturalistic than Romanesque, more human.
Gothic sculpture protruding full form of support which integrate fully support him.
Archaic forms had a line in its monumental architecture.
Features:
Freestanding sculpture reappears.
The sculptural elements follow the alignment of the arc.
The Virgin loses frontal and leans over the child.
Movement is introduced and the curved line.
Is performed on the covers, retablos, tombs and stalls. Sculpture Topics:
Lives of the saints and the Virgin.
The apostles.
Calvaries

Main works:
La Virgen Blanca
The Annunciation.
Sarmental Gate
Beautiful Gate of the Cathedral of Pamplona. Wanted naturalistic painting, color and pattern synthesis, and an appraisal of the volume.
The human being becomes the center of the universe.
Proportionality is saved between the figures. Thanks to shading, creates the illusion of volume and depth optimal.
Features:
Biblical scenes.
Lives of saints and representations of the Virgin
Fantastic Beasts
Vegetal and geometric motifs. Painting His most outstanding works are: La Vita Nuova
La Vita Nuova ("New Life") is the first known work of Dante. It was written between 1292 and 1293, shortly after the death of his beloved Beatrice.The book alternates 31 lyrical poems and 42 chapters in prose.The meaning of the title is given by the vital renewal experienced by the poet when he falls for his beloved.The Vita Nuova is the ultimate expression of the sense of Dolce Stil Novo.The theme of the play is the platonic love of Dante for his beloved Beatrice. Often it is brought home to my mindthe dark quality that Love gives me,and pity moves me, so that frequentlyI say: ‘Alas! is anyone so afflicted?’:
since Amor assails me suddenly,so that life almost abandons me:only a single spirit stays with me,and that remains because it speaks of you.
I renew my strength, because I wish for help,and pale like this, all my courage drained,come to you, believing it will save me:and if I lift my eyes to gaze at you
my heart begins to tremble so,that from my pulse the soul departs. The Divine Comedy

Epic poem written betwwen 1308 and 1321.
One of the greatest works of world literature.
Culmination of the medieval world-view developed in the Western Church.
It helped establish the Tuscan dialect, in which it is written, as the standardized Italian language.
It is divided into three parts: Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.
On the surface, the poem describes Dante's travels through Hell, Purgatory, and Heaven; but at a deeper level, it represents allegorically the soul's journey towards God.
Dante draws on medieval Christian theology and philosophy, especially Thomistic philosophy and the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas. Consequently, the Divine Comedy has been called "the Summa in verse". Inferno: Canto III
“Through me the way is to the city dolent; Through me the way is to eternal dole; Through me the way among the people lost.Justice incited my sublime Creator; Created me divine Omnipotence, The highest Wisdom and the primal Love.Before me there were no created things, Only eterne, and I eternal last. All hope abandon, ye who enter in!” Petrarca Francesco Petrarca (Arezzo, July 20, 1304 - Arquà Petrarca, Padua, July 19, 1374)

It was a lyrical Italian humanist
His poetry spawned a literary movement that influenced authors such as Garcilaso de la Vega (Spain), William Shakespeare and Edmund Spenser (in England). Petrarca Some of his works are: His major work is the Canzoniere, originally published under the name of Rime in vita e Rime in morte of Madonna Laura. This workwas expanded over the course of the years.
This is where Laura becomes the idealized object of his love, representative of the Christian virtues and beauty. If love is not what is in me for what I feel?
And if love is, what its nature?
If good, how do I feel this harshness?
If bad, how sweet this torment?

If I burn with pleasure, what weeping and regret?
If in spite of myself, what I earn in my sadness?
Alive Oh death, oh placid crudeness,
How do you do so much in me, if I do not consent?

And if I agree, no reason I murmur.
Among many opponents will my shipstuck
at sea and without government;

As lack of knowledge, serious error,
I do not know what I say, or I leave,
I tremble for summer, winter burn. Shortly before his death, he published I trionfi ("Triumphs"), dedicated to exalting the elevation of the human soul to God. Boccaccio Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 - 21 December de 1375)
It was an Italian writer and humanist.
One of the Italian literature parents, along with Dante and Petrarch.
He composed several works in Latin.
It is best remembered as the author of the Decameron. Giovanni Boccaccio Some of his works are: The Decameron

Is a book consisting of one hundred tales.
Some of them novelletes.
Completed in 1351 by Giovanni Boccaccio.
They develop three main themes: love, human intelligence, and fortune. A Tale of The Decameron painted by Waterhouse The Filocolo

The Filocolo is a long and convoluted story, in prose
It tells the legend of Florio and Biancofiore (Blancaflor),
Originaly it was written in French and widespread in the Middle Ages in various versions.
The work was probably composed between 1336 and 1338.
The title is an invention of the author, and in bad Greek would mean something like 'fatigue of love. " "Get up. Because you should not carry weapons of Mars, have for you is called it that with our help to bring down the bushes have not true that nest on false branches and roots should be dried for some time, to never have memories of them. Among the west and boreal realms there fruitful nature, in which I feel I was born a courageous young drops of the blood of the one who in the past freed of your ancestorsown rage of the Lombards, subjugating them, along with many enemies,
our power. Call it, since we've already promised the most recent victories and promise, on our behalf, courageous forces " In the evolution of the Italian Renaissance are two distinct stages:
- The fifteenth century or Quattrocento, Commonly called initial phase early Renaissance.
- The sixteenth or Cinquecento, Finals or second renaissance. In Florence the development of a rich bourgeoisie aid the deployment of the forces of the Renaissance
The city becomes the starting point of the new style,
Under the protection of the Medici, arise early works that extend to the rest of Italy.
In the early Renaissance Tuscan school is distinguished, characterized by simplicity and purity of form.
The head of this school in the first half Quattrocento is Filippo Brunelleschi,
Yel the second Leon Alberti, The Medici family Botticelli Main works:
The Rucellai Madonna and Altar of the Cathedral of Siena (Duccio Di Bouninsegna).
Madonna Enthroned, The Marriage of the Virgin, flogging (Giotto Di Bondone and Jan Van Eyck).
Altarpiece of the Holy Spirit (Pedro Serra).
San Vicente Martyr Altarpiece, Triptych of San Jorge (Jaime Huguet). LITERARY MANIFESTATIONS OF THE LATE MIDDLE AGE At the beginning of the twelfth century appears in southern France the first school of lyric cultured in a Romance language, the Provencal.
They have important news. They are not anonymous, but the work of well-known authors, called troubadours.
The troubadours composed poems and accompanied by music broadcast, usually made ​​by them.
It also named trovadoresca lyric. Provenzal Lyric Tired: love poetry of refined literary expression.
Sirventes: satirical poem, personal attacks or moral criticism.
Pastorela: meeting a gentleman with a beautiful shepherdess.
Planh: sorry about the death of a person or other misfortune.
Tensed: debate between two poets on various topics.
Alba: separation of lovers at dawn after spending the night together. Subgenres Provencal Lyric Poetry courtesan who is loving subjects.
In this genre is idealized woman, the lover worships, but perfect love is not achieved.
Remain enamored lovers despite the rejection, or dare not reveal his love.
Lament the abandonment of his beloved or by deception. Characteristics Guilhem de Peitieu (1071-1126)
Bernart de Ventadorn (s. XII)
Arnaut Daniel (s. XII)
Guillem de Berguedà (1138-1196)
Peire Vidal (1183-1204)
Bertran de Born (s. XII)
Giraut de Bornelh (s. XII) Some famous E dizia que perdia o sen
por mi, de mais chamava-me senhor
e dizia que morria damor
por mi e que non podia guarir,
e todaquestera por encobrir
outra que quería gran ben enton Fragment Born in Escalona (Toledo) in the year 1282, and was the son of Infante Don Manuel, brother of King Alfonso X, inheriting from his father the office of Adelantado of Murcia.
Don Juan Manuel began his literary work moved professed admiration of his uncle Alfonso X the Wise.
His other works, with uneven literary value, are written in prose, and almost all have a moral or didactic. Infant Don Juan Manuel The most important works of the Infante Don Juan Manuel are:
Book of Chivalry (written in 1325)
Book of Knight and Squire (written in 1326)
Book of the States (dating from 1330)
But the masterpiece of Don Juan Manuel is the book entitled Examples of Count Lucanor and Patronio. Importants works His works have thus greater linguistic and stylistic unity.
Don Juan Manuel is inspired by his works, developing and expressing what they learn in their own way. And, very often, think on their own and submits their own experiences.
He was particularly drawn to moral problems, and wanted to be tough characters. It was primarily an educator. His qualities She was a poet born in Ile de France (actually France) and lived in England in the late twelfth century. No one knows almost nothing of his life.
She wrote “Marie ai nun, si sui de France...” (My name is Mary and I'm from Franciaisla).
She was the first French-language poet, and his works are one of the first signs of courtly love literature. MARIA OF FRANCE She had a great culture and knew Latin.
She is the author of Lais, that are stories of love and adventure where she joins a wonderful polite and aristocratic world (Ménard).
Mary wrote twelve lais, which Honeysuckle (Chievrefoil) is the shortest: 118 octosyllabic couplets.
Lai es una composición musical cantada o tocada de origen céltico. Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi (Florence, March 1, 14451-Florence, May 17, 1510),
• Nicknamed Sandro Botticelli
• He was a painter Italian Quattrocento, under the patronage of Lorenzo de 'Medici,
• He was a painter of exquisite sensitivity, is unaware of the technical achievements, to be swayed by his inspiration, which creates a painting subjective.
• His artistic repertoire includes religious, mythological and portraits.
• The Birth of Venus and Primavera are currently two of the most famous Florentine masterpieces. Others of his works are: The Birth of Venus

Its preparation was used tempera on canvas.
The drawing is refined and there is a line over color.
In scene four characters appear.
1. - Two figures on the left, symbolizing the union of matter and spirit and enliven venus.
2. -. Representation in the center of the naked goddess to whom is given the meaning as an expression of pure intelligence or wisdom supreme.
3.-Right Time is holding a cloak which covers Venus and has been interpreted as the concealment of knowledge. The spring


It is made of egg tempera on panel.
Measure 203 cm high and 314 cm wide
It was made between 1480 and 1481.
The painting depicts the zephyr wind chasing the nymph Clora, which when it becomes trapped or Spring Flora with flowers. In the center venus dressed, turned into something material, accompanied by her son Cupid shoots his arrow at the three graces covered with a transparent veil. Next, Mercury, messenger of the gods, says heaven where true love is. culpture Botticelli Venus and Mars The slander The Annunciation church-cemetery medallions candlesticks Brunelechi Filippo di Ser Brunellesco Lapi, Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 - April 15 de 1446)
He was an architect, Italian Renaissance sculptor and goldsmith.
He is known especially for his work on the dome of Florence Cathedral Il Duomo in 1423.
  From here happen masterpieces. Brunelleschi Some of his works are: The dome of the Florence Cathedral and Santa Maria de las Flores.
The dome of the Florence Cathedral and Santa Maria de las Flores, is his most famous and most controversial.
This not only gives huge dome over the whole church but a visual reference in the entire city of Florence.
Florence Cathedral is Gothic and was made by Arnolfo di Cambio, but it was not complete without vaulting was cruising.
It is the first time the well-defined structure of a dome offers the same on the inside than the outside. Churches of San Lorenzo



Idea proposed by eight Florentine families, who wanted a temple in which to open a chapel for each.

It was the Medici family, who awarded the commission to Brunelleschi.

It is a fine example of Renaissance art patronage an important component of social ostentation. Facade of the Hospital of the Innocents 1419-1444
• This is a large horizontal building.
• In the lower body has a portico with arches on columns of the composite order, which became independent from the rest visually building.
• In the spandrels of the arches are roundels or medallions with white figures (babies who ask) on a blue background. Donatello Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi) (Florence, Italy, 1386 - ibidem, December 13, 1466)
• He was a famous Italian artist and sculptor
• A parent of rebirth.
• Donatello highlighted an innovative force in the field of monumental sculpture and reliefs treatment.
• Conducted numerous works in marble, terracotta, bronze and wood for various patrons and cities.
• modeling was commissioned bronze plaques for the Basilica of San Lorenzo and its preparation died in December 1466 Some of this works are: The David

• The David is a bronze sculpture of 158 cm
• The work was done around 1440 (or 1430 according to some experts)
• It was commissioned by Cosimo de 'Medici, who wanted to place it in the gardens of his palace in Florence.
• Currently on the Bargello. San Marcos

• The sculpture of San Marcos is part fourteen cycle statues of the patrons of the arts in Florence.
• Placed in niches outside the Orsanmichele.
• It was commissioned by the Art of Wool and dates back to 1411-1413.
• Is marble and measures 248 cm high. The equestrian monument to the condottiere Gattamelata

• It is a bronze statue
• Located in the Plaza del Santo in Padua.
• It is one of the first and most important equestrian statues around the Renaissance.
• It is the first statue in honor of the condottiere of the same name.
• The warrior is moving slowly in the square, in a march of conquest, combined with the horse moving steadily without excitement. The slow gait of the horse, the calm of the whole makes clear, however, the viewer that the triumph of Gattamelata is the victory of a man who has come out successful thanks to his intelligence. Piero della Francesca Piero della Francesca
• He was an Italian painter of the fifteenth century
• His painting was characterized by its serene humanism and the use of geometric shapes, particularly in relation to the perspective and light.
• It is a major and fundamental character of the Renaissance, but never worked for the Medici, and spent little time in Florence.
• His works are admirably balanced between art, geometry and a complex system of reading on many levels, where they bind complex theological, philosophical and topical Some of this works are: Discovering and Proving of the Vera Cruz. The worship of the sacred tree by Queen Sheba and the reunion of Samon and Queen Sheba. Battle between Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and Chosroes II. Constantine's victory over Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. Fragment.
Novel II
[Voice: panfilo]
Voice: neifile]
[003] Pamfilo has shewn by his story that the goodness of God spares to regard our errors when they result from unavoidable ignorance; and in mine I mean to shew you how the same goodness, bearing patiently with the shortcomings of those who should be its faithful witness in deed and word, draws from them contrariwise evidence of His infallible truth; to the end that what we believe we may with more assured conviction follow. Maquiavelo Niccolò Machiavelli (Italian Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli) (Florence, May 3, 1469 - ib., June 21, 1527)


• He was a diplomat, civil servant, Italian political philosopher and writer.
• In 1513 he wrote his treatise on political doctrine entitled The Prince, published posthumously in 1531 in Rome.
• Machiavelli's work delves equally in the fields of politics and literature. His political and historical texts are indebted to his diplomatic experience at the service of Florence
• The historical thought of Niccolo Machiavelli was reflected mainly in two works: The Life of Castruccio Castracani Luca (1520) and History of Florence (Istorie fiorentine, 1520-1525).

• His masterpiece was The Prince, Machiavelli ended in 1513
• It was dedicated to Lorenzo de 'Medici
• Describe different models of state as its source (strength, perversion, chance).
• Deduct the most appropriate policies for survival.
• From this perspective analyzes the psychological profile must be the prince and elucidates what the human virtues that should prevail in its task of government.
• Machiavelli concludes that the prince must appear to possess certain qualities, be able to pretend and conceal well and subordinating all moral values to the reason of state, embodied in his person. Some of this works are: • It is a comedy in five acts, in an apparently classical, it is in reality much desired contemporary Machiavelli criticize.
• Unlike other works, was published in Machiavelli's life
• It is the play that tells the story of Callimachus, a young Florentine resident in the city of Paris, who ends obsessed Florentine woman whose beauty has heard but never seen in his life (Lucrezia) Fragment:
SIRO. - So what will think to do?
Callimachus. - No anything, however desperate it, leaving no foothold to hope and, even if it is weak and useless, the hunger and desire that man has to achieve its object not make it seem that Cosimo. - What things would you want to introduce antiquity?

FABRIZIO The custom of honoring and rewarding the virtues, not to despise poverty, estimating the spirit and rules of military discipline, forcing citizens to love one and the other, to live without factions, particularly least appreciate it public, and other things how are you, it easily would be compatible with our time The Second Renaissance
Papal Patronage Michelangelo Buonarroti • Resurgence of Rome under the patronage of French artistic JULY II (1503-1513) and LEO X (1513-1521) attempted to restore the city to its former glory and is surrounded by the best artists.
• In the sixteenth century Florence Rome relieved major artistic center.
• This trend, defined by the art of LEONARDO, RAFAEL and MIGUEL ANGEL. Julio ll Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564),
Commonly known as Michelangelo,
Was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
He is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. Some of this works are: The sculpture of the Florentine Pietà comprises:
The dead Christ is supported by the Virgin, Mary Magdalene and Nicodemus, the features of which are a self-portrait of Michelangelo. The structure is pyramidal, with Nicodemus as a corner, and the Christ is shown as a figure serpentinata own mannerism. The David
It is a white marble sculpture of 5.17 m, height 1 and 5.5 tons in weight,
It was carved by chisel from different points of view
Made between 1501 and 1504 commissioned by the Opera del Duomo of the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence.
Represents the biblical King David in the time prior to face Goliath
According to most historians is one of the world's most famous sculptures.
Currently is on display at the Galleria dell'Accademia in Florence Genesis scene

The creation of Man by God. God created man (Adam) in His image and likeness. This is expressed by the scriptures. The creation of man includes the material part, called "dust", but also adds the immaterial, defined as "the breath of life." This distinction separates the "outer man" of "spiritual man". The artistic interpretation of Michelangelo is wonderful: the hand of God touches Adam at the time of its creation. (Nearly touches Adam) As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At the age of 74 he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan, the western end was finished like the Michelangelo's design, the dome was being completed after his death with some modification. It is a style within Gothic art developed in Burgundy, Bohemia and the north of Italy in the late fourteenth and early fifteenth.
The artists created a common aesthetic among the royalty and nobility and thus eliminated the concept of an "foreigner"art.
The main influences were in the north of France, the Netherlands and Italy. Leonardo Da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Old Style)
Was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.
Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Some of this works are: La Gioconda, also known as the Mona Lisa,
Acquired by King Francis I of France in the early sixteenth century,
Currently on display at the Louvre Museum in Paris.
It is an oil on poplar board 77 x 53 cm, painted between 1503 and 1519,
It was reworked several times by the author.
It is considered the most successful example of sfumato, Leonardo's characteristic technique, The Last Supper

The Last Supper is a mural painting Leonardo da Vinci original executed between 1495 and 1497.
It is located on the wall on which originally painted in the refectory of the Dominican convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.
The painting was made, for his patron, Duke Ludovico Sforza of Milan.
It is a mural executed in tempera and oil on two layers of plaster preparation spread over plaster. Measured 460 cm. by 880 cm high. wide. The Vitruvian Man
It is a famous anatomical drawing with accompanying notes by Leonardo da Vinci
Made around 1490 in one of his journals.
Represents a nude male figure in two superimposed positions with his arms and legs.
Inscribed in a circle and a square.
This is a study of the proportions of the human body.
Made from texts Vitruvian architecture. Example of Leonardo's curiosity is a drawing of Bernardo di Bandino, one of the murderers of Giuliano de Medici in the conspiracy of the Pazzi, after being hung in a window of the Palazzo del Capitano di Giustizia of Florence, 29 December 1479. Raffaello Sanzio Raffaello Sanzio (Urbino, April 6, 1483 - Rome, April 7, 1520).
Known as Raphael of Urbino or simply as Raphael.
It was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
In addition to his painting, he made important contributions in architecture and, as an inspector of antiquities.
He became interested in the study and conservation of Greco-Roman vestiges. Some of this works are: The Marriage of the Virgin (1504). Madonna of the Grand Duke (1504) Other Maddonas Ludovico Ariosto Ludovico Ariosto (8 September 1474 – 6 July 1533)
Was an Italian poet.
He is best known as the author of the romance epic Orlando Furioso (1516).
The poem, a continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato, describes the adventures of Charlemagne, Orlando, and the Franks as they battle against the Saracenswith diversions into many sideplots.
Ariosto composed the poem in the ottava rima rhyme scheme and introduced narrative commentary throughout the work. Fragments of the play Orlando Furioso Mas pues son menester de varias telas
varios hilos, que tanto urdir pretendo,
dejo a Reinaldo en suerte semejante
y vuelvo con su hermana Bradamante.
(Orlando furioso, II, 30, vv. 5–8) Las damas, héroes, armas y decoros,
amor y audaces obras ahora canto
del tiempo aquel en que cruzaron moros
de África el mar, y a Francia dieron llanto,
(Orlando furioso, I, 1, vv. 1–4) Diré de Orlando en este mismo trino
cosa no dicha nunca en prosa o rima,
pues loco y en furor de amor devino
hombre que antes gozó por sabio estima;
(Orlando furioso, I, 2, vv. 1–4) Os plegue, hercúlea prole generosa,
adorno y esplendor del siglo nuestro,
Hipólito, aceptar esto que osa
y daros sólo alcanza un siervo vuestro.
(Orlando furioso, I, 3, vv. 1–4) Pietro Aretino Pietro Aretino (Arezzo, April 20, 1492 - Venice, October 21, 1556)
He was a poet, writer and playwright Italian.
Known primarily for his licentious writings (especially his Sonnets lustful)
It is one of the most representative of the spirit intellectuals Italian Renaissance and one of the figures that showcase overcoming the medieval theological and ethical vision.
His writings on art and especially Titian, led to numerous commissions and affected the international standing of this painter.
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