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TV Advertising - Techniques
Transcript of TV Advertising - Techniques
Narrative (realist or anti-realist)
Animation / Documentary / Talking Heads
Stand Alone or Series
Parodic (i.e. a parody of something else)
Codes and Conventions (camera angle, shot, iconography, editing, lighting, sound, music, mise en scene)
Computer Graphics/Special Effects In this unit we are going to critically evaluate the structures and techniques used by television advertisers to target products at specific audiences. Starter Remember this? Task - The Monster Ad With reference to all of the structures and advert types mentioned last week, we are going to critically evaluate (a textual analysis of) the advertisement
What type of narrative does it use?
What form does it take?
What style is it?
Analyse the codes and conventions of the advert (how is it similar to others? Camerawork, lighting, music, sound, mise en scene?) This Week - Techniques Hidden and overt messages
Emotional responses or association, eg solution to a problem, fear, concern, compassion, self-perception, social position
USP (Unique Selling Point)
Lifestyle Appeal Repetition
Music Hidden Messages Also known as subliminal messages
Subliminal: existing or functioning below the threshold of consciousness
Subliminal messages could be delivered by way of an image or word flashed for a millisecond on a screen, audio played in the background (in forward or reverse speech), or images or words hidden within a scene or ad we’re viewing that we aren’t consciously aware of seeing.
Not entirely common - flashing images or audio, or hiding images or text in this way is banned in many countries Can you spot the hidden image here? Overt Messages In contrast to subliminal messages, overt messages are plain to see and openly displayed
Many advertisers will transmit messages in their adverts to sell their product
Overt messages can often be implied, for example advertising for whitening toothpaste will transmit a message that having white teeth is a good thing Here we have an advert for Weight Watchers. What is the message implied? Each of these adverts uses a particular message in order to sell their product
The Weight Watchers ad implies that women who have lost weight are extremely happy
The Lynx ad strongly implies that eradicating dandruff will allow a man to attract beautiful women
The Google ad seems to suggest that it's internet products are perfect for solving life's problems Emotional Responses Advertisers recognise that emotions play a significant part in the products that we choose to buy
For example, we may buy a product which serves to:
solve a problem
stop something happening that we fear
plays upon our guilt or compassion
seeks to help our social position Solving a Problem... Playing on Fear... Solutions to a Problem The JML advert asks questions of the audience to make them consider whether they currently have a problem - then shows them the solution
The Dyson advert suggests that a problem exists, which the audience can identify with, then also demonstrates their solution Playing on Fear The anti-smoking ad demonstrates how children are more likely to smoke if their parents do
The anti-drink driving ad suggests what could happen if you were to drink and drive
What fears do these ads play on?
Who would be most affected by these messages Guilt and Compassion... Guilt and Compassion These advertisements seek to utilise the compassion and play on the guilt of people, often for charitable causes
The Oxfam ad uses distressing imagery of famine and poverty to encourage people to donate
The Cancer Research ad shows how people are affected by the disease
Was this effective on you? Celebrity Endorsement A common technique whereby a celebrity is featured in the advertisement.
The celebrity will generally appeal to the same target audience as the product or cause
Often the celebrity is associated with the product in question
But not always... Celebrity Endorsement An effective way for advertisers to target audiences
Instant recognitions of celebrity catches audience attention
The 'I want to be like them' factor
Mo Farah endorsing Lucozade - sports & fitness fanatics
Cheryl Cole endorsing shampoo - young, appearance-conscious women USP (Unique Selling Point) The one thing which the product or cause has which no other does
Included in the message that the advert is trying transmit
Used to convince an audience that their product is worth buying.
Unique Selling Point The iPhone advert is selling the product on one feature which it deems to be unique and innovative
The Natwest advert is making a point of showcasing a feature which is unique to it's services
Can you think of any other adverts which use a USP? Brand Identity Brand identity is the complete look and feel of the brand
This includes the brand name, logo, colour scheme, slogan, values
Advertisers and companies use brand identity to make an audience recognise and identify their product easily
For example, what is the brand identity of McDonald's? How does Cadbury's develop a brand identity? Repetition Advertisers know that audiences and customers remember slogans and brand names better through repetition
Repetition is used (often annoyingly) to enforce the brand identity on the audience Effective or annoying? 'Shock' Tactics Commonly used for adverts for charitable organisations or campaigning organisations
Shocking imagery used in conjunction with fear or compassion
Makes advert memorable to audience Sex
There is a well-known phrase within the advertising industry; 'Sex sells'
Advertisers, in the same way as using human emotion, recognise that human sexual attraction and impulse is perhaps stronger than any other emotion
Sexually provocative advertising is common place
This again makes the product memorable - for example, Lynx is famous for using sex to sell their product Is the use of sexually provocative imagery relevant to the products advertised here? Intertextuality Intertextuality in advertising is where an advert will refer to another media text.
Could be used in conjunction with parody
The advert may refer to another advert, a film, a TV programme, etc.
The advert may use characters, music or other elements from the other text Intertextuality These examples reference Star Wars and The Wizard of Oz
Characters, iconography, music and costume cross over
Much like the technique of celebrity endorsement, this encourages audience recognition, and therefore makes the advertisement memorable Voiceover Adverts use voiceover to address the audience directly
Celebrity voices are often used
Much like celebrity endorsement, it promotes recognition and memorability Sean Bean John Goodman Special Language You will have noticed that most adverts that you have seen use language that is suitable
Adverts which are selling a product will want to push a positive message using positive language
Those which promote charitable causes and campaigns will use more emotive language to appeal to audience's compassion Direct Address Direct address is where the advertisers speak directly to the audience
This allows advertisers the opportunity to get the audience to ask themselves questions which are relevant to the product or cause Direct Address Here are two different forms of Direct Address
The Jobsite advert uses this to instruct the audience to do something
The Age UK advert twists the Direct Address concept and uses a celebrity endorser to give an unnamed person celebrity profile Stereotypes Stereotypes are oversimplified depictions of a particular group of people
Stereotypes are often used in adverts as they do not have the time to explain characters
Stereotypes tell the audience information about the characters with their first glance Stereotypes In the Foster's advert, stereotypes are used for comic effect
Australian stereotypes - beach hut, barbeque, lack of awareness/intelligence?
British stereotypes - 'posh', classical music, cucumber sandwiches, big teeth, noses etc. Music A key part of television advertising
Feature that has become more prominent in recent years
Recording artists regularly use advertisements to raise their profile
Advertisers use 'catchy' songs to grab attention
Also using 'classics' for audience recognition