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Social Psychology 2015

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Tania Young

on 3 December 2018

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Transcript of Social Psychology 2015

Social Psychology
Conformity
Social Influence
generally accepted ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that are shared by other members of our social group
lots of pressure for individuals to maintain this norm....
to conform!
Social Norms:
Identification Conformity
the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by real, imagined, or implied presence of other people (Allport, 1968)
What is Social Psychology?
3 types of Conformity:
Social Influence:
the way people's behaviour is affected by other people
Three Main Areas for Discussion:
Social Cognition:
the ways people think about themselves and other people
Social Interaction:
the positive and negative aspects of people relating to others
"The Crowd Mind"
Plato
Even the wisest individuals, if assembled into a crowd, might be transformed into an irrational mob.
1920 - Allport
Social Facilitation:
Allport introduced the notion that the presence of others (the social group) can facilitate certain behavior.
improves easy tasks
decreases performances of difficult tasks
Social loafing describes the tendency of individuals to put forth less effort when they are part of a group.
Where did it all begin?
a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group
The term conformity is often used to indicate an agreement to the majority position, brought about by a desire to 'fit in' or be liked (normative), or because of a desire to be correct (informational), or simply to conform to a role (identification)
Solomon Asch
Stanford Prison Experiment
can take many forms and can be seen in many situations such as conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, sales, marketing
Which is stronger? Your need to be liked? Or your need to be right?
Normative Conformity:
this is the term for when we simply go along with the majority without really accepting their point of view
most likely a result of wanting to be liked, or because we fear rejection
Are you a conformist?
are you sure?
Informational
Conformity
the term for when we go along with the majority because we genuinely believe that they are right
most likely because we lack knowledge and we look to the group for guidance
Identification
Conformity
the term for when we conform to the expectations of a social role
Zimbardo's Prison Study
1. Characteristics of the group:
the more attractive the group is, the greater ability to produce conformity
social rank is critical - the lower you are, the more power they have over you
Factors that Affect
Conformity
2. Situation in which the individual is responding:
conformity is higher when people must respond publicly
3. The kind of task:
an ambiguous task will leave people more susceptible to social pressure than one with a clear answer
4. The unanimity of the group:
conformity is greater in a group where the opinion is unanimous
if there is even 1 other person who agrees with you it reduces conformity pressures
5. Peer Pressure:
being convinced to do something you might not want to do, but which you perceive as 'necessary' to keep a positive relationship with friends
Group Assignment
Groupthink:
phenomenon that occurs when the desire to conform to group consensus overrides the common sense desire to express an unpopular opinion
pressure to conform outweighs any evidence that group norm is wrong!
Compliance
compliance refers to the act of responding favourably to an explicit or implicit request offered by others
Foot-in-the-door
Technique
when compliance with a small request is followed by a larger request - people are likely to comply because they want to behave consistently
Door-in-the-face
Technique
a large request comes first and is refused - followed by a smaller, more reasonable request that usually gets compliance
Not-so-free
Sample
if you are given a free sample, keep in mind it comes with a psychological cost - the norm of reciprocity
Lowball Technique
once a commitment is made, the commitment is increased
the person doing the persuading makes an offer, but before you can decide they throw in something extra to sweeten the deal!
That's not all
Technique
Obedience
a form of social influence where an individual acts in response to a direct order from another individual, who is usually an authority figure
Cognitive Dissonance
an emotional discomfort that people feel when their behaviour doesn't match their attitudes: it motivates us to change either our behaviour or our belief, in an effort to avoid an unpleasant feeling
Dr. Leon Festinger
Your Options:
change conflicting behaviour to match attitude - quit smoking
modifying one cognition - I don't smoke that much
adding additional cognitions - I exercise a lot so it doesn't matter that I smoke - I'm still healthy
denying cognitions are related - I know lots of people who smoked til they were 100, never got cancer
The Rules of
Attraction
Physical Attractiveness
A lot of biology goes into our idea of what makes someone attractive!
Proximity
the closer people are physically, such as working in the same office, or having lockers next to each other at school, the more likely they are to form a relationship
Similarity
People tend to like to be around people that are similar to them in some way - not just in looks but also in beliefs and attitudes
Sometimes opposites
attract
some people find that forming a relationship with someone who has complementary qualities can be very rewarding....but research shows that similarity tends to help keep people together more so than complementary
But so does social influence!
Reciprocity
of Liking
People have a strong tendency to like people who like them - simple but powerful!
Prosocial Behaviour
socially desirable behaviour that benefits others
Altruism
prosocial behaviour that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
There are two social norms identified as explanations for prosocial behaviour:

1. The norm of reciprocity - we should help people who help us
2. The social-responsibility norm - we should help people in need of help without consideration of future interactions
Why People Don't Help
the bystander effect
diffusion of responsibility
referring to the effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, with the help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
The Study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others
Social Influence is:
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