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Application & Advantages of Bioinformatics
Transcript of Application & Advantages of Bioinformatics
The human genome project in which biologists,
Identified the 20,000-25,000 genes in human DNA.
Determined the sequences of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA.
Stored this valuable information in a computer database.
This is an excellent example of bioinformatics technologies at use. Millennium Development Goals addressed So what is Bioinformatics ? Advantages of Bioinformatics BLAST(Basic Local Alignment search tool) Computer algorithm that quickly aligns and compares a DNA/protein sequence in question with a database of sequences to identify it. FASTA Software tool that is similar to BLAST but uses the FASTA algorithm to compare protein/DNA sequence in question to the sequences found in the library (sequences stored in the database) in order to determine its identity Reducing Child mortality
Improving maternal health
Combating HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
Eradicating extreme poverty & hunger Reducing child mortality Bioinformatics technologies help reduce Child mortality through birth defects and genetic disorders that can be deadly to infants by early detection of these disorders so they could be treated before they become fatal. Improving maternal health There are many risks involved with conceiving, some of which include genetic defect that may become phenotypic during pregnancy and become fatal to the mother and or the child.
Bioinformatics can be used to check for these defects in the genetic make up so they can be avoided. Combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Viruses such as HIV/AIDS inject its genetic materials into body cells and consequently incorporates its DNA to the DNA of the host cell.
Bioinformatics can help reduce the fatality of these diseases by early detection of viral DNA so the patient could be treated right away avoiding detrimental complications. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Using bioinformatics in crop research scientists can engineer/identify high-yielding drought tolerant crop species that will provide food for the people living in dry drought prone environments.
Ex. Genetically engineered rice that could withstand droughts and produce harvest. Disadvantages of bioinformatics Very expensive to use
In rare instances it is possible for the algorithm to make mistakes altering the final result.
Loss of privacy (genetic screening)
Discrimination from the health insurance companies due to having a certain genetic disorder revealed through genetic sequencing. Massive storage To compare and analyze DNA, it must be stored in a orderly manner (HDD & indexing). Bioinformatics provides researchers with the storage space they require to store the data they collect. Quick sequencing capabilities Projects such as HGP would be impossible without bioinformatics since it requires sequencing and storing of 3 billion nucleotides. If the human genome was to be analyzed by the human brain, it would have taken many generations to complete. Ever advancing technology Through advances in computer technology it will eventually be possible to sequence DNA of individual patients which would provide Physicians with new ways to identify diseases and treat them effectively (personalize medications). Bioinformatics can be used agriculturally to increase the yield of a certain crop by altering its genetic makeup. Agriculture Pushpdeep Mishra