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Confucianism: A General Timeline

By Liam Ritchie

Liam Ritchie

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of Confucianism: A General Timeline

Confucianism: An Overview Confucianism first began with the ethical philosophy of a man called K'ung Ch'iu, though is better known in chinese and western context as Confucius. Origins Confucius was born in the chinese state of Sung, during the Spring and Autumn period (around the 5th century B.C.E.), into a position of low nobility. They had then moved from Sung into the small state of Lu. It was after his resignation from some of his higher level governmental positions at 497 B.C.E. that he began his journey with his disciples to find opportunities to give advice to the leaders of the opposing states. Sung Lu Confucius had met with several of the leaders of the opposing states (She, Qi, Wei, Sung, Zheng, Chen, and Cai), though many disregarded his information as being impractical given the current condition of the land and the people. He had believed and suggested to the rulers to return to the moral ways of ruling of the early Zhou period. Beliefs Chen Qi Cai Zheng Wei She With no state willing to use his philosophy or willing to employ him, he returned to Lu, where he taught a large group of disciples (over 3000) about his philosophy. After his death, his disciples spread his teachings throughout China, making Confucian philosophy and tradition widespread. Confucian beliefs are often centered on development of one's moral ways to become a chun tzu, or noble person, the ideal moral person on classical Confucianism, or the sheng (sage) of Neo-Confucianism. The path to this moral ideal would be followed using the basic moral principles: Jen Jen is the main Confucian principle, meaning humaneness. This principle is interpreted that one should be compassionate and benevolence. I I is one of the classical Confucian principles, meaning righteousness. This principle is interpreted that one should know the difference between right and wrong. Li Confucian principle meaning propriety or ritual. This principle stressed the importance of rituals and rites to maintain moral order, and to gain an appreciation of Heaven's order throughout the universe. Hsing Confucian principle that meant human nature. This referred to the belief that one can become moral through self cultivation and learning. Hsiao Confucian principle which meant filial piety. This referred to the Confucian belief that people should always respect their parents. The definition of parents is loose, as it includes any authoritarian figure, like an emperor. History After Confucianism's origins, much of the history of Confucianism is centered around the adaption and further interpretation of the ancient ways and the philosophies of former Confucian scholars. Mencius 371-289 B.C.E. Formulated Confucian teachings. He had also supported was morally good. He was opposed to another Confucian philosopher, Kao Tzu, who argued against this thought, saying that human nature was evil, and had to be shaped by study and self cultivation to become good. 400 B.C.E. 200 B.C.E. 0 C.E. 200 C.E. 400 C.E. 600 C.E. 800 C.E. 1000 C.E. 1200 C.E. 1400 C.E. 1600 C.E. 1800 C.E. 2000 C.E. Qin Dynasty
221 B.C.E-207 B.C.E. "Burning of the Books" 213 B.C.E. As commanded by the only emperor of the Qin Dynasty, many books of different subjects (including Confucianism) were burned. Only books with necessary skills and books pertaining to the history of the Qin dynasty were kept. "Burying of the Scholars" 212 B.C.E. Also commanded by the Qin emperor, over 470 scholars, who were primarily Confucian, were gathered at the Qin capitol, Hsien Chi, and killed. Han Dynasty
206 B.C.E.-220 C.E. Han Establishment of Confucianism 202 B.C.E. Han establishes Confuciansim as its state cult. From the support of Confucianism, two schooks developed; the school of old text, which focused on the human qualities of the text and the founding figures. The other school was the School of New Text, which put a supernatural connotation on the early records and figures. Han Expansion 141-87 B.C.E. Emperor Han Wu-Ti's expansion into Korean and Vietnamese territory, which allowed the spread of Confucian ideals to these regions. Appointment of the Scholars of the Five Classics 136 B.C.E. Introduction of Confucianism into Korea Around the Third Century Establishment of Royal Confucian Academy in Korea 682 C.E. Three Kingdoms and Silla Period in Korea
~Third Century-918 C.E. Introduction of Confucianism in Japan ~Third Century. Confucianism was introduced into Japan when Confucian texts were sent to the Japanese court by Wai of Paekche (Korea). 17 Article Constitution 604 C.E. Constitution issued by Shotoku Taishi, was created to centralize institution. This document is notable due to the content of Confucian cosmological concepts, such as the concepts of Heaven, Earth, and Man, along with thier mutual responsibilities. Taika Reform 604 C.E. Was created for further centralization and unification of the government. The reform had asserted the Confucian principle of imperial rule. Shotoku Taishi
573-621 C.E. Han Yu 768-824 C.E. He was considered the reviver of Confucianism. With his revival of the religion, he also attacked Buddhism and Daoism, which had become prominent throughout China during the Tang Dynasty. Tang Dynasty
618-907 C.E. Persecution of Buddhism 843-845 C.E. Koryo Kingdom in Korea
918-1392 C.E. An Hyang 1243-1306 C.E. Korean Neo-Confucian who had introduced Neo-Confucianism to Korea Sung Dynasty
960-1279 C.E. Ming Dynasty
1368-1644 C.E. Chosen Dynasty of Korea
1392-1910 C.E. Qing Dynasty
1644-1912 C.E. Republic of China
1912-1949 C.E. People's Republic of China and Nationalist China
1949-? C.E. May 4th Movement 1919 C.E. The May 4th Movement was an initiative to bring about modernization and westernization to China. Any peoples that clung to old traditions or beliefs, like Confucians, were targeted by the movement, which made the initiative anti-Confucian in that respect. Cultural Revolution 1966-1976 C.E. Period in which traditional ways were prosecuted by Mao Tse-Tung and the communists in order to keep control over the republic. This included the public ridicule of Confucians. Royal Confucian Academy rebuilt in Korea 1367 C.E. Chang Tsai 1020-1077 C.E. Neo-Confucian scholar who was part of the School of Principle. He had written a popular and famous Confucian text known as Hsi Ming, or the "Western Inscription." Chu Hsi 1130-1200 C.E. He was a Neo-Confucian of the school of principle. He had helped to incorporated the Four Books (Analects, Mencius, The Doctrine of Mean and The Great Learning) as part of the Confucian Canon as a supplement or replacement for the teachings of the Five Classics. Yi T'oegye 1501-1570 C.E. Neo-Confucian credited with establishing the orthodox Neo-Confucian tradition in Korea. Wang Yang-ming 1472-1529 C.E. Neo-Confucian whose philosophy, that the nature of things could be determined by the study of the mind, became the basis of the Neo-Confucian School of Mind. During this dynasty, the development of schools of Confucianism had developed to reconcile the traditions of classical Confucianism: Shih Husueh (Practical Learning), which focused on moral learning and addressing the issues of the world, and Kao Cheng (Evidential Research), which emphasized close study of the ancient texts. Both of these schools rejected Buddhism. Development of Neo-Confucianism 649-1127 C.E. Neo-Confucianism sought out to revive the old teachings of Confucianism, while addressing the large influence that Buddhism and Daoism had in China at the time. This prominence had influence Neo-Confucianism in the way that the movement sought to create a way to have a spiritual life alongside the study and moral learning of Confucianism. New Confucianism 1970's-? New Confucian movement that sought to combine the ideals of western civlization with the old traditions and beliefs of Confucianism to adapt it to the modern age.
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