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31 Nucleation

Lab 31
by

Rob Mead

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of 31 Nucleation

Nucleation
Lab 31

Nucleation
is the extremely localized budding of a distinct thermodynamic phase.
Watch The Fur!
Nucleation
is what happens when a gas or a liquid changes state rapidly
at one specific point
.
The
nucleation
happens rapidly.

The rough spot serves as a
nucleus
for bubbles to form upon.
When you pour a glass of soda, the CO2 gas will slowly fizz out of it.
But if there is a rough-spot on the inside of the glass, then tiny bubbles quickly form around that spot — and the soda fizzes quickly.
No... it can hapen with gasses too. Think about what happens on the surface of a cold glass on a warm humid day...
Our eyes can't see the action on a microscopic level, but the moisture in the air condenses on the surface of the glass.

The moisture in the air condenses on tiny
imperfections
on the glass that serve as nucleation points.
Scientists sometimes stimulate gravid clouds into releasing rain by "seeding" them with specific chemicals.
They spray salt crystals into highly saturated clouds.

Ice and water particles gather on these "nucleation points" until they become so large that they fall from the sky as raindrops.
Have you ever cooled a bottle of water until it was super-chilled? (Don't try this with a GLASS bottle — use a PLASTIC bottle!)
The temperature of the water is actually below 0ºC, but because there is no turbulence in the water — and no nucleation points inside the smooth plastic bottle — the water remains liquid.
Until you jostle the bottle.
The turbulence causes the water to freeze in one spot and then the quick-forming ice serves as a nucleation point for the rest of the super-chilled water.
The most famous, the most messy, and most YouTubed nucleation experiment ever...
The root word for
nucleation
is the Latin word
nucleus
which means
kernal
(as in the center of a piece of grain or a nut).
The "kernel of a nut" (1704) and the "head of a comet" (1708) come from the Latin
nucula
which is the diminutive of
nux
(meaning "nut").

The word also has the general sense of "central part or thing, about which others cluster" (1762) and is used in reference to cells (1831).

Ernest Rutherford gave it its atomic meaning (1912 ), though Michael Faraday used it theoretically to describe the "central point of an atom" (1844).
> The rough surface of the Mentos provides easy nucleation sites
> The dense Mentos sink quickly which causes bubbles to form at the bottom of the bottle
> The gelatin and gum arabic in the Mentos reduce surface tension

Do you need Mentos to cause nucleation?
The rough surface of a substance like chalk provides easy nucleation sites for bubble formation.

Are there careers for nucleation specialists?
The etymology of
nucleation
WTF?
OK... so what does
nucleation
mean?
You see it in carbonated beverages.
Does nucleation happen
only in liquids
?
Nucleation can be useful to us.
Sometimes weather modification does not turn out the way it is intended...
Is weather modification a good idea?
What is "super-chilled" water?
You will do the Mentos in Diet Coke
experimess
.
So... is it the Diet Coke or the Mentos?
> There is CO gas dissolved in the Diet Coke
> The
aspartame
, caffeine, and potassium benzoate in the Diet Coke reduce surface tension
2
All these factors accelerate the reaction and push the liquid out of the bottle quickly.
Time out...
What's aspartame?
Full transcript